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The Alumni. Giirden Edwards 86, 208, 361, 506 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler. H. Morse Stephens 1 

A Business Life and Its Ethics. A. C. Bartlett 254 

The Duty of the New Alumnus. Sayre Maeneil 343 

The Evolution of the Scientific Point of View. Thorstein Veblen 395 
Function and Development of the Marvellous in Literature. 

Benjamin P. Kurtz 474 

Greek Theatre Eegulations 192 

Individualism and Social Progress. W. H. P. Faunce 245 

Latin Version. Leon J. Eichardson _ ,.... 181 

The League of the Republic, Militant. George H. Boke 153 

Memorial Addresses for Jacob Voorsanger, D.D. 417 

The Mind in Modern Psychology. Frank S. Wrinch 166 

The Mission of the Japanese and Anglo-Saxon Peoples. John 

Fryer _ 186 

The Old Tiger and the Traveller. A. W. Eyder 450 

Opening of the University Farm at Davis 32 

Our Adolescent School System. Alexis F. Lange 58 

The Philippine Postal Savings Banks. B. F. Wright 434 

The Polish Nation. Wincenty Lutoslawski 283 

Present Day Problems of Democracy. William Carey Jones 11 

Procul Negotiis. Leon J. Eichardson 282 

Eegulations Concerning Performances in the Greek Theatre 192 

The Eelation of Time and Eternity. John Ellis McTaggart 127 

The Eeligious Function of State Universities. W. E. Hocking 454 
Eeport of the Committee of the Society of Sigma Xi on the 

Plague Conditions in Berkeley, San Francisco, and Oakland 334 

San Francisco as a Foreign Shipping Port. Simon Litman 325 

Sigma Xi Eeport on the Plague Conditions 334 

Speech at the Celebration of the Birthday of the Emperor of 

Japan. Bernard Moses 182 

The Star-Gazer. Isaac Flagg 119 



The Temporal and the Eternal Mind. Charles H. Eiebcr 42 

The Theatrical Conditions in London in 1611, when "The Win- 
ter's Tale" was first produced. Wm. Dallam Armes 272 

Twenty-year Synopsis of Meteorological Observations Made at 

Berkeley. Armin O. Leuschner _ _ _ 467 

University Record. Albert H. Allen 70, 195, 347, 493 

What the Plague did in London. William Dallam Armes 158 

Allen, Albert H. University Record 70, 195, 347, 493 

Armes, Wm. Dallam. The Theatrical Conditions in London in 

1611 „ - 272 

What the Plague did in London _ 158 

Bartlett, A. C. A Business Life and Its Ethics 254 

Boke, George H. The League of the Republic, Militant 153 

Edwards, Gurden. The Alumni _.86, 208, 361, 506 

Faunce, W. H. P. Individualism and Social Progress 245 

Flagg, Isaac. The Star-gazer ...„ 119 

Fryer, John. The Mission of the Japanese and Anglo-Saxon 

Peoples _ _ 186 

Hocking, W. E. The Religious Function of State Universities 454 
Jones, William Carey. Present Day Problems of Democracy .... 11 
Kurtz, Benjamin P. Function and Development of the Mar- 
vellous in Literature 474 

Lange, Alexis F. Our Adolescent School System 58 

Leuschner, Armin O. Twenty-year Meteorological Synopsis 467 

Litman, Simon. San Francisco as a Foreign Shipping Port 325 

Lutoslawski, Wincenty. The Polish Nation ..._ 283 

Macneil, Sayre. The Duty of the New Alumnus S43 

McTaggart, John Ellis. The Relation of Time and Eternity .... 127 

Moses, Bernard. Birthday of the Emperor of Japan 182 

Richardson, Leon J. Procul Negotiis 282 

Latin Version 181 

Eieber, Charles H. The Temporal and the Eternal Mind 42 

Ryder, A. W. The Old Tiger and the Traveller _ 450 

Stephens, H. Morse. Benjamin Ide Wheeler _ 1 

Veblen, Thorstein. The Evolution of the Scientific Point of 

View _ 395 

Wright, B. F. The Philippine Postal Savings Banks 434 

Wrinch, Frank S. The Mind in Modern Psychology 166 


Alpha Zeta formed, 358. 

Alexander, Annie M., 198. 

Appointments, 70, 196, 347, 493. 

Architectural Building, 198. 

Athletics, 359. 

Bancroft Collection, work in, 
78; in Doe Library, 196; 
files added, 352. 

Biological Station, La Jolla, 77. 

Boalt Hall of Law, 350, 494. 

Bonnheim Contest, 83, 353, 501. 

Brooks, John Graham, Wein- 
stock Lecture by, 81. 

Budget, for 1908-09, 349. 

Bryce Essay Prize, 354. 

Carnot Debate, 83, 207. 

Charter Day, 199. 

Class of 1898, gift to Alumni 
Hall Fund, 352. 

Class of 1905 fund, 78. 

Class of 1907, permanent endow- 
ment fund, 199. 

College of Commerce lectures, 

Commencement Day, 352. 

Concerts: Milan Opera Com- 
pany, 81 ; Minetti Quartette, 
205; New York Symphony 

. Orchestra, 356; Popular Or- 
chestral, 502; Sousa's Band, 
82 ; Summer, 498 ; Symphony, 
83; University Chorus, 81. 

Contemporary Political Ques- 
tions lectures, 202. 

Daily Californian, 207. 

Debate, Carnot, 83, 207; Inter- 
collegiate, 360. 

Degrees Conferred, 353, 355. 

Doe Library, 73, 196, 351, 495. 

Dramatics : ' ' Peer Gynt ' ' Re- 
cital, 357; " Trelawnev of the 
Wells," 205; "The Winter's 
Tale." 356. 

Earthquake report, 84. 

Eclipse expedition, 83. 

Education Department lectures, 

Egyptian excavations, 84. 

Endowment fund, Class of 1907, 

Entomological Conferences, 505. 

Experiment work in Southern 
California, 77. 

Faculty notes, 72, 494. 

Fertilizer Control laboratory, 
73, 197. 

French Department lectures, 80, 

Fryer, John, lecture by, 204. 

Gifts to the University, 78, 198, 
200, 351. 

Grounds and Buildings, 73, 196, 

Half-hour of Music, 82, 205, 

Harvey Club, 204. 

Hearst, Mrs. Phoebe A., 199, 
200, 349. 

Hitchcock lectureship, 504. 

Hogarth, David G., lecture by, 

Hospital, University of Califor- 
nia, Massachusetts Endow- 
ment of, 496. 

Hygiene and Pathology labora- 
tory, 197, 351. 

Infirmary, 351. 

Irrigation School for the State, 

Jones, William Carey, 81. 

Labor Day, 206. 

La Jolla Biological Station, 77. 

LeConte Memorial Lecture, 204. 

Lectures: Archaeological Insti- 
tute, 81; College of Com- 
merce, 80; Contemporary Po- 
litical Questions, 202; De- 
partment of Education, 202; 
French Department, 80, 203; 
by John Fryer, 204; LeConte 
Memorial, 204; by Rudolf 
Leonhard, 204; Lick Astro- 
nomical, 203; by W. Luto- 
slawski, 204; Sigma Xi, 504; 
Summer Session, 498; Wein- 
stock, 80. 

Lectureship, Hitchcock, 504. 

Loonhartl, Rudolf, leoturos, 204. 

Lick Astronomical lectures, 1103. 

Lick Observatory, astronoinieal 
lectures. 20?>; lands added, 
351; new seismographs for, 

Lindsay, Benjamin V., address 
by, 358. 

Loan Funds, the "Grubstake 
W," 500; University Medal, 

Lutoslawski, Wincenty, lectures 
by, 204. 

Massachusetts Endowment of 
University of California Hos- 
pital, 496. 

Meetings, University, 80, 204, 
358, 503. 

^lilan Opera Company, 81. 

Minetti Quartette, 205. 

Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 

News-letter, 85. 

New York Symphony Orchestra, 

Orchestral concerts, 502. 

Pathology Laboratory, 197, 351. 

"Peer Gynt" recital, 357. 

Phi Beta Kappa, annual ad- 
dress, bl; elections, 206. 

President's House, 198. 

Eegents and Faculty, 70, 195, 
347, 493. 

Registration figures, 501. 

Retzius, Gustav, 351. 

Riverside, research at, 499. 

Seismographs for Lick Observ- 
atory, 78. 

Sigma Xi, election, 85, 359 ; lec- 
ture, 504. 

Sousa's Band, 82. 

Southern California, experiment 
work in, 77. 

Sparkman manuscripts, 79. 

Students' Labor Day, 206. 

Summer concerts, 498. 

Summer Session, 355, 497. 

Summer Session lectures, 498. 

Symphony concerts, 83. 

Tau Beta Pi elections, 206, 505. 

Tebtunis Papyri, 84. ' 

Ternis Courts, 197. 

Tolstoy commemoration, 503. 

' ' Trelawney of the Wells, ' ' 205. 

University Chorus, 81. 

University Farm, 73, 198. 

University Medal, 354. 

University Medal Loan Fund, 

University Meetings, 80, 204, 
358, 503. 

Voorsanger, Jacob, death of, 
350; memorial exercises, 504. 

Weinstock Lecture, 80. 

Whittier, research at, 499. 

Winged Helmet Society, Elec- 
tion, 85. 

"The Winter's Tale," 356. 


Addresses wanted, 109, 220-243, 
372-393, 514-526, 530-5,34. 

Alumni, of affiliated colleges, 
368; Association, 213, 361, 
366, 367; of Bakersfield, 98; 
of Chicago, 211, 215; Chinese, 
217; of College of Pharmacy, 
514; in the good government 
cause, 92; at Harvard, 216; 
of Los Angeles, 98, 214; and 
public opinion. 506; of San 
Diego, 210; of San Francisco, 
96; of Seattle. 369; as teach- 
ers, 510; of 1908, 367; Alum- 
ni Association, financial sup- 

port of, 213; annual meeting, 
361; President's report, 361; 
Secretary's report, 363; offi- 
cers of, 366 ; luncheon of, 367. 

The Alumni Idea, 87. 

Alumni News, 214, 369, 510. 

Alumni Regent, 508. 

Alumni Speakers at University 
meetings, 94. 

Bakersfield University of Cali- 
fornia Club, 98. 

Chicago University of Califor- 
nia Club, 211, 215. 

Class of 1903, reunion, 530. 

Class of 1904, Record, 91. 

Class of 1898, gift, 365. 

Class Eeunions, 218, 369, 530. 

Classes, news of, 99, 218, 372, 

Commencement Day Plans, 208. 

Decoto, Ezra, speaker at Uni- 
versity meeting, 94. 

Dental Alumni Banquet, 369. 

Dues, payment of, 86. 

Glascock, J. E., '65, speaker at 
University meeting, 95. 

Jones, Wm. Carey, drafts char- 
ter for Berkeley, 93. 

LeConte Fellow for 1908-09, 

Los Angeles University of Cali- 
fornia Club, 98, 214. 

Martin, Eev. Willsie M., speaker 
at University meeting, 94. 

Personal Notes, 100. 

Eegent, Alumni, 508. 

San Diego University of Cali- 
fornia Club, 210. 

San Francisco University of 
California Club, 96. 

Seattle University of California 
Club, 369. 

Taylor, Dr. Oscar X., '94, 
speaker at University meeting, 



Vol. X JANUARY, 1908 No. 1 


H. Morse Stephens. 

The idea of Wheeler Day is an excellent one ; it is right 
that the University of California should occasionally take 
stock and look back to see what progress has been made dur- 
ing a period of years; and President Wheeler's determina- 
tion to stay with us affords an excellent pretext for retro- 
spection over the last eight years as well as an opportunity 
for celebrating our good fortune in retaining him. The 
editor of the California Occident has asked me to write 
something about President Wheeler, for the Wheeler Day 
number of the Occident. The best monument to the Presi- 
dent is the growth of the University of California during 
the past eight years ; but the task set before me in this article 
is not to deal with the growth of the University during 
President Wheeler's administration, which will be dealt with 
in various ways during the celebration itself, but rather with 
the personality of Benjamin Ide Wheeler himself. 

It is always a difficult thing to praise a man to his face ; 
it is still more diiScult to praise a friend ; and I can claim 
to have been a friend of B. I. Wheeler ever since I first 
arrived in America, thirteen years ago. I have known him 

* By request this article is reprinted, with some additions, from the 
California Occident of October, 1907. For an account of the exercises 
held on Wheeler Day see the October number of the University of 
California Chronicle, p. 365. 


Rs well as one man can know another, both as colleague and 
as chief, and I propose to set down here some of the char- 
acteristics I have seen in him in both capacities. I shall not 
be so impertinent as to speak of his personal characteristics; 
still less shall I dare to reveal anything that has come to my 
knowledge through long years of intimate acquaintance ; and 
least of all, shall I try to write a biographical sketch or make 
a psychological study of one whom I know so well. To do 
any of these things would be to rend the curtain that should 
always hide a man's private life from the public ijaze. I 
shall only set do^^*n certain aspects of President Wheeler's 
pereonality, which may be seen by anyone that has eyes to 
look, but which I perhaps see more clearly than others, 
owing to a longer acquaintance with him than has been en- 
joyed by his other friends in California. 

The first thing that struck me about Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler was the intensity of his Americanism. Before I 
had been many months in the United States I discovered 
that my colleague, the Professor of Greek in Cornell Uni- 
versity, was not at all satisfied to be simply a Professor of 
Greek. He was above all things an American citizen, and 
interpreted the obligation that lay upon him in that capac- 
ity in a very serious fashion. He took the keenest interest 
in the affairs of the little town of Ithaca, in New York State ; 
he was a member of the local fire company; he was intensely 
interested in local politics; and I remember well how he 
gave me an opportunity of seeing how American citizens 
ran their local politics when he permitted me to sit by his 
side as he presided over the primary convention of one of 
the political parties in Ithaca. Everyone in the little town 
was aware of Wheeler's interest in politics, and although the 
members of the rival party scored him bitterly on political 
issues, they yet preferred his interest, even if it implied op- 
position, to the utter indifference to local aft'airs which was 
displayed by most of the Cornell professors, while the mem- 
bers of his own party rejoiced in having so sagacious a stu- 


dent of politics as their friend and adviser. Wheeler's in- 
terest, however, extended beyond local politics, and he was 
frequently consulted on both state and national affairs. It 
was always a source of wonderment to me that he could put 
aside the professorial and scholarly occupations that made 
up most of his life's work to attend to the details of what 
seemed to me to be petty politics, but my expostulations 
against what seemed to me to be a pure waste of time were 
always met by a stare of surprise and the statement that it 
was the duty of an American citizen to care for such things. 
This brand of Americanism seems to me to be exceedingly 
rare. It is open to argument whether it is a good thing or 
not that professional men should spend so much of their 
time and strength in a consideration of political questions 
and in the active pursuit of political duties, but there can 
be no doubt that Benjamin Ide Wheeler regards himself be- 
fore all things else as an American citizen, and that he be- 
lieves it to be his duty to have an opinion on political ques- 
tions, whatever may be the result to himself. It is this in- 
tensity of interest in politics that has made him the friend 
and adviser of three successive Presidents of the United 
States. And when he speaks of his rights and duties as an 
American citizen, he speaks with the intense conviction of 
a born New Englander, and, as all the world knows, it is as 
futile to argue with a New Englander when he talks about 
his ' ' duty " as it is to argue with a Scotchman under similar 

This brings me to my next point. If Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler is first, last and all the time an American citizen, 
taking his duties and his rights as a citizen with the utmost 
seriousness and regarding it as part of his heritage to have 
an opinion upon all matters that the voice of the people in 
America is supposed to control, it is next to be observed that 
his point of view and his opinions bear the stamp of New 
England. Of New England descent and of New England 
education, B. I. Wheeler shows still in person and in speech, 

4 rxivEiisiry of califoenia gheonicle. 

despite his lonir residence in Europe, despite his longer resi- 
dence in Western New York and despite his recent life in 
California, his New England origin. His first thought in 
every contingency of life is to discover and to do his duty, 
and he shows the effect of a long line of Puritan and Baptist 
ancestors in his stern conception of his duty. The New 
Englander is above all, a man of conscience, and he obeys 
his conscience with a prompt obedience. When he has made 
up his mind as to the line of duty, no argument, no power, 
no fear of consequences can hold him. But this rigidity 
covers in the New Englander, as in the Scotchman, much 
sentiment and tenderness of heart. The New Englander 
fears to show the sentimental side of his nature or to reveal 
the depth of his affections, and long acquaintance with him 
is needed to discover the hidden sentiments beneath the strict 
interpretation of conscientious fulfilment of duty. Al- 
though in external things, by long contact with the world 
and in particular by a residence in California, which has 
helped him to develop himself as much as he has helped Cali- 
fornia, the President of the University exhibits a geniality 
of manner, which is foreign to the ordinary conception of a 
New Englander, yet all who know him well are aware that 
behind the geniality of the man of the world lies the sternly 
Puritan attitude towards duty and the absolute sense of the 
distinction between right and wrong, which is the character- 
istic of the New England temperament. 

Next to Benjamin Ide Wheeler the American citizen and 
Benjamin Ide Wheeler the New Englander comes Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler the scholar and teacher, and the thing that dif- 
ferentiates him from most scholars and most teachers in 
American universities is that his sense of citizenship and his 
inherited temperament lie behind and penetrate through his 
life work in his chosen career. Though primarily a phil- 
ologist and a student of Greek, the thing that attracted his 
colleagues and his students at Cornell University was his 
intense humanity. His colleagues wondered to see a dis- 


tinguished specialist in linguistics taking so keen an interest 
in other branches of knowledge. His lectures on Greek life 
attracted crowds of hearers from both faculty and students, 
for he does not understand Greek as a language, boasting of 
especial complexities and grammatical difficulties, but he 
rather sets himself to expound the religion, the politics, the 
athletics and the trend of domestic and public life of the 
most gifted of nations, in the most modern of words and in 
the most intelligible of sentences. Students in Cornell Uni- 
versity would keep up their Greek through the four years 
of college in the hope of getting into "Benny-Ide" Wheel- 
er's class in Aristophanes; and his colleagues wondered at 
the capacity of the man who could make his work so attrac- 
tive and yet so thorough. If to be a great teacher means to 
put a stamp on his pupils and to fill them with enthusiasm 
for study for its own sake, Benjamin Ide Wheeler was a 
great teacher. His universal interest in the thoughts and 
hopes and lives of young men made him the best beloved of 
the Cornell professors ; no Cornellian can ever forget the 
interest he took in the cause of Cornell rowing and the days 
and hours that he spent in the work of the athletic council, 
and especially in straightening out those diiSculties about 
intercollegiate contests, which are the chief exercises of 
American diplomacy today. Taking full part in all student 
activities, keeping his house open for all student visitors, 
ever ready to straighten out the little tangles that cause so 
much of the friction of modern university life, while at the 
same time holding up the highest standard of graduate and 
undergraduate work, Benjamin Ide Wheeler showed himself 
in his professorial years at Cornell to be a great universitj^ 
teacher. His interest in the political and social life of the 
little city has already been mentioned, but he never found 
himself too busied with professorial work or civic duty to 
neglect the demands that his colleagues made on him to help 
in their daily life ; he was a founder of the Town and Gown 
Club, he was ever ready to extend hospitality, and the gap 


that he left in the social life of Cornell University, during 
the two years that I remained there after him, was never 

So far I have spoken of Benjamin Ide "Wheeler along 
lines that any of my readers can test for themselves. Talk 
to him about polities and you will find strong convictions 
earnestly expressed; you may not agree with those convic- 
tions but you cannot doubt their sincerity. Observe his 
words and actions closely and, if you know anything about 
New England, you will soon discover the New England 
traits, though you may wait long before you discover the 
New England tenderness of heart. Listen to his speeches, 
and especially to his talks to students, and you will see for 
yourself the preacher of morality that is inborn in every 
good New Englander. Ask any Cornell man who was in 
the University between 1886 and 1899 and he will tell you 
how large a part Benjamin Ide Wheeler played in student 
life, and ask any of his old pupils and you will learn how 
greatly he inspired them, not only Avith a love for Greek 
literature, but with a love for all things noble. Read his 
published works and you will find the thoroughness of his 
scholarship and the width of his acquirements. 

But what about his services to the University of Califor- 
nia? "What about his success as an administrator? What 
about the high ideals he has set before the faculty and the 
students alike? What about the "strenuous life" he has 
led here during the past eight years, and which he has made 
other people lead? What about the growth of the Univer- 
sity and its progress in every direction ? ' ' Call no man 
happy until he is dead" is a truth that must check an ar- 
dent admirer, a fervent disciple and a sincere friend of 
Benjamin Ide Wheeler from attempting to deal here and 
now with the work that he has done as President of the 
University of California. 

But there are three documents, of no personal origin 
or private tenor, which have appeared in connection with 


the President's decision to stay at Berkeley and which show 
unmistakably the regard in which he is held by those who 
know him best, the Eegents and the Faculty of the Uni- 
versity. First, there is the body of resolutions adopted by 
the Board of Regents June 11, 1907. It is self-explanatory. 

WHEREAS, it is of common report that President Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler has been tendered the Presidency of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and has the offer under consideration, 

Notv, therefore, be it Eesnlved, that the Eegents of the Univer- 
sity of California regard with serious concern the possibility that 
the University of California should lose the services of President 
Benjamin Ide Wheeler, who for the past seven years has with such 
faithful care, unselfish devotion, and signal success labored to pro- 
mote its interests, who has developed the University iipon modern 
lines into one of the leading educational institutions in the United 
States through his administrative ability, through his increase of 
the strength of the faculty by the addition of eminent professors, 
through his broad and enlightened policy, and through his percep- 
tion of the varied demands made upon a modern state institution, 

be it Resolved, that the Eegents realize that President Wheeler's 
work for the University has not been accomplished without criti- 
cism, but the Eegents hereby go on record as endorsing his work, 
well knowing that unfavorable criticism has been based upon in- 
sufficient knowledge of the facts, and 

be it further Resolved, that the Eegents of the University of 
California hereby express their hope that President Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler does not seriously contemplate leaving California and they 
hereby again emphasize their appreciation of President Wheeler's 
services to the University of California, and they take the oppor- 
tunity at this time hereby to assert their complete and absolute 
confidence in the able and efficient President of the University of 

The other two documents come from the Faculty. At 
the close of the exercises held on Wheeler Day at the reg- 
ular University meeting on the forenoon of that day, Pro- 
fessor Bacon presented to the President, with very approp- 
riate words, an engrossed parchment, setting forth the 
Faculty's sentiments of good-will. The parchment, where- 


by this new and hiiih. although unofficial, degree was con- 
ferred, reads as follows: 




The Faculties of the University have wished to express and per- 
mauently record their gratification at your recent decision to remain 
in California and to continue to guide the fortunes of this institu- 
tion of learning. Under your watchful care and able direction the 
University has attained a scope and dignity unforseen ten years 
ago, which elevate it to a fair comparison with the oldest and 
greatest of its kind. 

Your Friends and Coworkers have personally shared in and profited 
by the growth and prosperity due to your impulse; they are well 
aware of the difficulties attending such a position as you hold; and 
now at the beginning of what they trust may prove a long period of 
renewed devotion and successful achievement on your part they 
offer, unoflieially, their congratulations, their encouragement, and 
their confirmed and hearty good-will. 

May the University of California never be less fortunate than it 
is bound to be so long as it continues to be guided by your hand. 


After the University meeting the officers of instruction 
and admini-stration gathered at an informal luncheon in the 
rooms of the Faculty Club. Professor Stringham, president 
of the Club, presided, and his words of welcome constitute 
the third of these loyally human documents. Professor 
Stringham spoke as follows : 

Mr. President: — "We, the Faculties, owe you an apology for this 
evidence of insubordination to the constituted authority of the 
University of which you are the visible representative. At this 
hour I should be explaining to a group of young people in North 
Hall the connection between discriminants and partial derivatives, 
and some of my colleagues here present, if called upon, would 
doubtless have a similar confession to make. But not only does 


physical law forbid that two bodies shall occupy one space at the 
same time, but it also prevents the fulfillment of two moral obliga- 
tions that require one obligant to occupy two spaces at the same 
time. And so, forced to an alternative, we have chosen the better 
thing; we are here. 

We have invited you to this luncheon in order that we may 
express to you our great pleasure in your decision to remain in 
Berkeley. We rejoice in the assurance that the allurements of our 
rivals on the Atlantic shore are not strong enough to sever the 
bonds that hold you here, or to weaken your faith in California; 
and we gladly interpret your eight years of presidential service as 
the beginning of a life-work of leadership in the University, the 
community and the State. 

We bring you the tribute of our personal regard, but more than 
that we bring you the pledge of our loj^alty to the high ideals you 
have so often set before us and for which you have again made 
eloquent appeal this morning. We are grateful to you for your 
leadership in a superb undertaking, the building of a great Univer- 
sity under untried conditions. May you never have occasion to 
regret the sacrifice you have made! 

On behalf of my colleagues here assembled, the largest family 
party in the University's history, and on behalf of those who have 
been obliged to send us their regrets, I greet you: the accomplished 
scholar, prolific thinker, wise counsellor, efiicient executive, devotee 
of public duty, splendid exemplar of public virtue, beloved head of 
our University, our friend!* 

* At the close of the luncheon a loving-cup, the gift of the 
Faculty, was presented to the President. The cup, made by Shreve 
& Company of San Francisco, from a design by Professor John 
Galen Howard, expressed most appropriately in its classic outlines 
and in the symbolism of the entwined serpents which formed its 
handles, the foundation of the President 's scholarship in the classi- 
cal literatures. The inscription, running around the base of the 
cup, is from the Thirteenth ode of Bacchylides — 


The forms of human excellence are countless ; but one merit 
has the foremost place among all, — his who by just thoughts 
guides each task that his hand finds to do. 

— -Translation, after Jebb. 

Acknowledging the cup, and the motives that prompted it, the 
President again expressed his appreciation of the support and good- 
will accorded him by the members of the University, and particular- 

10 ryirEHsiTT of califobnia chronicle. 

"We hardly realizod how great a loss the President's de- 
parture would have meant to the State and to the Univer- 
sity, until the news came to us that we were likely to lose 
him. To go to the headship of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology' would have meant for President Wheeler a 
return back to the New England that bred him and which 
understands him ; it would have meant a return to libraries 
and annual trips to Europe ; it would have meant a return 
to old friends and to the cultured life of a city of old cult- 
ure ; it would have meant renewed intercourse with the great 
centers of political thought and action ; and above all it 
would have meant going home. But Benjamin Ide Wheel- 
er preferred to stay with us. California may not under- 
stand him very well : she is puzzled at his brand of Ameri- 
can citizenship ; she is inclined to mock at his New England 
morality ; she is not quite sure that his ardent preaching of 
all things good in politics and in society and in education 
is not insincere; she finds it difficult to perceive the loving 
tenderness that is hidden behind the strict sense of duty; 
and it may take another decade for the warm-blooded peo- 
ple of the Pacific Coast to appreciate the greatness of the 
President of the University of California. But for us who 
know him, who live with him, who work with him, there is 
no question of doubt ; and therefore it is, that there sprang 
up spontaneously in the hearts of professors and students 
alike a desire to show Benjamin Ide Wheeler that we appre- 
ciate his refusal to leave us, that we understand the great- 
ness of soul that made him prefer his duty to us to the 
indulgence of a natural instinct to desert us; and the 
Wheeler Day celebration on the 4th of October, 1907, will 
stand out as a demonstration of love and gratitude, unique 
in the history of American universities. 

ly his thanks for the spirit of frankness shown by the men in the 
Faculty in discussing matters of University concern, — the spirit 
which made the relations between the Faculty and the President 
one of friendship and understanding, rather than of impersonal 
acquiescence in the wishes of the administration. 



William Caeey Jones. 

I often think what interesting history we are making for 
the student of the twenty-first century. With what mingled 
admiration and contempt he will look back upon our times. 
The balance of admiration or of contempt which will sum 
up his estimate of us will depend upon the way in w^hieh we 
solve the problems brought to our doors by our fatuous folly. 
We can never escape the censure due us for the perverse 
courses through which we have allowed ourselves to become 
entangled as we have. But we may yet receive great and 
deserved praise for fortunate issue from our troubles. Never 
was a people more responsible for its difficulties than is the 
American nation today. But, again, never did a people 
have more fully in its own hands the power and opportunity 
to surmount peaceably its difficulties and come out upon the 
open highway of political and economic progress, purified 
and re-moralized, than has the American nation today. 

I would invite you this evening to take with me a some- 
what comprehensive view of the problems with which our 
American democracy is confronted. Our legislation lacks 
in statesmanlike quality for the reason that the interrelation 
of various questions is not seen, or not taken into account, 
that each item of legislation is dealt with as though it was 

* Annual address delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at 
Berkeley, October 24, 1907. 


distinct and separate from all othei-s. Lea:islation is defec- 
tive, too. in that as a rule it is only remedial and not con- 
structive. To produce really constructive lep;islation the 
statesman who formulates the measure must be conscious of 
the interconnection that many other problems may have v^^ith 
the particular one with wliich he is dealins:. 

I shall attempt to portray only such central problems 
as seem to me to involve all the others, and whose solution, 
therefore, will either directly or indirectly carry with it the 
solution of the others. 

There are three such central problems confronting' us and 
with which democracy must deal wisely and effectively in the 
very near future. These are the problems of interstate 
transportation, industrial monopoly and foreign immigra- 
tion. There are, indeed, other questions of great moment, 
among them the taritf. But while the tariff is unquestion- 
ably an important problem, political and economic, it seems 
to me negligible in the present consideration. In and of 
itself it is of no peculiar menace to democracy, although by 
our policies it has become wn-apt up with our politics and 
our institutions. Protectionism has been a corrupting and 
undermining agent of public morality. Granting even the 
most extravagant claims that may be made for it as promot- 
ing our commercial and industrial development, nothing can 
compensate for the loss of honor and integrity in the Ameri- 
can nation due primarily to the protective tariff. It is then 
of great importance that the tariff system should be over- 
hauled. Its scientific settlement would go a long way to- 
ward a satisfactory settlement of many other questions and 
toward the elimination of some of our most vexatious causes 
of anxiety. But, as an original question to be considered 
on its merits, it is hopeless to expect that any thoroughgoing 
reform will be introduced in the near future. On the other 
hand, there is a very fair prospect that its worst inequalities 
and injustices will soon receive attention. And once re- 
vision is begun and the sanctity of the system invaded, we 


may expect to see the reform eontiime. And, likewise, if 
we shall have undertaken in a scientific manner the solu- 
tion of the three problems which I have called central, we 
may expect to see the same attitude of statesmanlike exam- 
ination extended to the tariff and all forms of taxation. 

The most acute of these problems, in the public mind, is 
that of railroad transportation. It is rather fortunate that 
this is so, for there are fewer difficulties in the way of its 
solution than of the solution of the trusts or immigration 
problem. In the first place, there is clear and unquestion- 
able authority in the Constitution for effective control of 
this subject by the national government. While the fra- 
mers of the Constitution did not foresee the present con- 
dition of things, they undeniably provided for it. So far 
as the Constitution is concerned, the national government 
may as soon as it chooses exercise complete and exclusive 
control over interstate transportation companies. The only 
questions to be considered are the statesman's questions of 
moral right and expediency. And these are not absolute 
questions, but only relative ones — questions of how far and 
in what direction. If they are only treated scientifically 
and in accordance with economic tendency, the legislation 
governing them must of necessity be both expedient and 
morally right. 

What, now, is the railroad problem ? Some 200,000 miles 
of railroad in the country, or 95 per cent, of the whole, are 
now controlled by five or six companies. The combination, 
or monopolization, goes on apace. Its beginning is very re- 
cent; in 1901 there were over a thousand companies oper- 
ating independently. Its more rapid development has been 
going on even since the country became alarmed and under- 
took to stay the process of consolidation by restrictive legis- 
lation. This movement towards unified control is one that 
covers the whole country, bringing under its operation all 
the domestic traffic. It embraces all species of transporta- 
tion, steam railways, electric lines and other utilities. In 


result, competition is practically annihilated. The system 
of "territories" into which the area of the country is di- 
vided accomplishes what is Inckinsr throucrh incompleteness 
of monopolization. Practically all industries are dependent 
on its will. Communities and regions develop or stagnate 
according to its pleasure. The only consideration that 
weighs with the railroads is, as a rule, the question of 
dividends, although, indeed, they have been known not to 
be above spite and retaliation. They establish rates with- 
out regard to the general welfare of the public. From this 
results the power to fix the price of commodities, the income 
of many producers, and the general standard of living. 
Drawing their existence from the public, they acknowledge 
no responsibility in return. 

Coupled with the economic control that the railroads 
have developed is their political power. Railroad influence 
is very closely associated with the political corruption of the 
country. I do not wish to exaggerate or to be partial in 
my View. The railroad influence is not by any means the 
only corrupting influence, but it is the one which, by its 
interstate and continental character, makes political corrup- 
tion interstate and continental. It is allied, too, with the 
other "enemies of the Republic." Of course, it is non- 
partisan. With it, self-interest is above partisanship. If 
the federalizing force of the interstate carriers were re- 
moved, political corruption could be dealt with much more 
easily and effectively by local communities. 

Looking at another side of the matter, we may, I think, 
so far as railroad enterprises are concerned, readily grant 
that monopoly is an advance in economic conditions out of 
worthless and wasteful competition. Transportation is uni- 
versal in its sphere of operation. It calls for enormous 
capital. This capital must be protected and awarded its 
proper dividends. On the other hand, affecting every per- 
son and industry and interest in the land, transportation 
should be as cheap as possible. Whatever lowers the cost of 


transportation aids the country at large. To cheapen trans- 
portation without reducing dividends below the just and 
rightful limit is the practical problem. Consolidation is the 
rational and effective way to attain the double end of mak- 
ing transportation reasonable and dividends fair and secure. 
Because competition was wasteful from the point of view of 
capital, consolidation has been taking place. Because this 
consolidating movement has not kept in \'iew the public in- 
terest, but has been directed towards an unremitting exploi- 
tation of the country, legislation has attempted to check it. 
Such legislation in so far as it has aimed to prevent con- 
centration and consolidation has been misdirected and in the 
main ineffective. In so far as it has aimed merely to cor- 
rect the abuses of railway transportation, whether competi- 
tive or consolidated, it has met with fair success, especially 
under the more recent vigorous and resolute administration 
of the law. 

What the times demand, however, is no longer a tem- 
porizing policy, a shifting between a reactionary and a 
socialistic tendency. The problem should be taken up in a 
statesmanlike manner. This would imply the most search- 
ing investigation of all the elements of the problem by a 
commission of the most competent persons. Some of the 
competent persons are to be found within the railway circles, 
others outside of such circles. Legislation to solve the prob- 
lem calls for the combined abilities of the statesman and of 
experts in transportation economics. 

A proposition made by Senator Newlands is, I believe, 
the only thoroughly statesmanlike suggestion that we have 
as yet had toward a solution of the transportation problem. 
We cannot, of course, enter here upon any detailed dis- 
cussion of his plan. We must treat it in a very summary 
manner. It was introduced into the United States Senate 
in January, 1905, in the form of a resolution. This resolu- 
tion provided for the appointment of a commission to report 
to Congress a measure for a National Incorporation Act. 


That of itself was a scientific way m which to approach 
the subject. The objects to be had in view by the Com- 
mission were, first, the correction of existins: abuses, e.g., 
rebates, preferences, discriminations. These are objects of 
remedial leerislation. now well-worn in discussion. But, in 
the second place. Senator Newlands' resolution proposed 
certain new features which the Commission was to work 
into the National Incorporation Act. The design of these 
propositions was to open up the way to the construction of 
interstate railroads throughout the United States and for the 
issue of bonds therefor; to provide for the consolidation of 
railroads now engaged in interstate commerce ; to allow the 
increase of the issues of bonds or stock by such corporations 
for the purchase of connecting or intersecting lines, for new 
construction, or for betterment of the roads: in each of the 
three cases the amount of new stock to be determined by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, and in no event to 
exceed the actual cost or value involved in each ease respec- 

We have here a scientific, or, in other words, statesman- 
like, treatment of this vastly important question, a question 
which in its present amateurish treatment is disquieting 
both the politics and the industries of the country. Senator 
Newlands' resolution recognizes the economic advantages 
of monopoly and aims to direct it aright. Being monopoly, 
the right of the state to exercise control is unequivocally 
asserted. Capital, with its just earning power, is protected ; 
the rights of the people to share in the benefits which they 
have made possible are secured. Taxes are simplified and 
equalized, doing away with one of the most legitimate 
grounds of complaint on the part of interstate carriers. 
The Interstate Commerce Commission is made a body with 
only ministerial functions. Its objectionable legislative and 
judicial powders are taken away. 

Senator Newlands himself summarized the provisions of 
his program as follows : 


' ' The purpose of this resolution is to unify and simplify 
the railroad systems of the country ; to recognize the recent 
evolution in railroading, under which the operation and 
management of almost the entire railroad mileage of the 
country has come under the control of about ten well-known 
systems; to place such systems under national control, to 
make the taxes of the railroads fixed and certain, and to 
provide for fixed dividends, so that hereafter any increase 
of business will tend mathematically either to a betterment 
of the roads, to an increase in wages, or to a diminution in 
rates. ' ' 

The growing monopolization of American industry pre- 
sents the second transcendent problem facing and possibly 
imperilling our democracy. Looking at probable outcomes 
of the present situation, we need not, indeed, fear the sub- 
stitution of some other form of government for democracy. 
"What we have to apprehend is rather a change in the form 
of democracy. The question is whether the essential lines 
of a representative democracy based on individual rights, 
and stimulative of all that is best in the individuals of the 
nation, are to remain and be developed, or whether some 
other and less desirable form of democracy is to succeed. 
The Socialist feels with confidence that he is simply an in- 
strument in the hands of evolution and that his program of 
co-operative democracy is foreordained. No one else looks 
on the future with such calm assurance, and there is no 
equal or single eye among other groups of the people. And 
so the Socialist's assurance has its strongest guarantee in 
this state of uncertainty and disagreement among the rest 
of the population. The weakest point in the Socialist's 
outlook is perhaps that he has something like a pre- 
arranged program for the activities of his coming 
commonwealth. But the strongest basis for hope in 
the realization of his program lies in the reactionary char- 
acter of the remedies provided and proposed against the 


conspicuous evils of the day. It is not too much to say that 
not a single measure to meet these e\dls has passed from the 
merely remedial to the constructive staf?e. Our councils of 
legislation do not seem to see beyond the fact that the gov- 
ernment has grown to be largely plutocratic in character 
and that there is a popular tendency towards socialism. The 
methods on which reliance is blindly placed to correct the 
acknowledged evil and to avert the threatened change are 
denunciation of socialism and efforts to restore conditions 
that are past, to turn back an economic tide. These are 
world-old methods, have always been practiced and trusted 
in by the conservatives of the day, and have always been 
but as a wisp of straw before the wind of revolution. We 
are, nevertheless, still Anglo-Saxon, and as long as we re- 
main so, we have hope that our progress will continue to be 
•in the future, as it has in the main been in the past, evolu- 
tionary rather than revolutionary. It is possible, however, 
to put too much confidence in this historical quality of our 
nation. "We cannot be assured, in the first place, that 
America is unalterably Anglo-Saxon. And in Anglo-Saxon 
history, whether in Great Britain or in America, it has been 
constructive statesmanship that at crises has prevented 
evolutionary development from being transformed by rev- 
olution. Where such statesmanship has failed, revolution 
has followed. Nor is it any more ethical in a nation to con- 
done its own sins by the boast that American .sense will pull 
it out of its worst predicaments, than it is in an individual 
to trust in his power to cover up his breach of confidence by 
hoped-for success of business ventures. And I fear that we 
can claim no immunity from ordinary forms of fatuity. 
The unreasoning and impassioned denunciation of socialism 
in high places is evidence thereof. 

It is needless to examine at any length the evils and 
dangers of industrial monopoly. They have become mani- 
fest in the most flagrant forms. Both the producer and 
consumer are exploited. The standard of living is low- 


ered. Labor is injuriously affected, and even the mighty 
enginery of trades-unions is not sufficient to combat the 
strength of the greater trusts. And the power over the 
political destinies of the nation, for long insidiously develop- 
ing through individual corporations, has been immeasurably 
increased by the consolidation of industrial companies into 
gigantic trusts. 

The question, then, is whether these evils are intrinsical- 
ly and inevitably associated with such combinations as we 
call trusts. If they are, there can be no uncertainty that 
they outweigh any possible benefits. If wealth combined in 
the hands of a relatively few persons can control the stan- 
dard of living of the whole country, and thus control not 
only the material comfort and convenience, but the intel- 
lectual life of the people, and through political corruption 
debase public morality, then plutocracy has become the 
reality and democracy but the shadow. And if these be not 
correctible accidents and incidents of a system, the problem 
has become a stupendous one, and it behoves statesmanship 
to put forth its supremest efforts. 

If, however, the trusts mark a step in economic evolution, 
the part of wise legislation is to acknowledge them and so 
proceed that their benefits shall redound to the advantage of 
society and their misdeeds be prevented or punished. It 
must be insisted that, owing their legal existence to the 
state-will, they shall be subject to reasonable control by 
the public. In order that such control shall be efficient as 
respects the public and just, impartial and uniform towards 
the trust, it is indispensable that it be exercised by the gen- 
eral government to the exclusion of State authority. A na- 
tional incorporation law must be passed, and a corporation 
doing business in several States must be required to obtain 
its franchise under this law. A comprehensive scheme of 
legislation should be formulated which would frankly recog- 
nize the right of industrial monopolies to carry on business. 
It should guarantee them the full protection of the law ; it 


should likeAvise guarantee them permanence and stability, 
allowing a fair income on capital and energy, and protecting 
them against excessive, unequal and plural taxation. On 
the other hand, it should require them to live within the law 
as strictly as it requires individuals -, it should require them 
to abandon all claim to speculative profits, and to submit to 
a just basis for calculating its earnings. 

Such is the democratic way to solve this problem that 
menaces the integrity of democratic institutions. Indust- 
rial, social and political equilibrium will be restored. No 
millennium will have arrived, but the people will be free to 
do something more profitable than warring against pluto- 
cracy and prosecuting grafters and other malefactors. 

The third of the paramount problems, and the most seri- 
ous, is that of foreign immigration. I eliminate by the very 
terms of the discussion, the not insignificant negro question. 
I also eliminate from consideration Asiatic immigration. 
I also eliminate the race question involved in our holding of 
Pacific islands and Atlantic islands, present and to come. 
Serious as these are, and each and all of them demanding 
far more statesmanlike treatment than they have received, 
they do not offer in their probable consequences such a grave 
menace to our democratic institutions as does immigration 
from Europe. 

It has been the American policy to receive with open 
doors all comers, and to make out of the consequent vast 
aggregation of heterogeneous elements one consolidated na- 
tion resting on a basis of religious and political equality. 
The main intent of the policy I do not believe need be 
abandoned. The real question is, how wide open the door 
shall be. And the entire proposition of admission, restric- 
tion or exclusion must be based upon the inquiry, how far 
we can consolidate and assimilate, if not amalgamate, the 
whole mass, and still preserve and perpetuate religious and 
political equality, republican government and liberty. It is 


the supreme problem for American statesmanship. It is the 
problem for those who deplore race-suicide to address them- 
selves to. There is a place for precept and preaching. 
Something, for instance, may be done toward improvement 
of civic virtue by denunciation of crime, lawlessness and 
immorality, and by exhortation to right living, right think- 
ing and right acting. But denunciation and exhortation 
will accomplish nothing in checking race-suicide and pro- 
moting the enlargement of families of the original stocks. 
The solution of this question may not unlikely be found to 
be inwoven with the larger race and immigration question. 
So great, serious and menacing as the race and immigration 
question obviously is, it calls for the most thoroughgoing 
and scientific investigation. The researches of a vacation 
committee of CongreSvSmen spending a summer in Europe 
can hardly afford a satisfactory basis for adequate legisla- 

Now, we know that over a million persons are coming 
into the United States from foreign countries each year. 
We know that since this more recent immigration began, 
new races and classes have constituted the bulk of the immi- 
grants. We know that these races and classes have not the 
political traditions and ideals that a priori fit them for 
American citizenship, as was the case in the main with their 
predecessors. Out of a total immigration of 19,000,000 
during the years from 1820 to 1900, 12,500,000 were Ger- 
mans, British and Irish. In 1905, out of an immigration 
of 1,000,000 for that year, 200,000 only were from Great 
Britain and Ireland and from Germany and Scandinavia, 
while 800,000 were from southern and eastern Europe, the 
largest numbers coming from southern Italy, Austria- 
Hungary, and Russia. German immigration from Germany 
has nearl}^ ceased. 

If we draw a line on the map of Europe, marking off the 
territory from which the bulk of the older immigration came 
from that from which the later immigration is coming, we 


shall see that it separates countries not onlj^ of distinct races 
but of distinct civilizations. A line so drawn, says Professor 
John R. Commons, "separates Protestant Enrope from 
Catholic Enrope; it separates conntries of representative 
institntions and popular g:overnment from absolute mon- 
archies : it separates lands where education is universal from 
lands where illiteracy predominates; it separates manufac- 
turing countries, progressive agriculture and skilled labor 
from primitive hand industries, backward agriculture and 
unskilled labor; it separates an educated thrifty peasantry 
from a peasantry scarcely a single generation removed from 
serfdom ; it separates Teutonic races from Latin, Slav, Se- 
mitic, and ]\Iongolian races." 

The immigration from Europe in 1882 and 1902 was 
approximately the same, a little over 600,000. In 1882, 
however, Avestern Europe furnished 87% and in 1902 only 
22%, while southern and eastern Europe increased from 
13% in 1882 to 78% in 1902. During twenty years the im- 
migration of western races most nearly related to those 
which have fashioned American institutions declined more 
than 75%, while the immigrants of eastern and southern 
races, untrained in self-government, increased nearly six- 

^luch light is cast upon the solution of the problem if we 
consider the influences that have been at work in promoting 
immigration to the United States. "Religious persecution, 
race oppression, political revolution, militarism, taxation, 
famine, and poverty have conspired to press upon the un- 
privileged masses and drive forth the more adventurous 
across the water." To all such the sentiment of human- 
ity calls upon us to open our doors and let in the stranger 
to this land of opportunity. But even here prudence has 
led us to pass restrictive legislation against the admission of 
the pauper. And, again, we have to modify the picture 
that is first formed in our minds of the oppressed seeking an 
asylum here. Not more than half of the immigration to 


America has been due to the initiative of the immigrant. 
There has been behind at least one-half some outside, selfish 
interest. One entire race, the negro, came solely for the 
profit of shipowners and landed proprietors. Indentured 
servants were beguiled hither in colonial days by speculators 
and shippers. In the nineteenth century, this induced im- 
migration took a somewhat different form. Several of the 
western States set up immigration bureaus to attract the 
immigrant to their borders. More lately the work of stim- 
ulating immigration and directing its course has been done 
through contractors and ship companies establishing bureaus 
and middlemen, and advertising the attractions of America 
in Europe. An elaborate system has been developed which 
is efficiently put in operation in all the promising centers of 

For a fairer appreciation of the question, let us look 
for a moment at the agencies which we have at our disposal 
for the conversion of the immigrants into American citizens. 
The first and most potent agency is a common language. 
The primary requisite in assimilating different peoples is 
that they shall be likeminded. In fact, if we carry this 
idea of likemindedness far enough, it covers everything and 
is a sure guarantee of the success of democracy. Variety of 
race-origin scarcely cuts a figure if all have one mind and 
one purpose and have a common language in which this 
purpose can be expressed. We possass the fundamental 
requisite for common thinking and common acting. Racial 
diversities and racial antagonisms tend to sink away and 
disappear in this universal medium of a common language. 
The firmly established English language is the one secure 
base upon which we may build our hopes of the successful 
Americanization of many peoples. 

It has been the common thought that popular education 
and universal suffrage could be relied upon to produce intel- 
ligent and devoted American citizens. We do not look 
to-day upon either of these two agencies with as much 


cojifidcuce as we did formerly. Bnt confidence in the 
work of the public schools must be revived and reestab- 
lished. If the results are not what we expect and need, we 
must inquire why they fail and apply ourselves to remedy- 
ins: the fault. In the matter of education, as in other 
aspects of the discussion, we must always remember that 
the character of our gro^ving population is ever changing. 
Formerly the main body of the people was descended from 
the colonial stocks. The influences within the school were 
but an extension of influences within the home. But the 
colonial element is declining proportionally. In 1888 the 
colonial element was estimated to be 29,000,000 as against 
an immigrant element of 26,000,000. In 1900 fully one- 
half of the white population had come to be of immigrant 
origin. This inequality is rapidly increasing, owing to in- 
creased immigration and to race-suicide in the colonial stock. 
Accordingl}-, the reliance which we have justly placed on the 
assimilating and absorbing power of the colonial stock over 
new-comers can no longer be so firmly held. Of course, 
over against this decline in relative power of original stock 
Vv'e may place the influence of thousands, if not millions, of 
the descendants of nineteenth century immigrants who have 
become thoroughly Americanized and on whose complete 
patriotism as much dependence can be placed as on that of 
Colonial Dames or Sons of the Revolution. 

We need to direct renewed attention to the way in which 
the schools should address themselves to their task. In 
order to Americanize, the schools themselves must be thor- 
oughly and soundly American in ideals and conscious aims. 
It becomes increasingly difficult to ensure this condition, 
with the vast multiplication of schools, with lar^e classes, 
and with a less homogeneous body of pupils. And the 
doubt forces itself, too. whether the teacher is not losing 
sight of the purpose of the school to make citizens of Ameri- 
cans and Americans of foreigners and confining his atten- 
tion solely to the intellectual aspect of education. From 


the point of view of fusing the whole body into one con- 
scious American citizenship, the separation of non-English 
speaking children from English speaking children would 
seem to be a vital mistake. The schools that have been 
established in some eastern cities under societies for aiding 
immigrant children to learn English do not come under 
this criticism. Their purpose is to supplement the work of 
the public schools and expedite the Americanization of the 
immigrant. It is a question, however, whether the greater 
need is not to bring the adult immigrant rather than the 
child under Americanizing influences. The country is in- 
debted to some of the great industrial corporations for sur- 
rounding their employees with educational and refining 

The social environment out of school hours has a more 
powerful effect than the teacher. Where the immigrant 
goes to the country and settles on a farm, his Americani- 
zation takes care of itself. Patriotism resides on the farm. 
But the immigrants who become farmers are but a small 
portion of the whole, and they do not come from anti- 
democratic countries, nor from backward races or classes. 
British, German, and Scandinavian, of enterprising spirit 
and solid virtues, no qualification should be made to the 
welcome to be extended to them. The immigrants who flock 
to the cities, however, are apt to get into colonies of their 
own or similar races. And while the sanitary- and indus- 
trial, and even social and moral, condition of these urban 
colonies is receiving devoted attention, they are exploited, 
politically, by the boss and ward politician. 

The newspapers might be perhaps the most influential 
medium of Americanization. It is trite to denounce the 
press. And it is difficult to eat our breakfast without smoth- 
ered imprecations on their conspicuous pandering to hatred. 
envy, and violence. The high-minded papers do not reach 
the multitude. Yet, however perverse the average news- 
paper is, it does one thing : it impresses the foreigner with 
his importance in the American commonwealth. While this 


is tlu' ;irt of the demaiiOirne, and fraiiJiht with all sorts of 
daiiirer. it nevertheless works toward assimilation, for while 
it does not tend to make jjood Americans, it does tend to 
make Americans. 

The Salvation Army and the labor-union are both work- 
inir directly toward the Americanization of the foreigner. 
The Salvation Army is, I believe, entirely patriotic in its 
influence and is accomplishing a work never before done on 
a large scale for humanity. I sometimes fear that its benefi- 
cence will become a matter of universal repute, and that 
then its noble virtues Avill decline when it no longer faces a 
measure of popular derision. The labor-union brings di- 
verse races into intimate relations with one another and 
with native-born Americans. It requires all its members 
to be citizens or at least to have taken out naturalization 
papers. There is a common interest and a common purpose 
among all members of a union, and all unions are more or 
less federated with all others. A common American spirit 
thus pervades the labor element of the country. 

Such is the immigration question. Can any one doubt 
that it calls for the earnest attention of the American de- 
mocracy? It is vastly simplified when we reflect that one- 
half or more of the immigrants are coming hither only upon 
solicitation. We should be loth to bar out those who, flying 
from religious or political persecution, genuinely seek 
within our hospitable borders a place for the free exercise 
of their conscience and opportunity to aid us in the develop- 
ment of free republican institutions. From the present 
aspect of the case, there is no need to shut our doors to such 
as these. The legislation that we most need is such as will 
effectually prevent importation and induced immigration. 

We must look not only to Congress, but to the President 
and to the public, for the enactment of laws to meet the 
problems that press upon us from all sides. Let us try to 
appreciate the probabilities of intelligent and efficient 


Our democracy has been on the whole decidedly suc- 
cessful in choosing executive leaders. Much unjust dispar- 
agement has been made in lamenting the mediocrity of our 
Presidents. They have, I maintain, been, as a rule, up to 
any fair standard required of executive officers. The few 
exceptions but emphasize the fact. The last four Presi- 
dents, for instance, representing very different tj'pes of 
mind, and not attaining perhaps the highest point of execu- 
tive ability displayed by our chiefest Presidents, have yet 
been really great executive officers; they represent as high 
an average as the rulers and prime ministers of any other 

In Congress, among the many eminent and able men of 
the past generation, constructive statesmanship has been 
conspicuously absent. This cannot have been because ideas 
were lacking, but rather because circumstances prevented 
their exercise. A political and industrial system resting on 
wealth and special privilege is naturally inimical to the 
introduction of progressive measures. The dominance of 
a single party, likewise, has been unfavorable to the play of 
ncAv ideas. For statesmanship looks beyond party, beyond 
special interests and classes, to the welfare of the whole. 
A one-party rule during a period of fifty years has inevit- 
ably set its mark upon the character of our public men. 
Politicians of the highest skill may be developed under such 
a system ; but there is no place for statesmen. 

But even with the continuance of the one-party power, 
we may reasonably trust to seeing through the development 
of conditions the emergence of statesmen able and ready to 
cope with the problems that present themselves. I do not 
anticipate any change of the governing party in the near 
future. The only possibility of the termination of the power 
of the party in control would seem to be in the occurrence 
of a more or less dramatic event in the form of a popular 
uprising of a populistic or socialistic turn. Whether such 
is to be the destiny of the Republic lies in the hands of the 
party in power. 


This one-party system of government which has devel- 
oped iu the United States is singnlarly interesting. It 
would be worthy of earefnl analysis and study. We are 
iiow only eoneerned with some of its consequences. Up to 
very recently the policy of this party has been homogeneous, 
one administration and one Congress following in the foot- 
steps of its predecessors, holding fast to party traditions 
and carefully building up the machinery of party power. 
But as the party became too powerful to be overthrown by 
its rival and adversary, division began to be shown within 
its own ranks. Not open and confessed division, but none 
the less a wide divergence of policy. Two parties are not 
ordinarily further apart on many essential principles and 
policies than the administrations of McKinley and Roose- 
velt. Here is a permanent breach which cannot but go on 
widening, and from M'hicli can only flow benefits to the 
country, benefits already manifest. To the patriot, it can- 
not matter whether the conflict of policies so necessary for 
a healthy public spirit be occasioned by the rivalry of two 
different parties or of two wings of one party. The chief 
present advantage that concerns us here, and seems to me 
almost inevitably to result, is the rise of competent states- 
men. I doubt not the presence in our midst of men quali- 
fied to deal with all the pressing problems, and as soon as 
party integrity ceases to demand their silence, they will 
bring forth adequate measures of relief. 

By a happy conjuncture of events, there came a time in 
this one-party government when a man of supreme force 
as executive was elected to the highest office in the country. 
He has had predecessors fully as desirous of rising above 
party dictation, but lacking, because of personal qualities 
or circumstances, the ability to do so. As forceful and high- 
minded administrators, we have not had many if any supe- 
riors to President Roosevelt. The conduct of his executive 
office, so far as we can judge from close view and with 
existing knowledge, not only seems to admit of no serious 


criticism, but calls for the warmest commendation. He has 
rendered to democracy about all the service within the 
power of an executive as such to render. His very election 
Avas a vindication of democrac5^ He was the first President 
in many years Avhose election was not to a greater or less 
degree determined by interests or by party. In his election 
there was so large a margin that was outside corporate and 
financial interests and their affiliations and outside the 
direction of the party machine, that it may be truly said 
to be due to an emancipated democracy. And, so, placed in 
office by an emancipated electorate, his opportunity for 
achievement has been greater than that of almost any other 
President. As executive, as I have said, this opportunity 
has been largely, if not fully, embraced. His desire and 
purpose seem to me to have been to make the Constitution 
effective, to give it free play in order to conserve the demo- 
cratic institutions of the country, and to complete the de- 
mocratization of all the factors of our life. Never before 
was so much attention given to the careful selection of men 
for offices less than the highest. High-minded and efficient 
men have been placed in assistantships. And it is from 
such as they that effective work is to be looked for if any- 
where. The office-holding pereonnel has been immeasurably 
improved throughout the country. This means the purifi- 
cation of the political atmosphere, the elevation of public 
morality. No better service could be rendered from his post 
of chief administrator than this efficient garrisoning of all 
our peace fortifications with clean, capable and patriotic 
men. The choosing of such an executive shows what de- 
mocracy can do when it has half a chance. What the Presi- 
dent has accomplished shows how true democracy can be 
strengthened in its position. 

Equally efficient has been the President in enforcing the 
laws as made by Congress. All the executive energy has 
been put forth, without fear or favor, to punish all trans- 
gressors. The instruments forged by Congress have been 


put to use to hammer offenders into observance of the law. 
In itself this does not accomplish much of its direct pur- 
pose, neither retards economic evolution nor puts conscien- 
tious souls into corporations. But as a tonic to the public 
healtli. it has abounding virtues. It makes us, the people 
of the United States, better citizens. That has been the 
chief beneticial effect of the uncovering of frauds and 
crimes, and graft prosecutions — the improved consciousness 
of our civic relations. The population as a whole has been 

Of the Roosevelt policies, so-called, I do not believe there 
can be any permanent defeat. Reactionism may obtain 
control temporarily, but that will only ensure the ultimate 
success of progressive measures. But yet, the Roosevelt 
policies are not, I must maintain, scientific solutions of the 
problems with which they deal. They contain suggestions 
of scientific treatment, but they do not attain to a states- 
manlike grasp of the whole. That is the pity ; for the Presi- 
dent of the United States is not precluded from playing the 
role of statesman ; and if President Roosevelt were to recom- 
mend a program of scientific measures for the existing 
evils, the public spirit of the country would never rest until 
they were all on the way to execution. The public mind is 
far more enlightened than the politician or the plutocrat 
imagines. The golden mean between individualism and 
socialism, between unrestrained competition and state 
ownership, is the path the mass of the people is ready to 
take as soon as the sign-posts are set up by a clearly an- 
nounced policy. 

And, lastly, the most hopeful sign for the solution of our 
manifold problems is the awakening of public spirit that 
is manifest throughout the land. The great mass of the 
people are better citizeas than they were seven years ago. 
That sense of civic obligation has been developed which 
demands good local government. We are beginning to feel 
that our city is our home and should be as clean and pure 


as our fireside. We are becoming alive to the necessity of 
good and efficient administration of our State governments. 
And by this token we are becoming better citizens of the 
Republic. Citizenship above partisanship. Public welfare 
above private interest. These are the watchwords of to-day, 
strange sounding as they are in the country where neither 
the political machine nor plutocracy is dead. But they are 
vital watchwords ; they are on the standards of millions of 
our people, and they are emblems that point the way to a 
sure and steady progress toward the resumption of political 
power by the people, to a new realization of the ideals of 



The University Farm, whose selection and purchase were 
provided for by an act of the California Legislature of 1905, 
was formally opened at a session of the State Farmers' 
Institute held at the Farm itself during the last three days 
of October. The farm consists of about seven hundred and 
eighty acres of first-class valley land contiguous to the town 
of Davis, in Yolo County. It lies within the irrigation 
system of the Yolo Consolidated Water Company and water 
rights covering the whole acreage accrued to the University 
by donations from the citizens of the vicinity. The Univer- 
sity is fully equipping the farm with buildings, machinery, 
tools, and live-stock. Among the buildings erected or soon 
to be erected are a capacious creamery to furnish accommo- 
dation and equipment for the manufacture of butter and 
cheese and by-products on a commercial scale, with addi- 
tional rooms for lecture and laboratory instruction; a live- 
stock pavilion arranged to illustrate instruction by direct 
use of animals and to serve as a lecture-room for large 
classes in other subjects and as a general auditorium ; 
cottages for instructors and foremen, dormitory accommo- 
dations for students, barns and sheds for stock, simple 
buildings for horticultural, viticultural, and other instruc- 
tion ; shops for farm mechanics, sheds for tools, implements, 
etc. Construction of such buildings will proceed as funds 
become available, upon the plan of providing plain and 
serviceable buildings, congruous in style, and with cost so 


adjusted to uses that they will serve as models to those 
contemplating buildings for similar uses. The Farm thus 
provides that theoretical instruction of regular students at 
the University shall be followed by such demonstrations on 
the farm as shall be found expedient. It also provides for 
distinctly different instructional work, viz., short courses in 
the various branches of farming which will enable both 
young and old to devote themselves for short periods to 
studies of the best and most profitable ways to handle plants 
and animals in practical production. 

The dedicatory exercises were held in the Pavilion on 
the Farm. Among those making addresses were Governor 
Gillett, President Wheeler, Mr. G. W. Pierce, Hon. Marshall 
Diggs, Judge Shields, Hon. A. E. Boynton, Hon. B. F. 
Rush, Hon. Horace Davis, Professor E. J. Wickson, Pro- 
fessor Leroy Anderson, and others. Following are the ad- 
dresses of President Wheeler and Professor Wickson. 


We are met to initiate what I expect will prove a new 
and significant departure for the education of California 
youth. It concerns industrial education and particularly 
that branch of it which affects the complex body of arts 
practised in the life of an American farm ; and industrial 
education is a form of human training M^hich assumes to 
reverse the direction of the prevailing book and blackboard 
education and move from the outside in, instead of from 
the inside out. In, for instance, the case of agriculture, the 
old way started with principles and built up the imaginary 
farm ; the new way starts with the real farm and provokes 
an appetite for principles. There may be two ways of 
producing loaves of bread : to start with lectures on the 
chemistry of yeast, the effect of heat on starch, and the 
centigrade measurement of the temperature of ovens, or to 


start with the traditional skill of an actual artist in bread- 
making:, and correct and guide that by scientific knowledge 
and experiment; — there are the two ways, but we have no 
doubt which is better for the digestion. In terms of the 
progress of knowledge our illustration may be far too 
brusque and summary, for the work of the scientist who 
follows the lead of the truth for science's sake and truth's 
must alwaj^s be our help and resort, but when it comes to 
the actual needs of life and the training of men to meet 
those needs and do the daily work of actual life, there can 
be no doubt as to which end of the line is to be the starting- 
point. We have no apology to make for an effort which 
takes as its point of departure the conscious needs of human 
society or the queries and quandaries of men engaged in the 
actual tasks and toils of gaining actual bread. The safest 
basis of estimate for the worth of a human endeavor will 
after all be found in its response to a human call for help 
and the measure of its nobility will be rated in terms of its 
desire to serve. The teaching of truth for its own sake 
cannot be rated higher or nobler than the teaching of truth 
for the immediate uses of life ; nor can that search after 
truth for truth's sake which we call pure science be rated 
above that search after truth for use's sake which we call 
applied science ; for after all, in measuring the deeds of men 
and their worth, the social test is and will always be the final 
test, and the uses and needs of man in society will in the 
long run form the surest guide to the truth we should seek, 
and for that matter presumably to the truth we can hope 
to find. 

The most significant change in the attitude of university 
education during the last two decadas is found in the frank 
tendency to relate itself to a larger circle of human occu- 
pations in actual life. At our own university within the 
last decade have been added, for instance, courses training 
directly for life work in architecture, hydraulic engineering, 
sanitary engineering, railway engineering, irrigation, for- 


estry, banking, general business, and the consular service. 
The old education did indeed in its origins adjust itself to 
the training of teachers, theologians, doctors, and lawyers, 
but it stopped there, and inclined to think this training or 
one of these trainings all that could worthily be offered to 
others who might come to the doors of the university with 
or without plans of life. So it came to pass that the college 
gradually sundered itself from life and followed, in default 
of clearer aims, a certain groping after a discipline or cul- 
ture that might be hoped to serve the general purposes of 
free and manly living. And such a purpose it has by the 
kindly help of Providence, more than by the wit of college 
masters, served in much larger measure than one would 
have thought or now could explain, — except that continued 
contact with the best thought of human kind always awakens 
thought, and the re-thinking the thought and re-living the 
experiences of men yields that suppleness and sympathy of 
mind which is a first essential in meeting social problems 
and dealing with human beings. 

The recent tendency of university courses to re-ally 
themselves with life and relate themselves to a wider scope 
of human activities is responsible to a large extent for the 
recent increase in university attendance. We have noted 
for instance during the last four years a steady decline in 
the percentage of women students at Berkeley. On enquir- 
ing closely into the meaning of it, we find, not that less 
women are coming to the university, but that the men are 
increasing and that the increase is due to the new courses 
just alluded to. The fact seems to be that men are now 
coming who would once have gone directly into some form 
of business life. The university teaching is now taking 
within its purview a continually increasing body of life- 
activities which yield themselves to formal instruction and 
indeed for their higher development require it, and mean- 
time the intervention of education is steadily raising them 
to a higher standard of meaning and effectiveness. The 


substance of ;ill this is that education, Avhich once made 
teachiner, preachinir, healing, and litigating the sacred four, 
is now laying its hand upon one after another of the activ- 
ities of daily luiiuan life to dignify and nplift them, to 
relate them to reason and truth, to rescue them from sordid 
slavery to superstition, ignorance, and the rule-of -thumb ; 
and all to the end that we shall call nothing common or 
unclean, which honest human use or need has sanctified. 

Those who have closely followed the development of the 
American universities for the last twenty-five years, and 
particularly of the State universities, will, I am certain, 
recognize that the presence of the agricultural departments 
has contributed in no small degree to the change of attitude 
to which we have just been referring. These departments 
entered upon their work without the possession of a body 
of learning formulated into teachable shape. They lacked 
the traditions of teaching; they were without text-books; 
their subject was unclassified and undifferentiated. They 
groped about in their material both of topics and pupils. 
For the first years their work showed at serious disadvan- 
tage against that of the older departments. Many thought 
their gropings betrayed lack of matter to teach and sus- 
pected them of being maintained artificially and by main 
force, or as a diplomatic sop to the farmers ; and they were 
not a little sneered at as unworthy of the university. That 
day has passed. No departments now have a better class 
of students from whatever point of view they may be esti- 
mated. None shows a finer zeal in the body of teachers or 
of taught. None has a clearer ordered curriculum or a 
better system of instruction. But what is most significant, 
— from being tolerated they have come to be emulated. 
Their zeal and enthusiasm have vindicated the power of 
teaching real things and their attitude toward their subject 
has become a beneficent contagion throughout the university. 

Fifty years have elapsed since the beginning of the first 
experiment in agricultural education in Michigan, and 


under the quickening influence of that venture and others 
that succeeded it, the whole nation of teachers has been 
assuming a new conception of the whole meaning of their 
task. It is coming to them not through a-priori reasoning, 
for of that they did enough before, but through observation 
and practice of ventures such, as those made by the early 
agricultural schools. They now seem to be learning that 
education inheres not in what you put into a man, or what 
you hang on to a man, nor yet in sterilizing him, or shaving 
him down to a standard shape; but in giving him, such as 
he is, and such as his life-activities may be, the opportunity, 
in and through those activities, to live his life fully and 
effectively and abundantly. Such education proceeds upon 
the recognition that no hypertrophy of mind or body is as 
good as plain health, that plain health is the best medicine 
for all disease, and that the normal exercise of plain life is 
the straight way to plain health. Such education will there- 
fore address itself perforce to the real doings and exercises 
of real life, and its definition will be: the guided practice 
of life, to the end that men may live. 

Professor E. J. Wickson, Dean of the College of Agricul- 
ture and Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
of the University of California, made the following state- 
ments concerning his plans for the future. We quote from 
the Pacific Rural Press, November 9, 1907 : 


We expect to realize for the University of California 
the greatest institution for agricultural research and in- 
struction in the world. Such a great ambition should be 
shown to be reasonable. The following conditions lie in the 
foundation of it : 

First — The earnest desire and deep determination to 
realize it on the part of those to whom the development of 


the University is entrusted by law. The University has 
gone steadily forward since its foundation, but there came 
a quickening and a more rapid rate of growth a little more 
than a decade ago, when the Regents of the University 
adopted this declaration : 

"Agriculture is specially mentioned as one of the lead- 
ing subjects to be taught at the State University, that the 
scientific knowledge essential to the success and prosperity 
of agriculture may be better known and more easily and 
quickly applied and with more immediate and more certain 
beneficial results * * * so that the University may 
send forth a tendril of thoughtful, helpful, and affectionate 
regard to every acre of soil within the State." 

This was the initiative on the part of the Regents which 
brought University extension work in Agriculture into ac- 
tive operation and opened the way for a popularization of 
all lines of industrial educational effort in the institution. 
The impulse tOM^ard a greater University manifested itself 
in the induction of a new plan of administration and a new 
executive about seven years ago. One of the early acts of 
the new executive, President Wheeler, was to secure the 
expansion of the agricultural work of the University and 
to promulgate a truer conception of its importance to the 
institution and to the State. The instructional staff was 
increased and instruction was specialized in method and 
multiplied in subjects. There were 31 pupils taking full 
agricultural courses of instruction in the University in 1900 ; 
there are 124 to-day. There were 47 courses of instruction 
offered in 1900 ; there are 76 courses to-day. There were 11 
instructors in 1900 ; there are 26 instructors to-day. 

I have noted these points of progress in the agricultural 
work of the University because I wish to show that the atti- 
tude of the President of the University toward the agricul- 
tural work of the University is the logical expression of his 
thought, observation, and experience. As he has been, so 
he may be trusted to be, and therefore these words which 


he recently spoke for himself and the Board of Regents may 
be held truly to set forth what they desire and aim to ac- 
complish : ' ' The appointment of a head of our Agricultural 
Department has been regarded by the President and the 
Board of Eegents as involving the most responsibility of 
any recent acts. We have believed the agricultural inter- 
ests of California to be second to none of any State in the 
country, and these interests to be second to no interest 
within the State. * * * We propose to give him every 
support, and to go ahead for the building up of an agri- 
cultural department which shall be struck out on large 
enough lines to be fairly commensurate with the tremen- 
dous interests at stake. ' ' 

Let there be no question, then, that it is the ambition of 
the administration of the University to make its facilities 
for agricultural research and instruction the greatest in the 
world. Whatever is fully true to California opportunities 
certainly has a start in that direction. 

Second — Another significant indication of the coming 
greatness of the agricultural work of the University of 
California is found not only in a desire but in a clearly 
expressed determination of the California people toward 
that end. For a third of a century special legislative ap- 
propriations for agricultural work have been made in 
constantly increased amounts, and generous stated appro- 
priations for general University support have been largely 
secured through the staunch advocacy of our agricultural 
population. The College of Agriculture from the begin- 
ning has lain close to the heart and purse of the California 
people. They will deny it nothing which is reasonable and 
promotive of real greatness and leadership. 

Third — No State or country is superior to California in 
natural adaptation to greatness in agricultural education, 
because no State presents agriculture in so many phases. 
From the high mountain valleys with their alpine agricul- 
ture, through the higher foot-hill vales and slopes with north 


temperate zone products, down upon the lower foot-hills 
with their inereasinc: suitability for agricultural efforts, and 
below them the mesas where semi-tropical conditions pre- 
vail, out upon the great valley of California with its plains, 
river-bottoms, and reclaimed lands, and west of them the 
coast range slopes, mesas, and small valleys, with innumer- 
able conditions of moisture, heat, exposure, and produc- 
tiveness — we have in California an epitome of a world's 
agriculture, except its strictly tropical phases, with oppor- 
tunities for research and commands to teach to which none 
but the greatest agricultural institution can be true and 

Fourth — There is no State nor country with a population 
which needs such wide demonstration of agricultural science 
and such varied instruction in agricultural practice. Com- 
ing from all parts of the world, eager to adapt their agri- 
cultural experience to California conditions, they are most 
appreciative of accurate local knowledge and anxious for 
the fullest possible enrichment of it. They are ready to 
provide for it most generously by State appropriation and 
by princely private donations. California is unique in the 
enthusiasm, appreciation, and generosity of its agricultural 

Nor is there any State in w^hieh agriculture is held in 
such high interest and respect by the non-agricultural popu- 
lation ; and none in which the agriculturist holds such 
high rank socially and financially. What the California 
farmer thinks of his enterprise and investments and what 
his fellow citizens think of them constitute agriculture a 
higher calling in this State than elsewhere. Upon such a 
foundation an institution which is true to its opportunities 
must be uniquely great and influential. 

Fifth — Our duty is thus defined by our opportunity. 
It is to do more and better work; to push equipment of 
men and materials until every farming interest of Cali- 
fornia is adequately served, both in the ascertainment of 


new truth for the leaders and the demonstration of plain 
practice for beginners, both young and old. This can only 
be done by the exaltation of agriculture as a technical 
science in the University; by the development of special 
schools of secondary grade as fast as can be wisely done 
according to current demand for them ; by the preparation 
of teachers to carry elementary science and agriculture into 
the common schools; by the free publication of helps to 
farmers and to teachers of farming, until our system shall 
provide just what every one needs to know to work intelli- 
gently and successfully. When this shall be done to the 
measure of California and to the standard of California 
people, distinctive greatness will have been attained and 
pupils will be drawn across the world because of it. 

Sixth — Three things are necessary to realize the popular 
will in this regard: Men, money, and time for them to 
work together for results. This is the undertaking of which 
we are now at the beginning, confident, strong, and ex- 



Chakles H. Eieber. 

My subject for this evening is the relation between mind 
that transcends evolution and mind the product of evolu- 
tion. One far-reaching aspect of the question that has 
been assigned to me was discussed at the closing meeting of 
last year. Therefore much of what I shall say to-night will 
be in the nature of a reaffirmation of the general conclusion 
reached at that time. 

A number of most interesting volumes have appeared 
within the last decade which discuss the relation of animal 
to human intelligence. Year by year the gap between the 
human and the brute mind seems to be closing, until at the 
present time some scientists are bold enough to declare that 
continuity has now at last been established. I do not feel 
that my topic to-night calls upon me to enter this field of 
discussion. My subject, as I interpret it, does not require 
me to explain the significance of the recent discovery that 
some animals are very much like men, and that some men 
are very much like animals. I am not concerned to prove 
or disprove that a woodpecker ever made a crutch, or that 
a pet clam ever crawled upon the bed and licked the face of 
its master. As a humble teacher of the logic of science, I 
should say that there is a strong antecedent improbability 

* Read before the Kosmos Club of the University of California, 
September 9, 1907. 


that these events ever happened. They are not impossible, 
and should such things ever come to pass, they would in no 
wise disturb the philosophic doctrine that I wish to present 
to-night. The question of the relation of reflex action to 
instinct and of instinct to reason and all like problems are 
to be considered at other meetings during the year. My 
problem is one in Epistemology. It is a question of the 
nature and limits of human Reason. 

When we press close in upon the center of the evolu- 
tional theory of knowledge, the theory, viz., that provides 
only for mental phenomena in time, and denies the exist- 
ence of a supra-temporal mind, we see that this theory must 
always make man's relation to the outer world a purely 
passive and receptive one. That independent external 
world, so agnostic science contends, is pouring in upon the 
mind through the avenue of the senses a stream of expe- 
riences which that mind can neither make nor unmake, 
because it itself has been made by those experiences. "Mind 
was created by phenomena for converse with phenomena." 
This is the form in which Spencer puts the fundamental 
theorem of agnosticism. Philosophers of the school of ideal- 
ism, of every age, have met this ultra empiricism always 
with the same objection. They say that if this were an 
adequate account of the human mind, — if it were simply a 
passive recipient of sensations impinging upon it from the 
outer world, — then it would be only the stage across which 
an endless series of fugitive impressions would pass in an 
incoherent unrelated procession, each succeeding impression 
completely destroying the preceding one. In a purely pas- 
sive mind, a mind which is totally in the evolutional series, 
none of these transient impressions could be arrested so as 
to enter into relations with others and thereby give rise to 
real knowledge. A mind which is merely receptive, and not 
self-active, must be incapable of genuine knowledge, for it 
could not know things together. The paramount question 
of every thorough-going doctrine of mind is, Do we not 


have a kind of Imowledare logically prior to all experience? 
some kuowledire which we arrive at simply by virtue of our 
essential natures? This is the perennial question out of 
which the most serious controversies in the whole history 
of thoutrht have arisen. Every other question in philosophy 
really depends upon the way in which we answer this. I 
have already, in previous papers to our club, attempted to 
answer this question. I wish to try again to-night, ap- 
proaching the subject this time from a somewhat different 
point of view, but always with the same conclusion. 

]\Iost modern scientists answer this query concerning 
the nature and limits of human knowledge in no uncertain 
terms. Mind in its entirety is constituted of materials pre- 
sented through the senses. It is in toto the product of 

The dominant note of current scientific Empiricism is 
that all of our knowledge begins in experience. Upon this 
cardinal tenet the Idealists are quite in accord with the 
Empiricists. From this point, however, the two doctrines 
diverge very widely. The Idealist insists that mind, defined 
in its largest and most self -consistent fashion, involves some- 
thing that is not given in mere sensation, and without which 
there would be no such thing as pure experimental knowl- 
edge. It is by means of our five or more sense organs that 
we converse with nature ; this every Idealist freely concedes 
to the Evolutionist. But now the utmost attainable by 
means of our senses is simply a congeries of isolated and 
transient impressions. These isolated impressions, however, 
do not constitute real knowledge. Thought contributes 
from its own eternal nature a genuine factor to all expe- 
rience. And thus, according to the Idealist's fundamental 
contention, the world of our experience, the so-called ex- 
ternal or phenomenal world, has no existence apart from 
the mind that thinks about that world. The particular 
sciences are, therefore, only the systematic unraveling, as 
it were, of this process by which at the outset of experience 


the mind which transcends the evolutional series welds to- 
gether the detached mental phenomena that occur within 
that series. The notion of force, or physical cause, from 
which the materialistic scientist would unfold the world 
without the help of mind, is itself a creation of the mind. If 
we wish to avoid self-evident contradictions in our thinking, 
instead of looking for mind or psychic force as the ulti- 
mate product into which physical force is convertible, we 
must reverse the Evolutional mode of procedure. Instead 
of regarding mind as the product or later concomitant of 
physical force, we must view that physical force as itself 
something which is secondary or derived, i.e., as something 
which exists only for thought. 

There is no phenomenon in the world, say the radical 
Evolutionists, which does not require to be pushed back 
indefinitely into the past for its explanation. Certainly no 
characteristic of modern thought is more striking than the 
application of the historic method to every intellectual pur- 
suit. No other method has ever been rewarded with such 
significant, practical results. But we must be careful to 
observe that the pushing of a phenomenon back along the 
line of its historical antecedents is merely relative expla- 
nation. It is not the only kind of explanation which the 
mind demands. Let us for a moment subject the notion 
of causality to a closer examination. The scientist, inquir- 
ing for the why of a phenomenon, is satisfied, as scientist, 
when he learns the invariable antecedent of the thing or 
event in question. This invariable antecedent he designates 
the cause of the phenomenon under investigation. Then 
when he inquires for the why of this cause, he once more 
searches for and discovers another invariable antecedent. 
Thus the process of scientific explanation moves backward 
ad infinitum along a series of whys and their answers in 
antecedent phenomena. I say this is relative explanation, 
because the paradoxical thing about the answer is that the 
original question always lies concealed within the answer. 


Hereupon the philosopher insists that this kind of ex- 
planation does not at all satisfy that other urgent demand, 
the demand, namely, for an ultimate explanation. It is 
this demand which metaphysics attempts to meet. This is 
what is meant by the much derided assertion that meta- 
physics is the search for final truths, for thoughts that 
transcend and explain evolution of mind in time. 

This demand for an ultimate explanation is one of my 
thoughts. How can this thought, call it a mental phenom- 
enon, if you please, namely, this desire for finality of expla- 
nation, be accounted for on the evolutional hypothesis? The 
evolutionist has shown with remarkable ingenuity how many 
of our mental states are subject to the law of development — 
how they have come to be what they are in obedience to 
the law of the struggle for existence and the survival of 
the most useful. But of what use in the struggle for ex- 
istence is this peculiar thought of mine, the thought that 
goes out in search of ultimate explanation? Some Evolu- 
tionists are ready with an answer. They say this is merely 
a case of an accidental variation away from the useful type. 
Like all other non-useful facts in the evolutional series, 
these will disappear in time. This desire for an ultimate 
explanation is, however, too persistent to be explained in 
this way. Metaphysicians are not mere sports. 

To return to my main contention, the philosopher de- 
clares that the series of causes and effects is incapable of 
explaining itself as a whole. The tracing of origins back 
along the evolutional series, and the determination of the 
non-temporal why of that series in its totality are two en- 
tirely different pursuits. In the causal series which the 
evolutionist studies, the earlier facts do give the later ones 
their practical significance so far as that series is concerned. 
The earlier members in the chain of efficient causes are the 
indices of the later members. But this reduction of the 
later facts into the earlier, even if we continue it back from 
man to star-dust, can never yield us an explanation of the 


process as a process. Evolution cannot explain evolution, 
is the concise form in which we may always put this criti- 
cism of the scientific attempt to raise the concept of efficient 
causality to the rank of an ultimate category, and to make 
mind in its entirety a resultant of this principle of efficient 
causality. The attempt which the materialistic scientists 
have made to constitute the principle of evolution a self- 
sufficing principle of explanation of its own processes, and 
the products of that process in their totality, is a most strik- 
ing instance of the simple logical fallacy of reasoning in a 

The uncritical scientist of today objects to the assertion 
that philosophy penetrates beyond science, and actually 
transcends its results. The unreflecting public supports 
him in his objection. The scientist's vehement resistance to 
the philosopher's contention here rests upon an entire mis- 
understanding of the expression "penetrate beyond," or 
"transcend the results of science." As soon as the scientist 
hears that statement, he invariably refuses to go farther in 
the discussion. "Do you mean to say," he asks the phil- 
osopher, " that you can go back with us along this evolutional 
series of mental states, which we have so successfully con- 
catenated from the mind of man to the lowest manifesta- 
tions of consciousness, then when you reach those dim be- 
ginnings of mind, where we are as yet baffled in our at- 
tempts to go further back, even with all the refinemicnts of 
our scientific equipments, — do you mean to say that you can 
there taken the problem out of our psychological laborato- 
ries, and sit down with it in the carpeted rooms of your phil- 
osophic halls, and "penetrate beyond" our results? This 
is a most presumptuous boast. It is claim to superhuman 
insight, founded upon extraordinary cunning and subtle 
rhetoric. ' ' But observe, now, that by the phrase ' ' penetrate 
beyond," the philosopher does not mean farther backward 
or forward in time, but outside of or above time. The 
thought is a perfectly definite one that has received many 


irresistible expositions in the history of philosophy, and has 
become one of its elementary tenets. But the means of ex- 
pressinsT this conception of a transcendin<r mind, must al- 
ways be inadequate from the very limitations of our vocab- 
ulary. The words that we must employ when we talk about 
mind in its non-phenomenal phase, were themselves fash- 
ioned in time to describe temporal relations, and are there- 
fore vei*y imperfect tools when we use them to describe con- 
ceptions that transcend time. 

The scientist searches for the origin of mind, the phil- 
osopher inquires into the meaning of origin, — into the con- 
ditions of the possibility of any beginning whatever in time. 
Therefore when the philosopher affirms that his province 
goes beyond the results of scientific investigation into the 
origin of mind, he implies that his problem is the inquiry 
into the ground or ultimate meaning of any beginning in 
time. We observe then, that the metaphysician's question 
lies in an entirely different dimension of thought from that 
of the scientist. The mathematical conception of dimension 
has a deeper significance here than a mere analogJ^ Our 
complete human thought functions in two dimensions. If 
the course of scientific investigation were represented by a 
horizontal straight line, the path of philosophic inquiry 
would be indicated by a line drawn at right angles to the 
first line. The relation of philosophy to science, of mind in 
evolution to mind above evolution, is not one that can be rep- 
resented by two parallel lines running peacefully side by 
side, but the harmony that exists between the two must be 
read from out the very heart of the antithetical relations 
sjTubolized by perpendicular lines. 

Let me further illustrate this distinction between mind 
w^hich is in time, the product of evolution, and the object of 
psychologist's study, and the supra-temporal mind which 
the philosopher searches for. Let us go back to a most sim- 
ple ancient instance of the distinction between science and 
philosophy. Primitive man, looking out upon his world, 


was impelled to the question : How is it supported ? He 
answered this question by the myth that the earth is held 
up by the giant Atlas. But presentl}^ the primitive scien- 
tist saw that this did not satisfactorily answer his first ques- 
tion, because now a second query arose, what supports At- 
las? To this question the answer w^as next given, Atlas 
stands on the back of a tortoise. This answer again gave 
momentary satisfaction to the scientific impulse. But it 
was only momentary, for the original question once more 
broke out, what holds up the tortoise ? And so the familiar 
myth slowly grew. Now at this juncture, the primitive 
philosopher said to the primitive scientist, ' ' I can penetrate 
beyond your thinking here. By this I do not mean that I 
can pass back along your causal series, and find another of 
the same kind just a little further back than you have gone. 
I reflect upon your thinking, in the literal sense of the word 
reflect. I propose to bend off at right angles to this causal 
series of yours, and enter a new dimension of thought, where 
I can view your thinking in its entirety, and show you the 
paradox that lies in your very conception of sustentation. 
There is a fundamental contradiction in the notion of cause 
with which you are here dealing, when you attempt to give 
it any finality. You are asking a question about the world 
of your sense experience. Then you answer it by means of 
a conception, that while answering, also reinstates your 
primary question. This of course, for the ultimate aspect 
of your problem is just as good as no answer at all. ' ' 

Philosophy insists that there is in the universe of thought 
an accessible, stable point of view, from which it becomes 
possible to see the real wherefore or ground of all that long 
lower, relative series of whys. It says that it can actually 
stop this endless fission — this perpetual breaking out of the 
original question. The ultimate why, the necessary and suf- 
ficient cause, in short the non-phenomenal or eternal mind, 
is not to be reached by reading one's way backward through 
this regressus of temporal whys. The battle cry of science 


ever since the proinulG^ation of the evolutional doctrines of 
Darwin and Spencer has been: "On throuc;h nature to the 
eternal mind," but critical philosophy declares more and 
more pei*sistently that there is no thoroughfare through 
science to absolute reality. 

We go astray when we attempt to reach the non-phenom- 
enal mind, by thought of one dimension, by means of prin- 
ciples, or axioms that upon a crucial examination reveal 
their relativity by revealing contradictions. The straight 
path of science leads neither backward nor forward to cer- 
taint,y. Plato pointed this out over two thousand years ago, 
and the essence of his doctrine of the relation between the 
phenomenal and the non-phenomenal mind is just as true 
now as it was in all the centuries of pre-Darwinian thinking. 
In our anxiety to get proofs of the non-phenomenal, the eter- 
nal mind, we look in the wrong direction. We gaze eagerly 
into the future and shout our solicitous cries into its un- 
answering darkness. It is more nearly the truth to say 
that we should turn about and look into the past. There 
we can prove that the mind pre-existed, to speak metaphor- 
ically, that is, had an existence logically prior to its experi- 
ences in time. We must be careful to observe that in search- 
ing for the pre-existing mind, the philosopher does not move 
backward along the temporal series, he moves off, in the 
language of mathematics, at right angles to the phenomenal 
world, into a second dimension of thought. Emerson has 
helped somewhat to make plain this wonderful Platonic in- 
sight, by substituting for the world pre-existent, the word 
over-existent. But both words fail to express the thought 
adequately. The entire doctrine rests upon the profound 
insight that Mind can enter a timeless world, — that it does 
have ideas which are not derived from sense experience, but 
which are the condition of all experience in time, and are 
therefore evidence of the mind's eternal nature. 

Necessary truths cannot be found in time. The tem- 
poral series alone without any transcendental criterion 


yields us knowledge of which w^e may say that it was, is and 
may he true. The future is always problematic. Necessity 
requires that w^e be able to say of any item of knowledge, 
that it was, is and ivill be or inust be. Such certitude in all 
three tenses can only be secured from a timeless viewpoint. 
Now we do make necessary judgments, therefore we have 
access to a timeless world. It is beside the point to meet 
this argument by saying that we have never reached neces- 
sity, — that we merely know what it would be like if we ever 
did find it. It is begging the question to say that we have 
never found necessary truths, and at the same time admit 
that we have a criterion by means of which we can assess 
them, when they are found. 

And yet, the scientist will continue to ask what seems a 
very pertinent question. Just wherein lies the insufficiency 
of what you have called the one dimensional or scientific in- 
sight? If there are any crooks in this apparently straight 
path of one dimensional thought, it must be possible to point 
them out. Now these crooks can be pointed out plainly 
enough, but as I have already indicated, not so that they 
can be seen clearly from that one-dimensional path itself. 
Dwight Way has a bend in it, but one is scarcely conscious of 
the fact as one walks up and down the street itself. How- 
ever if one climbs to the top of the neighboring hills, that 
bend becomes a most conspicuous feature of the panorama 
of Berkeley that one looks down upon. The path along 
which as scientists we track the mental phenomena has its 
breaks, but as mere scientists we do not see and cannot see 
them. There are real gaps in the psychologist's evolving 
series of mental phenomena, which the unaided logic of 
science cannot bridge. 

It is true indeed that when we are engaged in the scien- 
tific business of describing and classifying the facts in the 
world of appearances, we are not concerned with the logical 
discreteness in the series of conscious states that moves in 
an apparent continuity from the mind of an earthworm to 


the mind of Shakespeare. The biologist tells us that he can 
actually see the lower forms of life pass into the higher, and 
the same the psychologist says is true of his psychic series. 
Development, growth, evolution, is a matter of direct ob- 
servation. The earlier members anywhere in the evolution- 
al series, may be taken as the complete index of the later. 
The poetic evolutionist keeps informing us that under the 
ugly, hairy rings of the caterpillar, there lie, all folded up, 
and out of sight, the beautiful wings of the butterfly. Or 
again, if we could see far enough into the structure of the 
acorn, the future oak would be revealed to us. And pass- 
ing into the region of mental phenomena and reading the 
series in the reverse direction, we are told that all of our 
vaunted logical, ethical and aesthetical judgments are 
grounded in the ignoble principle of utility. Some scien- 
tists have been so hypnotized by the massive formula of 
evolution, that they are not aware of the profound fallacy 
that lurks in every such statement. It is not true, as these 
writers are fond of telling us, that if we had an exhaustive 
knowledge of the primitive state of the universe, in some 
general formula, in which we could describe it, we could 
deduce the entire present constitution of the world even to 
the smallest detail. There is a deep-lying discontinuity in 
the biologist's account of the evolution of life, and of the 
psychologist 's account of the evolution of mind. In order to 
have exhaustive knowledge of the antecedent which we call 
a cause, that is, in order to have truly explanatory knowl- 
edge, we must also know all that has come after the cause as 
effect. In the relation of cause and effect, the causes are 
not, and cannot be known (that is not completely known) 
except in so far as they manifest themselves in their effects. 
The evolutional method cannot derive a consequent from an 
antecedent in the sense of reducing it all to what has gone 
before. Every later member of the series has a unique 
quality that is irresolvable and underived. It is the de- 
rivative aspect of the phenomenon with which the scientist 


as scientist is concerned. This he rightly insists can be 
found along the path of what I have called one dimensional 
thought. The discovery of the origin of anything, means 
nothing more than the tracing out of the antecedent condi- 
tions of its existence ; but that quality which in the experi- 
enced phenomena is unique, can be ultimately explained 
only along the line of what I have called two dimensional 
thoughts. At every turn in the wonderful drama of evolv- 
ing life, and after that evolving mind, something genuinely 
novel appears. In the inorganic world, water is water, with 
all its peculiar properties, even after oxygen and hydrogen 
are proved to be its antecedent conditions. The same is true 
of any phenomenon in the organic world or in the mental 
world. Now the statement of the indispensable conditions 
under which a given thing manifests itself in experience is 
not sufficient to account for this novelty, namely the unique 
underived properties of the thing. 

The analogy between the terms of an algebraic series, 
and the members of the evolutional series is more than a 
metaphor. The later terms in an algebraic series are not 
developed out of the earlier. The terms of the series viewed 
as mere terms are really disparate elements, they are logical- 
ly discontinuous, — each being the particular manifestation 
of the underlying law. 

The fundamental logical discontinuity in the evolutional 
series, a discontinuity which science must ever find inex- 
plicable, is beautifully illustrated in the biograph. The 
stereopticon throws the so-called moving pictures upon the 
screen so rapidly that one picture seems to grow out of the 
other, when in reality, one disappears and another appears, 
and there is no causal connection between any two pictures. 
Suppose that the stereopticon which projects the moving 
pictures were endowed with a kind of consciousness, and 
looked out upon the product of its projecting activity. It 
is conceivable that it might forget that the scene which it is 
contemplating is of its own creation. It might come to feel 


that the pictures on the screen had an entirely independent 
existence. That stereopticon consciousness — to continue the 
metaphor — might further be imagined to leave the stereopti- 
con and attempt to live in the series of moving pictures, 
endeavoring to find in the series itself the explanation of its 
own movement. That, of course, it could never do. It 
could never find one picture making or causing the next. 
The real continuity in the series of moving pictures is to be 
found in the stereopticon itself. 

Logical continuity cannot be reached by simply crowding 
the members of a discrete series closer and closer together. 
The mathematician long ago discovered this, in his failure 
to reach the geometric continuum by the way of the number 
series. You may take any two members of the series of 
whole numbers, one and two, and crowd in between them all 
the infinite series of rational fractions and you will not span 
the gap. You may go further and sprinkle in among these 
rational fractions all the irrational fractions, and still you 
have not made the gap between the two continuous. A 
series of affirmative predicates will no more give the un- 
broken continuity in mind than will a series of points give a 
straight line. The line is continuous, the series of points is 
discontinuous and falls far short of the true dignity of a 
line. Every evolutional scientific attempt to make the series 
of mental phenomena itself yield an explanation of its own 
causal movement, without reference to the mind that has 
constituted that series, is precisely like the attempt to read 
continuity out of the series of moving pictures without re- 
gard for the stereopticon. 

When the idealist declares that what science has to say 
about mind is not finally sufficient, he is not, of course, chal- 
lenging the theory of man 's physical descent. The scientific 
facts of evolution are everyAvhere admitted by philosophers. 
The objection is to the philosophy of evolution which some 
over-ambitious scientists have built up in connection with, 
and upon the science of evolution, as they claim by the 


legitimate extension of the principle of biological evolution 
to the realm of mind. The knowable world in which scien- 
tists find their mental phenomena, is confessedly a second- 
ary, a derived, a relative world. This being admitted, it 
behooves us to observe that any principle which we may dis- 
cover in this world of appearances, is a secondary, a derived, 
a relative principle. There are therefore fundamental ob- 
jections to our carrying these secondary or relative prin- 
ciples out of the world of appearances into the world of 
reality, and setting them up as constitutive principles of 
that supersensible Avorld. Such thinking involves irrecon- 
cilable contradictions. The majestic law of causation is the 
fundamental principle from which the science of evolution 
sets out, and in the world of phenomena that principle has 
unquestionably valid application. But when we attempt to 
rise from the phenomenal to the noumenal mind, by means 
of the principle of efficient causation, we are landed in a 
mass of bewildering difficulties, some of which I have al- 
ready indicated. That which contains contradictions cer- 
tainly cannot be an element of reality. 

Kant long ago pointed out the contradiction involved in 
the notion of causality in his classic antinomies of reason. 
By one and the same dialectic he was able to prove that the 
world has a cause and that it does not have a cause. Our 
common sense notion of cause cannot be ultimate truth, says 
Kant, for ultimate truth will tolerate no such inconsistencv. 
It was this insight into the nature of cause that led Kant to 
his immortal discovery, that the principle of causation is an 
a priori principle of our thinking. It is not a principle that 
exists among the facts of the objective world independent of 
thought ; it is a principle which the mind puts upon things 
as the a priori condition of the possibility of experience. 
This is all, of course, an old story, but we are in the greatest 
danger of losing sight of this fundamental truth in our con- 
templation of the well-nigh revolutionary achievements of 
modern science. The stereopticon, if it could look out upon 


its own pictures, would find continuity among them, because 
it puts it there. So do we find law, order and sanity in the 
external world, because we put them there. 

Therefore, I repeat, if we wish to avoid plain contradic- 
tious in our tliinkingr about the ultimate problem here in- 
volved, instead of looking for mind, as the final product into 
which physical force is convertible, we must reverse the 
scientific mode of procedure, we must regard psychic force, 
or mind, not as the product or later concomitant of physical 
force, but we must view that physical force as itself some- 
thing which is secondary or derived, i.e., as something which 
exists only for thought. We must translate evolution in 
time into a thought process that transcends time. The con- 
cept of origin gets its meaning from the concept of efficient 
causality. The concept of efficient causality is a category 
of the mind, one of its priceless innate possessions. Hence, 
from the viewpoint of philosophy, the question about the 
origin of mind resolves itself into a question about thought 
and the power of thought. 

That philosophical doctrine, which for centuries has been 
knoAvn as Idealism — the essential theory of Plato, Berkeley, 
Kant, Hegel and many of the foremost thinkers in the pres- 
ent generation of philosophers — requires us to surrender 
some of our most cherished convictions. It demands that 
we cease to think of the objective world, wherein we see the 
evolution of mental phenomena, as existing in and for itself. 
It declares that it is an illusion to think that there is a world 
of external objects, on the one hand, existing in a completely 
isolated and transcendental reality, with an equally isolated 
world of thinkers on the other hand. 

This primarj^ postulate of every idealistic theory has al- 
ways appeared easy to refute. It seems necessary only to 
say : "Here is a stone. I kick it, and I have demonstrated 
the existence of a physical object independent of me." But 
as has been pointed out, many times over, this argument 
with which Dr. Johnson attempted to refute the Idealism 


of Berkeley, really does not come in sight of Berkeley's 
wonderfully subtle position. It is not easy to expose the 
fallacy of this oft repeated argument against idealism, in 
all of its naked absurdity, for it appeals to feelings that are 
as old as the history of the race. Its chief power to con- 
vince lies in the fact that it seems to be in such complete 
accord with common sense. 

The most noted teachers of philosophy in the foremost 
universities in the world are still declaring in no uncertain 
language, in full view of all that science has said, that the 
ordinary scientific refutation of idealism and the realistic 
arguments for the existence of a world of matter out of 
which mind in its entirety evolves, are so untenable, and in 
iact so trivial, as no longer to deserve our serious attention. 

We see then that the whole fabric of the science of mind 
rests upon an idea, a category which is indeed not just 
foisted upon nature, but perceived in nature, namely the 
idea of necessary causation. An idea which I affirm once 
more, mere sensible experience could never give us. So 
from whatever point of view we approach our problem we 
are continually returning to one of the commonplaces of 
philosophy — to the doctrine that our total human nature 
cannot be evolved out of the forces and material energies of 
the world, because in order to any knowledge of these ener- 
gies — ^\'es in order to their very existence, if existence is to 
have a meaning free from contradictions, mind, which comes 
last in the evolutional series, is already presupposed, and 
therefore transcends that series. 



Alexis F. Lange. 

Assembled and met tog:ether in the capital city of a state 
whose teachers and citizens we are, it should be easy for 
every one of us to make-believe, for the time being, that we 
are in session as this state's delegates and representatives, 
chosen for a purpose akin to that which brought together, in 
1787, the fathers of our national constitution, a purpose 
capable of being stated much as they stated theirs : to form 
a more perfect union — of educational effort; establish jus- 
tice — as to educational opportunities ; insure domestic tran- 
quillity — for the parts and the whole of the state's educa- 
tional institutions; provide for the common defense — 
against all enemies of the child citizen ; promote the general 
welfare — by increasing the human wealth of the next gen- 
eration, and so perpetuate and multiply the blessings of an 
advancing democracy. This invitation to make-believe need 
not lead to the riotous thought of ourselves as educational 
Washingtons, Franklins, Hamiltons, and Madisons, or of 
our session as the adjourned meetings of that destiny-shap- 
ing convention of four generations ago. Its intent is mere- 
ly to bring home to our minds anew the well-worn truth that 
our educational endeavor must express the faith by which 
we live as Californians and Americans, a faith apparently 

* An address delivered at the meeting of the Northern California 
Teachers' Association, Sacramento, October 24, 1907. 


destined to make Democracy the secular church universal 
of humanity, and that the school system of a democratic 
commonwealth must bear the image of that commonwealth, 
breathe its purest spirit, minister to all the wants education 
can fill, assure, if possible, abundance of self -directed, mas- 
terful community life for generation upon generation. 

Imagine then, if you will, that we are here as expert 
citizens, each explicitly charged with a twofold duty, that of 
protecting each separate educational interest, — as each dele- 
gate to the Constitutional Convention was charged with the 
duty of protecting his state, — and that of steadfastly seek- 
ing a union, one and inseparable, of the parts of our school 
system, in order that this may act ever more fully, ever 
more certainly, as a vital organ of our body politic. Let 
us suppose, further, that this is merely the opening meeting 
of many, that it has seemed best to go into committee of the 
whole, to ''talk things over," and that the first speaker is 
on the point, not of starting a debate, but of presenting 
gropingly such preliminary thoughts as he happens to have 
by him now on the common task and its execution. 

The first of these thoughts, an old mutual friend, is this : 
Every child citizen is heir apparent to his country's civiliza- 
tion, and as such has an inalienable right to opportunities 
that will enable him, according to the measure of his powers, 
to have and to hold and to augment his heritage. The 
child's Bill of Rights includes the right to all that is known 
or knowable ; to the appreciation of art at its best ; to law 
and order and other institutional achievements in their high- 
est form ; to the noblest character as yet wrought out, and 
to the discipline incident thereto, yea, even spanking, — at 
critical moments. It embraces also, as deepening insight re- 
veals, the right of being fitted for a specific share in the 
world's work. The humorist's division of mankind into 
beggars, thieves, and workers, sports on the bedrock of truth 
everlasting. It is the child's inalienable right to grow up 
not a parasite but a producer, a worker. 


But the child is father to the man, and by the time chil- 
dish things are being put away rights have turned duties, 
duties towards self and fellow man. "I am the State," 
said the French despot. "We are the State," say the adult 
members of a democracy, "but only today; our children will 
be the State tomorrow. It becomes our duty, therefore, in 
the interest of each and all, present and future, to see to it 
that our children are not defrauded of their birthright, the 
right to know and do and be the best they are capable of. 
It becomes our duty not to commit social and political race 
suicide. If progress means anything, if the doing of better 
things in better ways means anything, if the faith of Democ- 
racy in man means anything, it is our duty to provide the 
means whereby our children may outstrip and rise above 
us, whereby we shall become antiquated, but also realize the 
Beatitude of History : blessed be the antiquated — after they 
are gone — for they made the new." "Let there be schools, 
then," says Democracy, "of all, by all, for all. Let the 
saint contribute to their making, but despise not the sinner 
when he builds and endows them. Let them be as con- 
tinuous as growth is continuous and as far apart in degree 
as the limits of social service. Let them vary as social 
needs vary and capacities differ, provided all thrust out 
and keep out the devil of caste, to whose many-sided deviltry 
every school is equally welcome from kindergarten to uni- 
versity. Whatever their type or grade, let all schools pre- 
pare for making a living, provided such preparation springs 
out of preparation for life, the life of an American freeman 
and free man. Let each maintain the highest possible stan- 
dard of efficiency for teachers and taught, but so as to help 
the rest and not to hinder any, with the door of opportunity 
wide open to ability wedded to purpose. 

At this point in the speaker's discourse, a general up- 
rising of the other delegates makes him turn quickly from 
the implications of Democracy to their actual embodiments, 
from the school system an ideal to the school system as a 


fact, a historic growth. This he would describe, fantastical- 
ly enough, perhaps, as adolescent. Big for its age, it has 
not attained to full size. It is always hungry. It has grow- 
ing-pains in each of its three members, the grammar school, 
the high school, and the university, and, strange to relate, 
each has the puerile habit of suspecting the rest of "doing 
it on purpose." Its clothes don't fit anywhere, and where 
the university tailors have been at work, they pinch. Al- 
though on the way to optimistic self-control, it seems at 
times to meditate suicide by one of two methods, by cutting 
itself up alive into three separate corpses, or by each mem- 
ber taking turns in choking the life out of the other two. It 
has a superstitious veneration for the number four and firm- 
ly believes that boys and girls grow in isolated jumps of 
four years at a time. Sound at the core withal, wholesome, 
handsome even now and doing handsomely, its face instinc- 
tively set towards the true goal, — an adolescent school sys- 
tem to match an adolescent democracy, with similar unsolved 
problems of self-government before both. 

Turning to these problems, the speaker requests his fel- 
low delegates to glance with him at those that stand out be- 
tween materials and methods of teaching on the one hand, 
and the ways and means of equipment and administration 
on the other. They appear bunched together into three dis- 
tinct but inseparable groups. The first may fittingly be 
labeled Opportunity. In it is found the question of com- 
pulsory education, lest ignorance and greed kill the man and 
citizen in the child and let only the brute or the factory 
"hand" survive. It includes the task of giving the city 
child a chance to become and keep sane in God's out-of- 
doors, and the country child, even unto the remotest moun- 
tain district, a chance to attend a well-equipped, well-taught 
graded school. Of the same piece, but nearer solution, is 
the problem of placing high schools within the reach of rich 
and poor alike, throughout the length and breadth of the 
State. To bring the university within walking distance of 


every doorstep will probably never be possible^ but all honor 
to Senator Caminetti, who made it possible last year to ex- 
tend educational opportunities by adding a top-story of two 
years to the four-year high school. Here is a new aspect of 
the question of extension, and one that, like all of its other 
aspects, involves one of the chief present day problems of 
Democracy, namely : how far can the whole people safely go 
in giving special assistance, now here, now there, in the in- 
terest of all. without fostering individual and communal 
mendicancy instead of those qualities which have been and 
are the just pride of America among the nations, energetic 
individual and communal initiative and self-help. 

But opportunities may be created also by removing bar- 
riers. ]\Iost of them are accidents of history, but suffering 
due to accidents can be alleviated. May not, must not, for 
instance, the paths leading to university opportunities be in- 
creased in number or else the straight and narrow old paths 
widened, so that more can march abreast? Or turn from 
the pupil to the teacher. One test of Democracy, according 
to Lowell, is, whether every one has a chance and knows 
that he has it. Has the teacher this chance? To discuss 
only one phase of this query, should we build up a demo- 
cratic system for pupils alone and not also for the training 
of their teachers ? No sympathy, it is true, need be wasted 
on the undemocratic attitude that the commonwealth owes 
any one a position on salary because a trousseau may be 
needed. Stern suppression is in order for the teacher who 
wants to get something for nothing, or claims a maximum of 
position in return for a minimum of equipment. The high- 
est possible requirements must be maintained for each main 
type and stage of education, else what is education for? 
But this being granted, — a career for every talent willing 
to pay for value received. It makes a vast difference to a 
would-be tenant and his attitude towards the terms of the 
lease whether he is to live in one room with no way out or 
up, or in a house of many mansions with connecting corri- 


dors, and an elevator in running order. Down, therefore, 
in the first place, with the last needless fence between Nor- 
mal School and University, and in its place such co-opera- 
tion with respect to terms of admission and equivalents of 
courses and standards that the first choice of the would-be 
teacher need never be the last, that a university student may 
reverse his first decision and go to a normal school, without 
having to sell all he has in the way of time in order to follow 
his real bent, and that a graduate of a normal school may 
with a minimum extra cost in youth and coin fit himself at a 
university for work beyond the grammar grades, and so look 
forward to being both called and chosen for the station he 
has it in him to fill. 

But the elevator must not stop at a high school principal- 
ship of the present type. That it does so now is another 
accident of history that we need not suffer from forever. 
The frank recognition of the fact — it is a fact — that the 
difference between the first two years of college and the 
high school is one of degree only and has never been any- 
thing else, implies the remedy. The first step would be for 
the university to reduce its "swollen fortunes" in freshmen 
and sophomores by actively promoting their distribution 
among federated colleges, normal schools, and the six-year 
high schools that are to be and will be. The second would 
be to give to these grades in and without the university 
teachers specially prepared for and experienced in second- 
ary education, and to make the position of such teachers a 
worthy goal, inclusive of salary, of legitimate ambition and 
initiative. And even this goal need not be final. If every 
teacher regardless of starting-point, or sex, or previous con- 
dition of servitude, could have an educational bishopric in 
prospect, even the best would not turn insurance and real 
estate agents or enter into defensive and offensive entang- 
ling alliances with men and things against old age. As for 
the university, — a number of its most vexing problems 
would pass out of existence. These new professors of its 


freslmien and soplioinore classes would surely be personam 
gratissimac as ambassadors to the high schools, or itinerant 
secretaries of peace; the university's research function 
would not be threatened as now with atrophy on account of 
the hypertrophy of its high school function : it Avould starve 
its young instructors in only one way, instead of two, as 
now, by setting them chiefly to Junior, Senior, and Graduate 
work, work which they have learned to do and by Avhich 
they could thrive in achievements as scholars and research 
teachers; it would not then lack men who know how to 
satisfy the cultural needs of all its students and of the public 
at large ; it would then always have teachers as well as schol- 
ars, distributors of the gold of knowledge as well as the 
makers of trails to gold-bearing ledges and more or less sub- 
terranean miners. 

Closely related to these problems of opportunity are 
those of Variety. They are boiling and bubbling in two pots 
over the same fire. Tilting the lid of one, you behold such 
questions as : Shall pupils of the seventh and eighth grades 
continue to be taught the same subjects in the same way 
without regard to the budding of individual aptitudes and 
powers? Does the answer lie in the grouping of optional 
studies about a reduced common center, and in teaching all 
of them with the forward look ? How far can high schools 
and universities go in allowing students to choose their own 
courses without committing the unpardonable double-headed 
sin of letting the individual sell his birthright to large por- 
tions of his heritage for a mess of pottage, and of disintegrat- 
ing society by turning out mutually repellent human atoms 
of specialists? Peeping into the other pot, you see the 
bulging and worrying need of a school system which shall 
epitomize not only the past life but also the present life of a 
democratic commonwealth, and which shall contribute more 
completely and more directly than ever before to efficiency 
and progress in agriculture, in the mechanical arts, and in 
commerce. But of what sort shall vocational schools be, 


educational institutions or C. O. D. factories? Is it or is it 
not criminal malpractice to assist in arraying class against 
class by taking any group of children far away from the 
rest and training them for an assumed walk in life among 
a people whose foundation principle does not admit of an 
artificially predetermined social status? Is a truer solution 
of this problem of Democracy a system of work-centered or 
vocational departments radiating everywhere from man- 
centered or cultural departments, and remaining connected 
with them through such teaching of all studies that each 
results in some form not merely of impression but also of 
expression, in some type of skill that has a social value, some 
kind of ability "to do things"? 

And another problem of Democracy bubbles up at this 
point. It is the problem of the square deal between majori- 
ties and minorities. In consequence of well-known histori- 
cal causes, colleges and universities have stood, and in too 
large measure still stand, for the rights and needs of a 
picked minority, in the honest conviction, usually, that in 
so doing they would best serve the interests of all. This 
conservative, or, if you will, oligarchical view has its coun- 
terpart in a no less oligarchical and hence undemocratic 
view, according to which a high school is the college of the 
people, the term people being used not to denote the whole 
people but a local temporary majority, — often, in fact, the 
one man in control of the school board. According to this 
view, those who have the offensively aristocratic notion of 
going to a university later on don't belong to the people. 
They may seek their training in private schools, or else take 
what's left. What matters it if their best avenues to their 
future best services to the commonwealth are closed to them ? 
The same offense, this, against the principle of the square 
deal, or is it not true that a high school in which, for ex- 
ample, the Roman-minded, as President Jordan calls them, 
are deprived of the chance to study Latin is less a people's 
college than one that offers the chance? The higher and 


broader truth must be sought, it is obvious, not in exclusion 
but in inclusion and in the substitution of patriotic co-opera- 
tion for archaic educational pro^-incialism wherever found. 
Fortunately, this vexed question of the relation of the short- 
er to the lontrer preparation of American life is only partly 
one of curriculum. In as far as it is such, a common core 
of studies within a wide range of options will clear "a way 
out." More fortunately still, teaching processes and meth- 
ods are not necessarily involved at all. Bo\'s and girls who 
are planning to enter a university do not require a psychol- 
ogy^ of adolescence of their own, although there may be some 
pedagogues yet, encumbering the earth, who have not dis- 
covered this fact, and hence think that preparation for col- 
lege demands a type of instruction dubbed scholastic, and 
correctly enough, — in the mediaeval sense. Scholastic teach- 
ing is as fatal to boys and girls headed for college as to their 
comrades headed in other directions. 

Here there comes into the foreground of our view the 
third group of problems, those of Unity. As an organ of a 
complex democracy, our school system with all its corre- 
sponding complexity must still needs be one system for one 
unstratified people. It must minimize, not increase, the in- 
evitable dangers of social cleavage. It must add to, not 
take away from, the unity of national life. Other things 
being equal, the surest guarantee of living together in the 
bonds of peace is the co-education of all sorts and conditions 
of pupils, and the longer they can be kept together the bet- 
ter for them and the general welfare when their turn comes 
to constitute the people, the state. It follows that no part 
of the school system can live unto itself, and any attempt at 
secession, no matter how well-meant, may easily come to 
spell treason. On the other hand, the unity of our arrange- 
ments for elementary, secondary, and university education 
cannot be the unity that results when a sturdy cannibal hap- 
pens upon a meek and mild missionary. In at least one 
sense there should be neither head nor tail to our school sys- 


tern. Each of these chief divisions has its own self -directed 
life to live, its own special functions to perform ; each must 
minister, to the fullest extent possible, to the well-being of 
the whole. Our school system is thus seen to be highly orth- 
odox trinitarian, each part co-ordinate with the other two, 
each part at one with the others as to indwelling purpose, — 
that of advancing the nation of tomorrow on the way to a 
full grown democracy by assisting our boys and girls, who 
will soon be the nation of tomorrow, to attain each to his or 
her full stature as a socially efficient personality; or more 
simply, the purpose of preparing for American life in its 
individual and social aspects, such preparation to include 
the development of an enlightened patriotism as a principle 
of daily thought and action, for no American man or w^oman 
can be said to be truly educated who does not know and 
practice the faith by which we live as a nation and through 
which w^e must work out our human destiny. 

Now, it would probably be too much to say that each of 
the three members of the one institutional body had reached 
this view of itself as an organic part of the whole. The 
period of State's Rights mischief has not been outgrown 
yet. But can we not safely assert, for California, at least, 
the existence of a growing conviction that grammar schools, 
and high schools, and university, are each to realize a por- 
tion of the same swarm of purposes, each of which clings 
to its neighbors, and all to the queen bee purpose of Ameri- 
can education? At this point we are not far from coming 
of age, although the correlation of purposes may well oc- 
cupy many a teachers' convention yet, and lead to many a 
collision of heads in the dark. 

But a growing consciousness of federal unity and the 
call to shape the school system in accordance with it are 
Siamese twins. Whence the question : how can we make a 
thing as mechanically rigid as our educational pyramid with 
its four-year blocks on an eight-year base function as an 
organic unit and thus respond to each type and degree of 


need and Jirowth, individual and social? To move estab- 
lished boundary lines seems neither possible, nor necessary, 
nor desirable. "What seems desirable and possible and 
necessary is for the spirit of co-operation to combine the 
changes and adaptations that are going on at random into 
one deliberate movement towards better articulation and 
greater flexibility. If it be true, that where there's a will 
there's a way, one phase of this movement would consist in 
so directing the efforts to enrich and vitalize the upper 
grammar grades as to meet the needs of the whole of our 
American young people, of those who must enter the school 
of life directly, of those who will enter it less directly, by 
way of a vocational school, and of those who will enter it 
least directly by way of the high school, the earlier grades 
of which would, of course, undergo corresponding modifica- 
tions, among them the extirpation, root and branch, of 
pseudo-univer.sity methods. Another phase of the move- 
ment would consist in the slight changes necessary to make 
the middle of the four-year high school likewise both start- 
ing-point and stopping-place, according to capacity, apti- 
tude, and vocational plans for exigencies. A third phase 
of the same movement would consist in consciously and help- 
fully planning the training of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
grades of our school system not so much with reference to 
W'hat is to follow as with reference to what went before, in 
order that here as elsewhere within the school system organic 
unity in variety may be secured in spite of the mechanical 
limits set by tradition, in order that here as elsewhere the 
whole pople may be served. 

An organic American system for American boys and 
girls ; an organic American system for the training and the 
careers of their teachers, — such would be the task before 
our make-believe convention, a task like that which con- 
fronted the framers of our national constitution, a task to 
be executed, as was theirs, through the co-operative think- 
ing, feeling, and willing on the part of each representative 


delegate. But after all, why make-believe? Is not this 
term really a misnomer? Is not each of us teachers im- 
plicitly commissioned by the whole State, as it is today, to 
act in behalf of the whole State, as it will be and should be 
tomorrow? Does not each of us know the commandment 
from the Sinai of Democracy: all for each and each for all, 
and also the prohibition that follows: thou shalt not bow 
down before the many-snouted demon of grammar school, 
high school, normal school, and university jealousy and 
partisanship? nor allow him to carry educational bills 
through the legislature, lest thou destroy rather than ful- 
fill ? Must not each of us realize ever more clearly that an 
organic American system for teachers and taught can come 
about only through our common thinking, feeling, willing, 
that is, through our enlightened public opinion and public 
spirit as expert citizens, through our becoming an organic 
unit ? 

By this route, too, and as fast as the view of the whole 
expands and public spirit takes possession of the heads and 
hearts and conduct of all of us, will come the profession of 
teaching and the professional spirit, born of our art and 
clear-eyed patriotism, will come a steadily growing host of 
citizen teachers who knowingly practice their art as co- 
workers, one with another, and all with God in His way with 
our beloved California and country. 



Albert H, Allen. 

With this issue begins the tenth volume of the University of 
California Chronicle. The first number appeared in February, 
1898. Beginning with this tenth volume, Dr. Benjamin P. Kurtz of 
the English department will have editorial direction of the Chronicle. 
To him should be addressed all contributions offered for publication. 
His University address is 25b North Hall. 

Correspondence concerning subscriptions and the like should be 
addressed as heretofore to the Manager of the University Press, 202 
California Hall. 


Appointments and Changes. 

At the November meeting of the Regents of the University the 
title of Professor Leroy Anderson, appointed at the October meeting, 
was changed to Professor of Agricultural Practice and Superintendent 
of Farm Schools, and his appointment made to date from January 1, 
1908, instead of November 1, 1907, as at first announced. 

Professor Anderson is a graduate of Cornell University, with the 
degree of B.S. in 1896. In 1902 he received his doctor's degree there, 
and in the same year became Director of the newly established Cali- 
fornia Polytechnic School at San Luis Obispo. From 1897 to 1900 he 
was assistant in dairy husbandry at Cornell University, and for the 
next two years was instructor in dairy husbandry at the University of 
California. As Professor of Agricultural Practice and Superintendent 
of Farm Schools, Dr. Anderson will have charge of the work carried 
on at the new University Farm at Da\as, Yolo County. 


Dr. Erich von Knaffl-Lenz, a graduate of the University of Graz, 
Austria, with the degree of Ph.D. and M.D., has been appointed As- 
sistant in Physiology. 

Mr. William F, Meyer, a graduate of Drake University, 1907, has 
been appointed Assistant in Astronomy at the Students' Observatory 
in Berkeley. 

D. E. Hoagland has been appointed Assistant in Agricultural 
Chemistry, in the place of Joseph K. Newfield '02, who declined the 
appointment made in October as Instructor in Agricultural Chemistry. 

Mr. Hoagland is a graduate of Stanford University, class of 1906, 
and since graduation has been Assistant in Chemistry there. 

C. B. Walker was appointed Assistant in Physics, and Eachael 
Corr Cereal Assistant in the Department of Agriculture. 

At the December meeting of the Eegents a two months' leave of 
absence was given to Professor Harry B. Torrey of the Department 
of Zoology. Professor Torrey has been in poor health, and this leave 
of absence enables him to take a sea-trip. He will also employ the 
opportunity to collect specimens of South Sea marine life for the 
University, returning at the end of January. 

Dr. Arthur S. King has resigned his position as Instructor in 
Physics to become Director of the Physical Laboratory at the Solar 
Observatory on Mt. Wilson, California. To fill the vacancy in the 
Physics department caused by Di. King's withdrawal, Mr. H. H. 
Brown has been appointed Student Assistant in Physics for the re- 
mainder of the academic year, and C. O. Lieberman helper in the 
Physics Laboratory. 

Professor John S. Marshall of the College of Dentistry has been 
ordered to report at Manila for professional duties for which he has 
been engaged by the War Department. To fill his place as Professor 
of Operative Dentistry the Eegents in November appointed Professor 
J. D. Hodgen, formerly Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy, while 
Dr. Guy S. Millberry has been appointed Instructor in Chemistry and 
Metallurgy in the dental faculty. 

The Eegents have authorized the Dean of the College of Medicine 
to establish a nurse's training course in connection with the University 
Hospital at the Affiliated Colleges. 

At the January meeting of the Eegents, Mr. Arthur Eugene 
Wright was appointed Instructor in Irrigation, Mr. M. E. Sherwin 
Assistant in Cereal Investigations, and Mr. F. L. Yeavs^ Assistant 


in Plant Pathology. Mr. Wright is a graduate of the University 
of California in December, 1907; Mr. Sherwin of the Missouri 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, December, 1907; and 
Mr. Yeaw of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 1904. 

Professor F. G. Cottrell was given leave of absence from Jan- 
uary 1 to June 30, 1908. To supply his place during that time, Dr. 
T. B. Eobertson of the Department of Physiology was advanced to 
the rank of Assistant Professor of Physical Chemistry from Jan- 
uary 1 to June 30, 1908, and given leave of absence for the same 
period as Instructor in Physiology. 

The Kegents at the January meeting also elected Dr. George 
Malcolm Stratton Professor of Psychology, appointment to take 
effect at the beginning of the next academic year. Professor 
Stratton has been Professor of Experimental Psychology and Director 
of the Psychological Laboratory in Johns Hopkins University since 
1904. He is a graduate of the University of California, .class of 
1888; took his master's degree at Yale in 1890, and his degree of 
doctor of philosophy at Leipzig in 1896. From 1896 to 1904 he was 
successively director of the psychological laboratory, assistant pro- 
fessor, and associate professor of psychology at this University. 


The King of Norway, through his ministers, has conferred upon 
Professor George Davidson the Cross of the first class of the Eoyal 
Order of St. Olav. This distinction is awarded only for valuable 
services rendered to Norway. 

Professor Charles Derleth, Jr., is the author of the portion dealing 
with structural matters of a collection of material dealing with the 
San Francisco earthquake, edited by President Jordan, of Stanford 
University, and published by A. M. Eobertson, San Francisco. . 

The latest information on the subject of earthquakes has been 
issued by the United States Geological Survey through its Bureau on 
Structural Materials. It is entitled ' ' The San Francisco Earthquake 
and Fire of April 18, 1906, and Their Effects on Structures and Struc- 
tural Materials." One of these reports, dealing especially with struc- 
tural problems, has been prepared by Professor Frank Soule, head of 
the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of California. 
Professor Soule 's article gives a critical review of earthquake and 
fire destruction to engineering and architectural structures and lays 
particular stress upon the lessons to be learned in San Francisco. His 


conclusions emphasize precautions to be taken in future design of 
buildings for cities to ensure them against earthquake weakness and 
to protect them from undue fire damage. 

During November President Wheeler attended the twelfth an- 
nual Institute of State Universities, held at Washington, D. C. 
During the session he read before the Institute a paper entitled 
The Development of Graduate Schools in State Universities. 

George F. Keinhardt, Professor of Hygiene, and Henry E. Hat- 
field, Associate Professor of Accounting, returned in January from 
a half-year's leave of absence. 


The Doe Library. 

The foundations for the new Doe Library building are rapidly 
nearing completion. Eain has so far interfered but little with the 
work. The ground plan covers an area of 220 by 265 feet. The con- 
crete piers upon which the structure will rest reach down to rock, in 
some eases a distance of almost thirty feet below the surface. Con- 
siderable blasting has been necessary at points where the rock strata 
lie too near the surface to allow of running the foundation walls at 
the required level. 

Fertilizer Control Laboratory. 

The Eegents have appropriated the sum of $7500.00 for the con- 
struction of an annex to the Agricultural Building, to be used as a 
laboratory for the work of fertilizer control. The fertilizer control 
is supported by a State law requiring the analysis and certification of 
all fertilizers offered for sale in California, and is under the direction 
of Mr. John S. Burd, '99. 


At the State Farmers' Institute held at Davis on the last days of 
October a committee was appointed to examine and report on the LTni- 
versity Farm. The committee reported as follows: 

We the undersigned committee appointed at the State Farmers' 
Institute to report on the following : ( 1 ) the eligibility of the location 
of the farm; (2) the suitability of the soil; (3) the possibilities of 
the school, report after viewing the entire farm that we most em- 
phatically approve of the location. It is easily reached from every 
direction and very centrally located — indeed, we consider it ideally 


Second — Wo find the soil a rich black loam to a depth of from 
seventeen to twenty-three feet, suitable to demonstrate all branches of 
agriculture, horticulture, viticulture and stock raising to a high degree 
of perfection; and the conditions for drainage admirable. The farm 
crops this year under the imperfect conditions are very encouraging 
to the management. A yield of forty bushels of wheat was received 
of a variety new to the State, and by better farming a yield of thirty- 
two bushels to the acre of the common White Australian wheat was 
made; and one hundred acres sown to barley produced 3,500 pounds 
to the acre. Twenty-eight acres of alfalfa produced at five cuttings 
nine and one-half tons of hay to the acre. 

Third — As regards the possibilities of the school we regard them 
as very great. It is located in the center of a very rich and well- 
developed agricultural section of the State, surrounded by an agricul- 
tural population that is rapidly increasing and is anxious for a high 
education on scientific agricultural lines. 

We find the work in charge of a very capable corps of instructors 
who are both earnest and enthusiastic in the work. 

Surrounded with these possibilities, we recommend that the State 
Legislature make sufficient appropriations from time to time, to make 
it the finest demonstration farm in the United States. 

^lost respectfully submitted by your committee: John Tuohy, Mrs. 
M. E. Sherman, B. F. Walton, H. P. Eakle, Jr., Mrs. F. T. Gage, Sec- 

The buildings already constructed on the Farm are, the creamery, 
the live-stock judging pavilion, and two cottages, for the superinten- 
dent and the foreman. Plans have been completed for the erection of 
a barn, a seed laboratory, and necessary shops. The installation of a 
sewer system and a water system will soon be undertaken. Later a 
dormitory for students resident at the farm will be arranged for. 

The creamery building is to include equipment now being installed 
for the manufacture of butter and cheese; also laboratories, class- 
rooms, and offices. The sewer system will include septic tanks, and 
will be used in experiments with sewage irrigation. The water system, 
to supply water for the creamery and for domestic purposes, vrill con- 
sist of a ten-inch well, surmounted by a 25,000 gallon tank at a height 
of 60 feet, giving adequate pressure for fire protection. The farm 
shops will include carpenter and blacksmith shops, and one for work 
with farm machinery. 

Of its scientific work the University has transferred to the farm 
the cereal investigations by Professor Shaw, hitherto conducted at 
Yuba City. Forty acres of the farm have so far been allotted to the 
propagation of cereals to be tested for their yield, analysis, conditions 
of growth, etc. The department of irrigation will continue at the 
farm the experiments begun in Modesto on ditch linings. Although no 
tests are being made during the rainy season, the test ditches with 
their various linings of stone, oil, clay, etc., will be ready in the spring 


for careful measurements to determine rate of seepage and other 

Some hundred acres have been made ready for irrigation, twenty- 
five acres of which will be used for irrigation experiment with alfalfa, 
corn, beets, etc., showing different irrigation methods. An additional 
area will be added in the spring. 

Twenty acres each have been allotted to orchard and vineyard, of 
which ten acres of each are now being prepared for planting. 

Of live-stock the farm has so far acquired only the necessary work 
animals, and a few brood mares. 

The Postmaster General has directed the change from Davisville 
to Davis of the postoffice at the town where the University Farm is 
situated. The railroad station has long been called Davis, while there 
was often confusion in mail matter between Davisville and Danville. 
The change will be a convenience to members of the University staff 
at the Farm and also to residents of Davis. 


One of the most notable addresses at the State Farmers' Institute 
at Davis was written by Samuel Fortier, Chief of Irrigation Investi- 
gations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, upon ' * What the Uni- 
versity Farm can do for Irrigation." In the absence of Mr. Fortier 
the address was read by Mr. J. E. Roadhouse of the University, who 
said in part: 

"What can such a farm do for irrigation? If properly equipped 
and managed, it will have a high educational value. The whole farm 
can be used to illustrate irrigation practice and particular tracts are 
now being set apart for the purpose of demonstrating standard meth- 
ods of preparing land and applying water. In addition to the graded 
fields, water channels, measuring devices and irrigation structures of 
the farm, the plan contemplates the erection in the near future of a 
commodious rural engineering building. Here will be installed the 
best appliances for the measurement and division of irrigation water 
known to irrigation engineers throughout the world; the installation 
and operation of a pumping plant and the storage of water in an 
elevated tank wiU give students an opportunity to learn how to operate 
and repair gasoline engines, while the stored water in an elevated tank 
wUl afford an excellent opportunity to study and observe the action of 
water under pressure as it passes through orifices and closed channels. 

This rural engineering building is to contain carpentry and black- 
smith shops, as weU as drafting rooms for the designs and drawings 
of ordinary farm structures, such as fence gates, bridges, headgates, 
sheds, barns, and dwellings. 


Another division of the rural engineering building is to be devoted 
to farm implements and farm machinery of the most approved types. 
Students will be taught how to erect, handle, repair and care for such 
machinery. They will also be required to study the good and bad 
features of each and to determine their relative efiiciency. 

Still another division of the engineering building is to be devoted 
to road-biulding, the making and laying of cement and concrete struc- 
tures and the application of crude oils to road and irrigation canal 

This brief outline conveys some idea of the scope and rural en- 
gineering and equipment necessary to give farmers' boys a practical 
knowledge of the subject. The name "rural" rather than "irriga- 
tion" engineering has been adopted for the reason that the farmer is 
broad enough to include all kinds of agricultural engineering and 
farm surveying. 

If a boy can be taught how to use surveying instruments, how 
to locate and build farm ditches and prepare land for irrigation, 
how to measure and divide water, how" to run a gasoline engine, how 
to build good roads, how to operate and care for farm machinery 
and how to design and erect ordinary structures, he has acquired 
much of the experience and skill necessary for the twentieth cen- 
tury California farmer. 

In concluding this brief outline permit me to state that the 
leading institutions of California have been slow to recognize the 
importance of irrigation. During the past quarter of a century the 
California Experiment Station has issued 190 bulletins on agricul- 
tural topics, but with the exception of analyzing soils and waters, 
only three treat of irrigation and one of these gives the results of 
experiments obtained in cooperation with the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. This is a true index of how the subject has been 
regarded by the agricultural leaders of the State. It is likewise 
an index of the percentage of the available funds which have been 
devoted to irrigation. 

To President Wheeler is due the credit of introducing a change 
of policy. Six years ago he established an irrigation department in 
connection with the University. This department during the past 
four years has increased from an attendance of 49 students to 202 
students. As has been stated, no other branch of the University 
has increased in numbers with anything like the same rapidity. 
This gratifying result has clearly demonstrated the demand for 
such training and the wisdom shown by the President in shaping 
the policy of the University to meet present requirements. For 
nearly five years the writer has devoted a part of his spare time 


to this department free of charge. It formed no part of his reg- 
ular duties in carrying on cooperative investigations between the 
State and the Federal government, but he felt that no work which 
he could do would prove of greater benefit to the State. 


The Forestry Station of the University at Santa Monica has been 
conducting some valuable experiments with eucalyptus wood. An Ex- 
periment Station Bulletin will soon be issued describing the California 
varieties of this tree and their distribution, and also the uses of eu- 
calyptus timber, which have been little exploited and are expected to 
prove of great economic value to the State. 

At the new Southern California Pathological Laboratory at Whit- 
tier the laboratory building was completed last September. The sta- 
tion devotes itself to the study of plant diseases. A bulletin on the 
brown rot in lemons has been issued. The walnut blight is now under 
investigation, and an effort being made to produce a resistant stock, 
this appearing to be the only way of avoiding the disease. 

At Riverside cultural experiments with citrus fruits are being 
made, including tests of various fertilizers, the adaptability of differ- 
ent varieties of citrus fruits, and the like. 


The Marine Biological Association of San Diego has recently pur- 
chased from the city of San Diego a tract of some 160 acres near La 
Jolla, for the uses of its biological laboratory. Upon securing this 
the Association surrendered the use of the land in La Jolla Park 
which the city of San Diego had granted for the uses of the station. 
For the time being, however, the laboratory will be continued upon its 
present site. 

The new tract affords a frontage of about half a mile upon the 
Pacific Ocean. At a suitable point on the shore a wharf will be built, 
and a new laboratory building with cottages will be erected. The 
Association already owns a vessel for collecting purposes, which has 
been named Alexander Agassis. 

The Marine Biological Association is an incorporation created for 
the purpose of maintaining a station for biological investigations at 
San Diego. The scientific direction of its work is in the hands of Pro- 
fessor W. E. Ritter, of the department of Zoology. When the station 
has been adequately equipped and its endowment completed, it will be 
turned over to the Regents as a department of the University. While 
the Regents are not at present in formal control of the property of 
the Association, they are consulted in an advisory capacity in matters 
connected with the endowment of the station. 



Since October last the Hubert Howe Bancroft Collection of the 
University of California, generally known as the Bancroft Library, 
has been in the care of the newly created Academy of Pacific Coast 
History. The organization and purposes of this Academy have already 
been described in the Chronicle. The collection, installed on the 
third floor of California Hall, is under the charge of Mr. Frederick 
J. Teggart as Curator, with Mr. Porter Garnett as Assistant Curator. 

A number of graduate students are collaborating in the work of 
classifying and segregating the manuscripts, printed books and news- 
papers, and in making calendars, or analyses, of the contents of im- 
portant manuscript collections. Miss Mabel Chubb, '07, Miss Louise 
F. Scott, '06, Mr. Nicholas A. Ricciardi, '07, and Mr. Gordon C. 
Davidson, Toronto, '06, are in particular engaged in this work, in con- 
nection with thesis work being done under the direction of Mr. J. R. 
Robertson, Fellow in History. In this way the Corondelet papers 
have been segregated and partly calendared, and also the collection of 
Larkin papers. Some of these calendars will be later prepared for 

The task of cataloguing the Bancroft collection will not be under- 
taken until the work of segregating, classifying and collating has been 
carried further. 


1905 Class Fund. 

The Class of 1905 in November deposited with the Acting Secre- 
tary of the Regents the sum of $500 as a Class Fund. At the request 
of the class this sum has been loaned to the Order of the Golden Bear 
for improvements in Senior Hall. The fund will perhaps eventually 
be given by the class to the Alumni Hall Fund. 

New Seismogkaphs for Lick Observatory. 

"William Randolph Hearst has given to the University $1200 to pro- 
vide the most recent forms of seismographs for the Lick Observatory. 
The present equipment of seismographic instruments at Mount Hamil- 
ton were up to date at the time of installation, but are now long since 
behind the times. Mr. Hearst's gift is especially for providing in- 
struments to record shocks whose sources are at some distance from 
Mount Hamilton. He has offered to place at the disposal of Director 


Campbell whatever sum is necessary to provide the equipment desired. 
Mr. Hearst was voted the thanks of the Eegents at their November 

The department of Palaeontology has received from Mr. F. L. 
Morris, a graduate -with the Class of 1900, a complete mammoth skull, 
and also the skull of an extinct bison, both from Alaska. The speci- 
mens are entirely unique, and are the best of any that have been 
brought from the far North. 


A unique acquisition has just been made by the Department of 
Anthropology of the University in the shape of the linguistic manu- 
scripts of the late P. S. Sparkman of Valley Center, San Diego County. 
Mr. Sparkman was an Englishman by birth, who had spent some twen- 
ty years in the southern part of the state. His business brought him 
into frequent contact with the Luiseno tribe of Mission Indians, be- 
sides leaving much spare time on his hands, of which he made use in 
a thorough study of the native language. This work became a labor 
of love, which he pursued with unremitting diligence. The result was 
an exhaustive Luiseno grammar and dictionary, which was not only 
completed but twice revised. Sparkman learned to know the language 
thoroughly, and very few studies of equal extent and thoroughness 
have ever been made of any American language. 

In May, Mr. Sparkman was one night called to the door of his 
house and instantly shot by an unknown person, from a motive which 
has never been discovered nor even imagined, as he was without 
enemies and robbery was not attempted. His manuscripts were in 
perfect shape at the time of his death, and by arrangement with his 
administrators have now passed into the permanent possession of the 
University. As soon as possible they will be published in the Uni- 
versity of California Publications in American Archaeology and Eth- 

Particular importance attaches to these studies in that the Luiseno 
language has been found to be related to that of the ancient Aztecs 
and a number of other tribes of Mexico and this country, and it is 
expected that a comparison of these idioms wiU throw light on the 
early movements, connections, and history of the native inhabitants 
of the continent. Besides the linguistic studies, the manuscripts in- 
clude an account of the mode of life and customs of the Luiseno In- 
dians which is of great ethnological value. 



The Fifth Weinstock Lecture. 

The fifth Barbara Weinstock Lecture on the Morals of Trade 
was delivered on the evening of Wednesday, November 20, by Mr. 
John Graham Brooks, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Mr. Brooks' 
subject was The Conflict between Private Monopolies and Good 

French Department Lectures. 

October 22. — Society Life at the Time of the Restoration. 

October 29. — Romantiques vs. Classiques, or the Battle of Hernani. 

November 12. — The Artists of the Restoration. 

November 19. — Louis Philippe, King of the Bourgeois. 

November 26.— The French Bourgeois from 1830 to 1848. 

December 3. — Fashionable Paris and Popular Paris at the time of 
Louis Philippe. 

December 10. — The French Workingman in the years preceding the 
Revolution of 1848. 

College of Commerce Lectures. 

October 21.— Professor H. Senger, 

October 28.— Professor Plehn. 

November 4. — Professor Lincoln Hutchinson. 

November 11. — Ben F. Wright, '97, Superintendent of Philip- 
pine Postal Savings Bank. 

November 18.— John Graham Brooks, of Cambridge, Mass. 

November 25. — J. C. Rowell, Librarian. 

December 2. — Mr. Anderson of the Bank of California. 

University Meetings. 

November 1. — The speakers were Rev. Willsie Martin, '00, Ezra 
Decoto, '00, Dr. Oscar N. Taylor, '94, and John R. Glascock, '65. 

November 15. — Professor Andrew C. Lawson and Mr. John Gra- 
ham Brooks of Cambridge, Mass. 

December 6.— Professor Henry Morse Stephens and William 
Dallam Armes. 

January 17, 1908.— Rev. Charles R. Brown, of Oakland. 


On the evening of Thursday, November 21, in California Hall, Mr. 
David G. Hogarth delivered a lecture under the auspices of the San 
Francisco Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. His 
subject was The Aegaean and Crete, and his lecture was illustrated 
by means of stereopticon views. 

Mr. Hogarth is at present director of the Cretan Exploration Fund, 
and was formerly director of the British School at Athens. A grad- 
uate and Fellow of Oxford, and successful director of explorations in 
Cyprus, Egypt and Asia Minor as well as in Crete, Mr. Hogarth is re- 
garded as an authority on the archaeology of the eastern Mediterran- 

The annual address for 1907 of the Phi Beta Kappa Society was 
delivered on the evening of Thursday, October 24, in Hearst Hall. 
The speaker was Professor William Carey Jones, and his subject 
Present Day Problems of Democracy. 

Professor Jones' address is published in full in this number of the 


The Uniyersitt Chorus. 

On the afternoon of Thursday, October 31, in the Greek Theatre, 
the University Chorus with the University Orchestra gave Liszt's 
"Thirteenth Psalm," under the direction of Professor Wolle. Mr. 
Frank Onslow, tenor, sang the solo part. The chorus numbered about 
two hundred voices, while the orchestra had been strengthened to 
seventy pieces for the occasion. 

The Milan Opera Company. 

Leoncavallo 's I Pagliaeci and an operatic concert were given by 
the members of the Milan Opera Company in the Greek Theatre on 
the evening of Saturday, November 16. The cast for I Pagliaeci and 
the concert programme were announced as follows : 

I Pagliacci. 

Nedda Signorina Lina Bertozzi 

Canio Chev. Francesco Signorini 

Tonio Signor Giuseppe Pimazzoni 

Silvio Signor Adolf o Pacini 

Beppe Signor Antonio Ballestri 

Chorus of Villagers. 


Concert Programme. 

Overture: "Mignon" Thomas 

Milan Opera Company Orchestra. 
Agide Jacchia, Conductor. 

' ' Credo ' ' from ' ' Otello ' ' Verdi 

Signor Arcangelli. 

Prison Scene from "Faust" Gounod 

Signorina Ferrabini, Signor ParoUa, Signor Lambardi. 

Mad Scene from ' ' Lucia ' ' Donizetti 

Signora Adelina Padovani. 

Aria: "La Calumnia" from "The Barber of Seville" Rossini 

Signor Paola Wulhnau. 

Violet Song from "L'Amico Fritz" Mascagni 

Signorina Ferrabini. 

Sextette from ' ' Lucia ' ' Donizetti 

Signora Padovani, Signorina Giana, Signor Parola, Signor Pacini, 
Signor Lambardi, Signor Ballestri. 

SotJSA's Band. 

The Greek Theatre was filled to its capacity on the evening of 
Wednesday, October 23, by an enthusiastic audience which gathered 
in spite of threatening weather to hear John Philip Sousa's famous 

The Half-Hour of Music. 

From October 20 to the end of the first half-year in December the 
regular Sunday afternoon concerts in the Greek Theatre, free to the 
public, have been given as follows: 

October 27. — Mrs. Walter Longbotham in a programme of old 
Irish and Scotch songs, accompanied by Mrs. George Perry, and Miss 
Edna Wilcox, pianist. 

November 3. — A programme by Aliss Adela Verne, pianist. 

November 10. — A programme by Miss Clara V. Kahut, pianist. 

November 17. — Mr. Carl E. Anderson, tenor, accompanied by Miss 
Fern Frost. 

November 24. — Gounod's cantata "De Profundis," by the Church 
Choral Club of sixty voices, assisted by an orchestra of forty pieces. 
Soloists: Mrs. Carolyn Crew Easor, soprano; Miss Ruth Waterman, 
contralto; Mr. Frank Onslow, tenor; Mr. Lowell Eedfield, baritone; 
Mr. John De P. Teller, director. 


December 1. — A vocal programme by Mrs. Caroll Nicholson, accom- 
panied by Miss Susan J. Waterman. 

December 8. — A vocal programme by Miss Louise Gude, accom- 
panied by Mr. Eobert Hamden. 

The Symphony Concerts. 

It has been found necessary to discontinue the Symphony Con- 
certs in the Greek Theatre during the second half-year on account 
of the uncertainty of sufficient financial support. It is hoped that 
the concerts can be resumed in the fall. Three concerts by the 
Minetti Quartette will be given in Hearst Hall during January 
and February. 


None of the papers submitted in the Bonnheim Contest for 1907 
was considered by the committee of sufficient merit to deserve an 
award. The contest has therefore been reopened, and dissertations 
again submitted in March, 1908. 

The subject for the contest of 1907 was: American Journalism, 
its Influence on Morals and the Causes of this Influence. The Dis- 
sertation prize is $150. The writers of the accepted dissertations 
(not more than five) will participate in the public discussion for the 
Discussion prize of $100. 

The subject for the Bonnheim contest of 1908 is: Are Corpora- 
tions bound by the same Moral Laws as Individuals'? The awards in 
this contest will not be made until December, 1908. 


The next Carnot Debate for Baron de Coubertin's gold medal will 
be held on the first Friday in February, 1908. The subject of the 
debate always deals with some topic connected with France. The 
general subject for this debate will be "France and Morocco." A 
specific topic within this field will be announced shortly before the 
debate. This year the debate will be held at the University of Cali- 
fornia, in the Harmon Gymnasium. 


An expedition from the Lick Observatory took ship in November 
to go to Flint Island, in the South Pacific for the purpose of observing 
the total solar eclipse of January 3. This out-of-the-way spot the 
astronomers reach via Tahiti, where the United States gunboat An- 
napolis was put at their service to carry them to Flint Island. The 


party will be brought to Papeete in time to take the Mariposa for 
home on January 13. 

The Lick Observatory party consists of Director Campbell, As- 
tronomers Aitken, Abbott, and Perrine, Professor E. P. Lewis, of the 
department of Physics, and Dr. Sebastian Albrecht. Telescopic and 
spectroscopic records of the eclipse will be made. 


The report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, 
which has been in the course of preparation during the past year, 
is now completed and in the printer 's hands. The report will be 
published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The volume 
will be of several hundred pages, and will be accompanied by an 
atlas of twenty-five maps. It will be profusely illustrated, and 
will give an exhaustive account of the effects of the earthquake 
throughout California. The edition is limited to one thousand 
copies, and of these about five hundred copies or more will go to 
scientific exchanges, leaving but a few hundred copies to be placed 
on sale. The price of the volume will be the cost of publication, 
and it is the policy of the Carnegie Institution to dispose of its 
publications by sale only. In view of the limited number of copies 
available for sale it will be expedient for those who desire to 
secure copies to place their orders as soon as possible with the 
Carnegie Institution at Washington. The work of the State Earth- 
quake Investigation Commission has been under the direction of 
Professor Andrew C. Lawson, of the department of Geology and 
Mineralogy of the University of California. 


The University of California has recently received from the 
Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, a number of copies of 
Volume II of the University of California Publications in Graeco- 
Eoman Archaeology. This contains the second part of the Tebtunis 
Papyri which were discovered in Egypt in the winter of 1899-1900 
by explorers working for the University of California at the ex- 
pense of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. 

The papyri edited in the new volume show a few fragments of 
Greek classical literature, the most important being a page or so 
of the long lost Greek original of the work on the Trojan War at- 
tributed to Dictys of Crete. The greater part of the papyri deals 
with the affairs of daily life in Egypt during the first, second, and 


third centuries, A.D. They show such things as leases, deeds, con- 
tracts, bills, inventories of property, tax receipts, reports of govern- 
ment officials, legal processes, and the like. There are also a 
number of letters of private parties. 

These papyri have been edited with translations and notes by 
Dr. B. P. Grenfell and Dr. A. S. Hunt of Queen's College, Oxford, 
with the assistance of Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed of the University of 
Chicago, who deciphered many of the Papyri. 


As a medium of communication between the University and the 
press of California, the office of the President is now publishing a 
Weekly News Letter. For several years it has been the practice to 
send out mimeographed ' ' copy ' ' of University news to the papers. 
This weekly bulletin is now made more useful by being issued in 
printed form. It is sent free to libraries, educational institutions, 
and newspapers which apply for it, and it will also be sent free to 
any clubs of alumni of the University. It is edited by Mr. Ealph P. 
Merritt, Secretary to the President, to whom applications for the News 
Letter should be addressed. 

The Sigma Xi Scientific Honor Society elected in December Ruliff 
Steven Holway, Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, and 
Thomas Sydney Elston, Instructor in Physics, from the Faculty, and 
Edward Arthur Fath, B.S., Carleton CoUege, 1902, and Albert Eugene 
Wright, '08, from the students. 

The Winged Helmet, the Junior society of the University, has 
recently elected to membership Professor Guy Hall Roberts, of the 
department of Political Science, from the Faculty, and George Vincent 
Bell, Milton Thomas Farmer, John Raglan Glasscock, Jr., Albert Miles 
Paul, Malcolm Stone, and Clayton Richard Shipway, of the Junior 



Edited by Gurden Edwards, 
Alumni Secretary. 


Walter B. Cope, '83, President 
Leander Van Orden, M. '90, Vice-President 
Mrs. G. B. Childs, '85, Second Vice-President 
James K. Moffitt, '86 Treasurer 
Gurden Edwards, '07, Secretary- 
Alfred C. Skaife, 'GO. George Edwards, '84. 
T. A. Perkins, '90. Scott Hendricks, '04. 
Charles S. Greene, '86, G. E. Lukens, '89. 
Edith Brownsill, M. '04. Howard Morrow, M. '96. 
Frank Otis, M. '76. Haydn M. Simmons, M. '01. 

Beginning with the present issue the 
PAYMENT OF arrangement goes into effect whereby the 
Du Es. Chronicle, as the official magazine of the 

Alumni Association, will be sent to all of 
the members paying the regular dues without additional 
charge. To every alumnus who may read this communica- 
tion, and who has not already paid his dues, it is addressed 
as a personal and urgent request to lend the Association his 
financial support so that we can maintain the work under- 
taken ; it can honestly be said that the Chronicle or any- 
thing connected with the Alumni Association is in no way 
a scheme for personal profit, but that every cent added to 


the funds goes directly toward increasing the effectiveness 
of the service which the Association can render to the Uni- 
versity. The dues are one dollar a year or five dollars for 
six years if paid in advance ; this amount is but a very small 
percentage of the fees which are collected for four years 
tuition in the majority of colleges, and the request for pay- 
ment of dues is made at a time when they can more easily 
be afforded. But especial attention is called to the Life 
Memberships ; these pajrments, of twenty dollars, are all put 
into the Life Membership Fund, of which the interest only 
may be used. The only plan that can assuie the continued 
usefulness of the Association is some such definite source of 
income, making it more or less independent of the uncertain 
and expensive collection of current dues. 

The alumni idea is merely the recog- 
THE ALUMNI uitiou of the fact that graduation from 
IDEA. the university does not mean separation 

from it; that the three thousand under- 
graduates and the seven thousand alumni differ in the inti- 
macy of their connection with the university not in fact 
but in degree only, for it is too large a part of a man's life 
and becomes too essentially a part of his personality to be 
terminated by the mere formalities of graduation. The Uni- 
versity of California in its broadest and realest sense is a 
commonwealth of science and culture whose capital is a 
certain group of administrative buildings in California, but 
whose campus reaches around the world wherever her 
alumni have carried and applied the ways of her teaching 
to the purposes of progress and civilization. 

The reality of this bond of union is daily demonstrated 
by the communications that come from all parts of the 
civilized and half-civilized world, bringing not only news 
and good wishes from the remotest members of the alumni 
body, but also substantial financial contributions for the 


promotion of the welfare of their university; in Africa, 
China. Ecuador, and the far North there are those who still 
remember and cherish their allegiance. 

The seriousness with which the alumni idea is taken in 
the East is shown by the fact every large university has a 
well organized alumni body, with a central office prepared 
t<; extend aid in securing employment to all of its members, 
and to keep them informed concerning one another and their 
university by means of correspondence and the publication 
of journals. Perhaps the most highly developed organiza- 
tion is that of Harvard, where there is issued a quarterly 
alumni magazine and a weekly newspaper as well ; and that 
the organization of the alumni forces is to good purpose was 
brought out by a recent letter sent to Harvard asking for 
information concerning the building presented to the uni- 
versity by the alumni, which elicited the reply that the 
alumni had presented so many such buildings that the de- 
sired information could not very well be sent without a 
more specific inquiry ; while each successive class puts on an 
average $100,000 into Harvard's treasury every twenty-five 

The alumni of the University of California have long 
had the idea, but it has not yet attained its full development 
of practical utility, and it Avill not until the plans of those 
having in charge the affairs of the Alumni A.ssoeiation shall 
have reached their fulfillment. The first steps in the at- 
tainment of this was to devise the means whereby it is 
possible to maintain a permanent general office with a sec- 
retary who could devote his whole time to the administration 
of the details of a continuous and systematic plan to give 
effect to the purposes and ideals expressed in the constitu- 
tion and previous acts of the Association, the central idea 
of which is to promote the welfare of the University of 
California so that it shall fulfill its destiny as the great 
university influence of and for the West, not in the spirit 
of aggrandizing a particular institution, but in the under- 


standing" that the modern university is one of the great 
factoi's in modern social conditions, and that therefore 
the maintenance of its standards is one of the most patriotic 
duties resting upon the citizenship of the country. The 
alumni idea, then, is fundamentally an important fact in 
social progress, for it is the most natural and effective 
means of inculcating the university idea into general public 

For this reason, it is the intention of the Association so 
to organize its activities that it can, among other things, 
apply a more obvious influence upon that public opinion, so 
that the wishes of the alumni of the University of California 
shall become effective. The alumni of Yale have a direct 
voice in the administration of the university through their 
suffrage in the corporation managing its affairs, by a pro- 
vision in the charter under which it acts; the alumni of 
California will have a similar participation in the affairs 
of their college through their suffrage in the administration 
of the business of the State, of which the university is a 
very important part. That this participation can be real is 
shown by the acts of the Association in former years when 
it has frequently succeeded in influencing the legislature to 
grant increased financial aid to the University. 

Some of the other details of major importance in the 
work of the general secretary's office may be of interest and 
are therefore briefly described. In the first place, every one 
holding a degree from the University is thereby a member 
of the Alumni Association; and everything has to be done 
in terms of this extensive membership, such as the collection 
of dues ; a very fair percentage of the members are paying 
them, considering the difficulties of presenting the justice 
of such a demand to all of the individuals of so widely 
scattered a membership. 

Then there is the work of helping graduates to secure 
emplojTuent in the professions for which they have pre- 
pared themselves, and for this a complete Alumni Directory 


is being developed so that any alumnus can be readily com- 
municated with : a card system is being worked up, con- 
taining a brief history of all gradiiates, augmented by a 
triple cross-reference index so that each one can be referred 
to either by name, locality, profession or year of graduation. 
An instance of the typical utility of such a directory is 
found in letters frequently received asking for the services 
of, say, an engineer of at least so many years' experience, 
in such and such a particular line of specialization, and 
situated in this or that locality. It is further proposed to 
issue this directory periodically in book form to be sent to 
all the alumni so that its effectiveness may be made as ex- 
tensive as possible. A complementary directory is also to 
be kept of such firms as employ university graduate talent. 

One of the greatest specific purposes of the Association 
is the accumulation of the Alumni Hall Fund, which is to 
be not less than $100,000, for the purpose of presenting a 
building to the University to be known as Alumni Hall. 
This building is not to be merely a gathering place for the 
alumni, but is principally to meet many of the needs of the 
undergraduates not provided for by the regularly appro- 
priated buildings, which must be primarily for class rooms ; 
it is to contain a large auditorium and theater for under- 
graduates' use, offices for the college publications, and com- 
mittee rooms for the various departments of college activ- 
ities; for these activities are recognized as an essential part 
of university training. Several thousand dollars are already 
in hand for this building, and a great deal more promised. 

Such are a few of the larger matters that the Alumni 
Association has in hand, and which make participation in 
its affairs a thing to be eagerly looked forward to by under- 
graduates, for it presents a means for a larger and less 
selfish participation in the progress of their university. A 
loyal alumni body is as necessary to a university as an 
enthusiastic student body, and it is not a real university 
unless it has them both. 


'04 gives concrete expression to its 
RECORD OF THE alumni spirit in its recently issued 
CLASS OF 1904. Recovd. Its character is described in a 
brief forword as follows: 
"The Class of 1904 presents its record — the first ever 
issued by a class of the University of California. It is a 
brief history of the doings of all who were ever associated 
with '04 from its entrance until commencement, and in- 
cludes not only those who did graduate, but also those who 
entered with the class but left the University before its com- 
mencement. The Record is incomplete. It has been im- 
possible in many instances to obtain information directly 
from certain of the members of the class. This difficulty 
was encountered chiefly in the instance of those who entered 
with the class but did not graduate. The results of the first 
three years of our class organization have been most gratify- 
ing. The responses made to the various circular letters sent 
from time to time by the officers of the class, and the prompt 
payment of dues, have demonstrated the practicability of the 
scheme of permanent class organization. Volume II of our 
Record will be published in the Fall of 1910, in connection 
v.'ith the reunion held in that year. ' ' 

The book is a volume of about one hundred pages, con- 
taining obituary notices, an account of the reunion of ]\Iay 
13 and 14, 1907, and brief records of the members of the 
class since graduation, with blank pages for the insertion of 
additional notes. The committee in charge was Albert A. 
Rosenshine, permanent secretary of the class, Grace P. 
Foulds, assistant secretary, Virginia Whitehead and Arthur 
L. Price. The idea and execution of the Record seem ex- 
cellent in every way and one that might well be adopted by 
all of the classes. 


Collepo men took an active part in the 
ALUMNI IN THE I'eceut Campaign for p:ood government in 
GOOD GOVERNMENT San Francisco. They formed what was 
CAUSE. known as the Federation of Young Men's 

Taylor Clubs. This federation was com- 
posed of district clubs formed from among the members 
of Hastings Alumni, Hastings undergraduates, Cooper 
Alumni, Cooper undergraduates, the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, the Affiliated Colleges, and the University 
men resident in San Francisco. The clubs were kept in 
touch with one another through an executive committee 
composed of three members from each club. The clubs 
took part in several district meetings besides drafting and 
sending out 10,000 personal letters in the interest of Dr. 
Taylor and good government. 

William Denman, a former instructor in the University, 
was chairman of the executive committee. Edmund Nelson, 
ex- '07, was secretary, and Emerson Read, '06, president of 
the Hastings Undergraduates' Club. C. F. Adams, '06, was 
chairman of the organization committee. Norman Eisner, 
'07, a winner of the Carnot medal, spoke at the Dreamland 
Pavilion from the same platform as Mayor Taylor, District 
Attorney Langdon, and Walter McArthur. Edmund Nel- 
son, ex- '07; Gus Ringolsky, '05; C. F. Adams, '06; Emerson 
Read. '06, and H. Cornish, '01, spoke at meetings in the 
Potrero, the Mission, Ocean View, and at overflow meetings 
at the Dreamland Pavilion. 

The entire membership was segregated into districts. It 
was the intention of the executive committee to get a nucleus 
in each assembly district around which a strong club could 
be built up. This plan was only partially carried out, as the 
time was too short. 

On election day the Federation had exclusive charge of 
the watching at the polls in the Potrero and Ocean View 


The most effective work was done through the efforts of 
the individual members and the personal letters. 

The Federation may continue and perfect its organiza- 
tion ; if it does its members will act not as members of any 
college but as citizens of the various districts in which they 
live. — Daily Calif ornian. 

William Carey Jones, 75, head of the 
law department of the University, has 

ALUMNUS DRAFTS i j c^ c x. ^ £ 

. .,^^ ^,. r^^^r, prepared a draft of a new charter for 



Concerning the charter, he has written 
as follows for the Daily Calif ornian: 

"It provides for biennial elections at which shall be 
elected a mayor, four councilmen, and six school directors. 
These are the only elective officers. For their election it is 
provided that the method of nomination by petition shall 
alone be used. A candidate is nominated by not less than 
100 electors. All persons so nominated are placed on the 
ballot in alphabetical order, without any designation of the 
source of nomination or support. Wards are done away 

"The executive and administrative powers of the city 
are to be distributed and assigned to the mayor and four 
departments, as follows : Finance and revenue, public health 
and safety, public works, law and accounts. The council 
shall designate one of its members to be commissioner in 
each department. The council or mayor, or both together, 
are to elect officers needed. The mayor and each depart- 
ment must make annual reports, which must be published. 
The council, consisting of the mayor and four other mem- 
bers, is to be the governing body of the municipality. 

Then follow certain limitations upon certain legislative 
powers of the council, as in the matter of franchises, of in- 
curring expenses and of the tax limit. Provisions are made 
for the recall, the initiative, and the referendum. 


"In studying a great number of city charters in the 
United States and especially the charters of Galveston, 
Houston, and Dallas, Texas, and of Des Moines, Iowa, I 
was impelled, as a matter of experimentation, to furnish a 
charter for Berkeley on new lines. The Texan charters are 
all on the old principles except in concentrating power in 
a small body of five persons called 'commissioners,' equiv- 
alent to the president and board of directors of a private 
industrial corporation. Otherwise the charter is a lengthy 
document and contains specific enumerations of the powers 
of the 'commissioners' and of all the officers. 

"The policy of placing authority in a small body of 
persons is obviously desirable if we can obtain efficient men 
for the offices and if they can be held responsible. There 
is a greater probability of getting good and capable officials 
if the number of persons to be elected is small. But the 
primary' necessitj^ in order to get the best men, is to free 
the municipal election from any connection with politics. 
A second requirement is a ready and easy means of dis- 
charging an inefficient or dishonest public servant. 

"The correct principle would seem to be to regard the 
municipal charter as a constitution. Regarded as a funda- 
mental law, it should provide the machinery, give the de- 
partments full authority, and place upon them only such 
limitations as experience has shown the necessity of. The 
draft charter submitted tries to put these principles into 
effect and to carry out these objects." 

In accordance with the custom estab- 

ALUMNi SPEAKERS l^s^^sd by President Wheeler, the last 

AT UNIVERSITY University meeting before the Intercol- 

MEETiNG. legiate Game was given up to speakers 

from among the alumni. Rev. Willsie M. 

Martin, '00, spoke in general on clean fighting, laying stress 

on the necessity of going in to win. Ezra Decoto, also '00, 

spoke of the importance of lasting friendships, and of 


college as a place for forming them, and expressed his faith 
in athletics as the great bond of friendly union in college 
life. Dr. Oscar N. Taylor, '94, spoke, with authority as 
coach, of the preparation and spirit of the team for the 
Big Game. The last speaker was John R. Glascock, '65, 
whom the rooters greeted with six cheers as one of the oldest 
and most loyal of all alumni ; he spoke directly to the under- 
graduate men and called forth tremendous enthusiasm by 
his stirring remarks. 

Vigorous efforts are being made by the 
UNIVERSITY OF Alumui Association to extend the system 
CALIFORNIA CLUBS, of University of California Clubs by the 
promotion of new organizations in all 
localities w^here there are enough interested alumni to make 
it worth while. These clubs are of great value to the Alumni 
Association, as they constitute definite centers through 
which the general office can keep in touch with the alumni 
in various sections; moreover, they can be of important 
service to the University directly since, by organizing senti- 
ment locally in favor of the University, they add to her 
influence and protect her interests. The clubs already 
formed are variously constituted, but the general practice 
is to adopt a liberal policy in regard to membership, so that 
not only graduates are eligible but also any one who at- 
tended the University for a year or more, while the New 
York Club elects as honorary membere persons who, though 
they never attended the University, take particular interest 
in her welfare. 

There are active clubs at present in the following places : 
Bakersfield, California; Koom 39 Hopkins Building, 

Miss Lois Jameson, Secretary. 
Chicago, Illinois, C. H. Norwood, 1421 Fisher Building, Secretary. 

Los Angeles, California, Marco Newmark, 977 Arapahoe st.. Secretary. 
New York, Dr. Newel Perry, 519 West 123rd st., Secretary. 

Seattle, "Washington, Kobert Monroe, 806 Western av., Secretary. 

South Africa, Percy Newhall, Knights, Transvaal, Secretary. 

The Alumni Secretary would be pleased to hear of any 
additional clubs not included in the above list. 


New elnbs are projected in the following places, the men 
named having: taken the initiative in their formation : 

Fresno, California, Alfred Braverman, Post Box 1050. 

Hollister, California, Harold E. Hendricks. 

Redding, California, McCoy Fitzgerald, Post Box 86. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Gustave White, Y. M. C. A. 

Touopah, Nevada, Erie V. Daveler, care of Tonopah Daily Bonanza. 

The ereneral office will be glad to cooperate in every way 
in the formation of these clubs, and anyone interested in 
the movement is urged to consult with the Alumni Secretary 
for information and assistance. A locality index of all the 
alumni whose addresses are known has been completed and 
a list of those living in a given locality can be readily fur- 

The following communications have been received from 
three of the most active clubs : 

The University of California Club of San Francisco. 

The University of California Club, of San Francisco, is 
the result of a suggestion made at a banquet of the class of 
1900 held the night before the football game in 1902. Dur- 
ing 1903 a monthly lunch for Universitj^ of California grad- 
uates was held at some down-town restaurant. This lunch 
grew in popularity and in December 1903 the organization 
of a permanent club with club quarters, was entrusted to a 
representative committee of alumni. Their Avork resulted 
in the organization of a club of over two hundred members, 
with uniquely fitted rooms on the corner of Powell and 
Geary streets. The opening night, April 9, 1904, was an 
occasion of great festivity. The club remained at this first 
site until September 15, 1905, and then, by a quick move, 
established itself in very handsome quarters in the Dana 
Building, corner Stockton street and Union Square avenue. 
Here the club increased greatly in popularity, attracting a 
goodly number of graduates, increasing its membership and 


enhancing its facilities and activities. Here it was at the 
time of the fire, out of which it saved only the club cat, a few 
of the bookkeeping books and a widely scattered member- 
ship. The Board of Directors, however, set to work almost 
at once and by June 16, 1906, the club opened its new house 
on the southeast corner of Washington and Buchanan 
streets, where it now is. In this move it has so expanded as 
to offer its members full meal service and also living apart- 
ments. The year and a half since the fire has been a com- 
paratively quiet period for the club. Many of its members 
have gradually moved their oifices down town out of easy 
reach of the club-house. The club expects soon to move 
doAvn town into the heart of things and greatly to increase 
the interest of its members and other alumni in its fortunes, 
ar-d to widen its influence. 

Its present officers are : Thos. S. Malloy, '92, President ; 
Donzel Stoney, '90, Vice-President ; J. Milton Mannon, '99, 
Treasurer; Alfred C. Skaife, '00, Secretary. These and 
Dr. Herbert W. Allen, '96, Frank W. Aitken, '00, Dr. Paul 
Castelhun, '00, Walter E. Conlin, '01, William H. Gorrill, 
'95, Robert B. Henderson, '05, A. A. Macurda, '02, Dr. 
Otto F. Westerfeld, '00, constitute the Board of Directors. 

The club is open to Regents and ex-Regents, faculty 
members and ex-faculty members, graduates of any depart- 
ment of the University, and persons who, having attended 
any department of the University for two years, have left 
college. The present initiation fee is ten dollars; dues are 
two dollars per month for those out of college more than 
three years, one dollar for those out a less time. Non-resi- 
dents pay no initiation fees ; their dues are five dollars per 
year. The present membership of the club is about two 
hundred and seventy-five. Address: 2235 Washington st., 
San Francisco; telephone West 253. 

Alfred C. Skaife, 



The Los Angeles Club. 

Two enthusiastic re-unions were held by the University 
of California Club of Southern California on November 9. 
One was at the regular monthl.y luncheon of the club at 
Cafe Bristol and the other in the evening at the rooms of 
the University Club, where the members received the news- 
paper bulletins direct from Palo Alto showing the progress 
of the game. 

The assembly at luncheon, which resembled an old time 
rally, was the most enthusiastic on record. For over an 
hour the rooms of the cafe were made to reverberate with 
manifestations of the California spirit which years of ab- 
sence from the campus never serve to dampen. 

At the conclusion of the lunch a collection was taken 
and Bert Campbell, '07, was delegated to send a dispatch 
to Captain Tuller on the Palo Alto football field. The fol- 
lowing message was sent : 

' ' The hopes of the absent rooters of Southern California 
are pinned on victory. Go in and win." 

Over two hundred members assembled in the evening. 
The gathering was in the nature of a smoker. City Attor- 
ney Leslie Hewitt, '90, president of the club, was toast 
master, and prominent and staid business men and members 
of the dignified professions filled the intervals between the 
songs with speeches full of enthusiastic college spirit. 


The Bakersfield club met on the evening after the Big 
Game on November 9th, and had an enjoyable meeting de- 
spite the score which they received by telegraph. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 
William W. Kaye, Hastings '98, president and Lois Jame- 
son, '05, Secretary. Quarters have been established in 
Room 39, Hopkins Building, and all alumni who may be 
in Bakersfield are urged to pay the club a visit at this place. 



Class Eeunions. 

In accordance with the ancient custom, several of the classes 
held reunions on the eve of the Big Game on November 9th, and 
did their best by enthusiasm and confident loyalty to influence the 
fates in favor of the Blue and Gold. 

The class of '97 held its festivities at Tait's Cafe and a very 
satisfactory number of the men were present, considering the scat- 
tered state of the class, and the inconvenient conditions in San 
Francisco and vicinity. The evening was spent in informal speeches 
and general good fellowship. 

'99 held its annual reunion at Tait's Cafe. There were fourteen 
men present and the gathering was entirely informal, there being 
no set toasts or speeches. The members sat around till a late hour, 
renewing old acquaintanceship and discussing old times. They 
were visited during the course of the evening by Professors Putzker, 
Cory, O'Neill, and Setchell. 

About sixteen men were present at the banquet of the class of 
1902, which was also at Tait's, and the number was increased by the 
arrival of seven or eight more after the banquet proper was over. 
The speeches were of a very informal nature. Duray Smith, Jr., 
was toastmaster of the occasion, but in the general flow of conver- 
sation and cheering had very little opportunity to perform the - 
functions of his ofiice. The committee in charge of the affair was 
composed of Ben W. Eeed, Herbert S. Bonifield, and J. J. Eppinger. 

Twenty-eight of the men of '04 met at Franks' restaurant, on 
Pine street in San Francisco, for their annual banquet. Phil Carey 
presided over the meeting. There were no set speeches and each 
of the twenty-eight present was called upon to say a few words. 
At about 10:30 o'clock the meeting adjourned to Tait's Cafe, where 
several of the other classes were meeting. A joint meeting took 
place at this time. The next move was to the Poodle Dog, where 
other classes were celebrating. 

The reunion of the men of '05 was held at the Poodle Dog 
restaurant in San Francisco. There were about thirty members of 
the class present. The 1905 reunions are always resolved into 
testimony meetings. Every fellow is supposed after the banquet is 
three-quarters over to be able to make a speech and is held respon- 
sible for reporting on some of the members of the class who are 


unable to be present at the banquet, so the list of those present is 
the list of speakers. Tlie following were present: W. T. Hale, 
C. E. Kelsey, G. J. Aiiloff, Thos. E. Ambrose, G. C. Ringolsky, G. B. 
Gillson, S. S. Hawley, J. C. Michner, E. D. White, B. P. Jaggard, 
Samuel Lilienthal, A. S. Wiester, Eugene E. Hallett, E. L. Hewston, 
Clarence A. Shuey, J. J. O'Connell, N. N. Edily, E. W. Kittrelle, 
Chelton Hill, H. B. Lyon, Leon E. Morns, E. C. Nathan, W. H, 

The reunion of the elass of '07 was unique in that it was the 
first meeting of the men as alumni; and further that it was held 
in three places at once. The men of the bay cities, to the number 
of about thirty, met at Tait 's Cafe, while two smaller gatherings 
were held by those in Tonopah and Los Angeles. Telegrams of 
good cheer were exchanged during the evening, so that the meetings 
were one in spirit if not in locality. Ealph Merritt presided as 
toastmaster over the San Francisco section, while Erie Daveler and 
Alec. Hartley kept things going in Tonopah and Los Angeles re- 
spectively. After the banquet the San Francisco meeting resolved 
itself into a peripatetic committee of the whole and paid its re- 
spects, as the fledgling class, to the other classes. 

After the various banquets were over the classes gradually 
drifted into the quarters of the University of California Club of 
San Francisco, where a spontaneous joint meeting was held, and 
the enthusiasm reached a grand finale. 

Personal Notes. 


Frank Otis, Secretary, 1609 Santa Clara av., Alameda. 

Frank Otis and Seth Mann, '81, who are associated in the 
practice of law, have announced the removal of their ofl&ces to 
rooms 500 to 502, Title Insurance and Guaranty Company's Build- 
ing, 250 Montgomery street, San Francisco; telephone Temporary 


Edward G. Knapp, Secretary, S.W. Corner Fourth and J sts., 


J. C. Everett has returned to California after an absence of 
over twenty years in Guayaquil, Ecuador, South America. He was 
engaged in mining engineering, but left on account of the unsettled 


political conditions. Shortly before leaving he was in a newspaper 
office that was attacked by rebels and narrowly escaped. He is 
residing at 920 Filbert street, Oakland. 

George C. Pardee was recently elected into the Golden Bear 
Society, the senior honor society of the University, as an alumni 


Bkrnard Bienenfeld, Secretary, Kohl Building, San Francisco. 

Alexander Pollock died in Denver, Colorado, on October 25, at 
the age of 46. He had lived in Denver for the past ten years as 
general agent of the California Powder Works. 

P. E. Bowles, of the First National Bank of Oakland, presented 
recently to the University library eight volumes of the Affairs of 
the American Bankers' Association containing the transactions of 
that body from 1899 to 1906. 


William A. Brewer, Secretary, Burlingame. 

A son, Harry East, Jr., was born to the wife of Harry East 
Miller October 10. 


George A. Merrill, Secretary, 16th and Utah sts., San Francisco. 

George Malcolm Stratton, for four years professor of experimental 
psychology at Johns Hopkins University, has recently been elected 
professor of psychology at the University of California and wiU return 
in August. 


EosEMARY Dobbins, Secretary, 2600 Warring st., Berkeley. 

A daughter, Emilen, was born to the wife of Leslie R. Hewitt, 
October 24. 


Albert L. Ehrman, Secretary, 212 California st., San Francisco. 

Warren Olney, Jr., has been appointed attorney of the Western 
Pacific Railroad on this coast. 


Albert C. Aik^n, Secretary, 2757 Laguna st., San Francisco. 

A son, Benjamin C, was born to Mrs. C. A. Dunniway (Caroline 
Cushing), on November 22. 



Walter H. Henry, Secretary, 925 Adeline st., Oakland. 

Juan de la Cruz Posada has returned to his home in the United 
States of Columbia after a long tour of investigation of the cyanide 
process. He has been on a trip to laboratories and cyanide fac- 
tories in England and Scotland and to a number of mines in the 
United States where the process is used. He intends to introduce 
the method on a large scale in his own country. 

Lenore Croudace has presented two volumes of her poems, entitled 
' ' Misty Day ' ' and ' ' The Opening Vista, ' ' to the University Library. 

Loren E. Hunt was recently elected an alumni member of the 
Golden Bear society. 


Benjamin Weed, Secretary, Care A. Schilling & Co., San Francisco. 

A son, Miles B., was born to the wife of Miles B. Fisher in 

A daughter, Margaret Bruce, was born to Mrs. Clifton Macon 
(Janet Bruce) in September. 


Mrs. Vida Eedington Volkhardt, Secretary, 2927 Deakin st., 


Harry B. Torrey has been forced to give up temporarily his 
classes in the University on account of ill health. 

Richard Y. Fitzgerald has associated himself in the practice of 
law with Joseph H. Soliday with offices in the Kimball Building, 
18 Tremont st., Boston, Mass. 

Vida Eedington was married on December 24 to Mr. Frederick 
A. Volkhardt. They are living at 2927 Deakin st., Berkeley. 


Mrs. Clara Henry Louderback, Secretary, 2713 Derby st., Berkeley. 

A daughter, Francis Sanborn, was born to the wife of Alexan- 
der R. Baldwin on October 18. 

Recent magazine contributions by Arthur North are: "The 
Uncharted Sierra of San Pedro Martir," Bulletin of the American 
Geographical Society; "That Which was Forgotten," prize story. 
Black Cat Magazine; "Hunting the Big Horn," Sunset Magazine. 



John D. Hatch, Secretary, 805 Arlington av., Oakland. 

A daughter, Frances Marvin, was born to the wife of Louis 
Saph on November 10. 

A son, McCoy, was born to Mrs. R. C. Hill (Florence McCoy) 
on October 12. 

Grace Love has been appointed teacher of mathematics in the Santa 
Cruz High School. 


Marie J. McKinley, Secretary, 161 Alpine st., San Francisco. 

At a meeting in May, 1907, the Class of '98 voted that its tenth 
anniversary should be signalized by a gift from the Class to the 
University. A committee was appointed by Mr. Philip R. Thayer, 
the newly-elected president of the Class, to determine upon the 
form which this gift shall take, and the manner in which the 
money shall be raised. This committee met recently and decided 
that the gift to the University shall be a fund from which the 
income shall be used for the purchase of books for the Library. 
The committee of the Class consists of Laura Frank, Mrs. Bessie 
Griswold Rowe, Dr. Edith Brownsill, Marie McKinley, Veronica 
Duffiey, Mrs. Maud Robinson Mott, Mrs. Lilian Parker Allen, 
Archie B. Anderson, Dr. Camillus Bush, Hartley F. Peart, W. E. 
Creed, Joe W. Leggett, Jos. Haber, Jr., and A. H. Allen, chairman. 
Contributions are now coming in. Members of the Class are urged 
to do their part by communicating at once with the chairman of 
the committee, whose address is 202 California Hall, Berkeley. 
The committee will later arrange for a reunion of the class in 
Commencement Week. 

Twenty years after he had fled from Austria to escape arrest 
upon an accusation of being implicated in a revolutionary plot. Dr. 
Spiro Sargentich has been pardoned by his government. He was 
an officer in the Austrian Army when his arrest was ordered, but 
he escaped to the Montenegro frontier, and for five years, from 
1887 to 1892, lived among Albanian bandits on the frontier separ- 
ating Montenegro and Turkey. He wandered through Greece and 
Italy and finally landed in New York. In fear that he might be 
captured even in New York he came to the Pacific Coast. During 
his stay in San Francisco, as cook, seaman before the mast and day 
laborer, he made up his mind to attend the University, and earned 
the degrees of Bachelor of Philosophy and Doctor of Medicine. 


During his college days he compiled a dictionary giving English 
translation to 28,000 Servian words. He has returned to Austria 
to visit his parents and other relatives. 

Amy Phelan, ex- '98, has been elected president of the national con- 
clave of the Gamma Phi Beta Sorority in Syracuse, New York. 


Frank W. Aitken, Secretary, 876 Eddy st., San Francisco. 

Franklin P. Nutting has removed his offices from room 732 
Monadnock building to rooms 559 to 565 in the same; his telephone 
number is Kearney 2191. 

Margaret Knepper is studying in Oxford, England; her address 
is 13 Magdalen st. 

Daniel F. Montgomery, ex- '05, died in Durango, Mexico, on 
October 31. 


Jesse H. Steinhardt, Secretary, 827 Eddy st., San Francisco. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Scupham Smith, Assistant Secretary, 671 Vernon 

St., Oakland. 

Eichard Walton Tully, who has achieved success as a playwright, 
and his wife, Eleanor Gates Tully, author of several popular novels, 
have returned to California to live. 

Benton A. Hammond died of typhoid fever in Calgary, Canada, 
on October 3. 

William Ladd, ex- '00, died in October. 


Benjamin Eeed, Secretary, Rainier, Oregon. 

Benjamin Eeed has been appointed permanent secretary to suc- 
ceed Alexander Adler, deceased. 

Lloyd Womble, who recently returned from South Africa, has 
gone to South America with a prospecting party, to spend about 
six months on the eastern coast of Colombia. 

Alma M. Brown, ex- '02, was married on October 19 to Mr. 
Charles K. Tower. 

Fred F. Goodsell is at the Central Turkey College in Aintab, 
Turkey-in-Asia, on missionary work. 


Francis Edward Bishop and Edward Francis Bishop, who are 
associated with James Hall Bishop, '01, and Ludwig M. Hoefler, 
L. -'82, in the practice of law, have announced the removal of their 
offices to 363-369 Russ building, Bush and Montgomery sts., San 

William Burt Albertson was lately married in Salt Lake City to 
Miss Martha Augusta Prim of Redding, California. He has been 
engaged in mining work at Redding. 


John A. Brewer, Secretary, 770 Summit av., Oakland. 
William W. Evans, Assistant Secretary, 304 East 14th st., Oakland. 

Arthur M. Mcintosh, M.D., has moved from Bakersfield to Berke- 
ley, where he is continuing his practice. 

Walter H. Ratcliff has formed a partnership with Alfred H. 
Jacobs for the practice of architecture with offices at 20 Montgom- 
ery St., San Francisco. 

Henry Werner Dietz was married to Edith A. Barrows, '05, on 
November 15; they are living at Mitchell, Nebraska. 

Robert Sibley, formerly associated with Mr. T. L. Greenough 
and the University of Montana, has established The Engineering 
Offices at 104 East Main st., Missoula, Montana. 

Allen P. Mathews holds the Faculty Scholarship, Harvard Law 
School, for 1907-08. 

From the Beview of Bevieivs for January: All American bird- 
lovers will welcome a new book by that brilliant young naturalist, 
Mr. William L. Finley, of Portland, Ore., whose photographs of 
bird life as they have appeared in some of our leading illustrated 
magazines during the past few years have commanded general in- 
terest. The studies forming the basis of the present volume, — 
"American Birds Photographed and Studied from Life" (Serib- 
ner's),— were largely made in the West, but representative birds 
from other parts of the country are included in the survey, so that 
the work as a whole is national in its scope. Many of the photo- 
graphs employed were made by Mr. Herman T. Bohlman, with whom 
Mr. Finley has been closely associated in studying bird life for 
many years. To secure such photographs as these involves in itself 
a study of the subjects which goes far to insure the general ac- 
curacy of the observations recorded in the text. 



Albert A. Rosenshine, Secretary, 906 Ellis st., San Francisco. 
Tallulah LeConte, Assistant Secretary, 2501 Piedmont av., Berkeley. 

Elmer M. Brown died of consumption on September 7, after an 
illness of three j'ears. 

Clifford P. Bowie is at Fresno in charge of surveying and con- 
struction work for the Associated Pipe Lines Company. 

Lucile Graves was married on October 16 to Mr. John R. Graves 
of Harvard, '04. 

James E. Roadhouse died in San Francisco on November 28. 
He had but shortly before received the appointment as head of 
the Agricultural College at Honolulu. 

Irving Miller is engineer for the Nevada Railway at Ely, Ne- 

Max Thelen is the secretary of the Lincoln-Roosevelt Republican 
League in Berkeley. 

Emile C. Nathan, Secretary, P. O. Box 221, Sacramento. 

The class is now making preparations for the big reunion which 
will occur during Commencement week of 1908. The plans call 
for a banquet to be followed by a dance and attendance in a body 
at the festivities of Senior week. '0.5 class members, wherever 
they are, or whatever they are doing, will take one week out for 
this reunion, if they can possibly do so. The class has now on 
hand something over $700, which is being saved until the building 
of Alumni Hall, in which it is proposed to erect a Student Post- 
oflSce. In the meantime, $500 of the class funds are loaned to the 
Order of the Golden Bear to be used in installing steam heating ap- 
paratus in Senior Hall. 

Fred L. Bixby was married to Rhoda Orgren, ex- '05, Dec. 31. 

Ezra O. Burgess is with the American Bridge Co. as a structural 

Herbert Ross left for Peru on December 28, where he is to take 
charge of the smelter plant of the Cerro de Posco mining company. 

Frank D. Lord was electrocuted at Knight's Ferry on October 18. 

Wallace Turner has been appointed teacher of mathematics in the 
Vallejo High School. 

William H. Phillips is associated with Messrs. Prouty and Clark, 
Civil Engineers, on survey work. 



Matthew Lynch, Secretary, Cordelia. 

Joseph P. Loeb, formerly in the Wilcox Building, Los Angeles, 
has announced that he has opened law offices at 429-30, I. W. 
Hellman Building, Los Angeles. 

Chee Soo Lowe, of the College of* Mining, has just been appointed 
by the Chinese Government to fill the position of Mining Engineer 
in the Government Bureau of Mines, at Chentu, Szechuen, China, 
near Thibet. Since his graduation, he has been visiting a number 
of the leading mines in California and other states in the West, so 
as to familiarize himself with the best American practice. 

Augustus Griffin is engineer for the Modesto Irrigation district. 
During the past two years he has prepared plans for substantial 
additions and improvements to the main canals and ditches of that 

Isaac Kessler is stationed at Oakland pier in the designing offices 
of the Southern Pacific Company. 

Henry D. Dewell is in the employ of Howard & Galloway, archi- 
tects and engineers, and is at present assisting Arthur H. Mark- 
wart, '03, of that firm, preparing engineering plans for the Alaska 
exposition and is located at Seattle. 

Olin H. Boyle is at Tracy, California, in charge of surveys and 
construction work for the Associated Pipe Lines Co. 

Alfred J. Cleary is at Mendota, California, in charge of another 
part of the construction work for the Associated Pipe Lines Co. 
The work consists of projecting a rifle pipe line for carrying crude 
oil from Oil City, near Bakersfield, to Port Costa. 

Henrietta Tull has been appointed teacher of history and drawing 
in the Salinas High School. 


Julius Klein, Secretary, University of California. 
Edith Eickley, Assistant Secretary, 534 Merrimac st., Oakland. 

Alexander A. M. Eussell is stationed at the Eubicon river doing 
responsible drafting and surveying for the Southern Pacific Com- 

Guy O. Fraser, who was employed during the summer by a con- 
tractor in designing and constructing reinforced concrete buildings in 


the neighborhooil of Los An^fcles, lias recently accepted a new appoint- 
ment with the Western Pacific Railroad and will act as inspector 
for structural steel work for bridges. He will represent the com- 
pany in the field inspecting the erection of bridges and reporting 
upon structural materials used in their erection. 

The engagement of Miss Gertrude Neeley to Dr. Eugene J. Snyder, 
M.D., was recently announced in the Philippines. 

Worth Eyder, ex- '07, has been admitted to the Art Students' 
League in New York; at the Christmas exhibition his was among 
the seven pictures selected from over two hundred to be perma- 
nently placed in the gallery. 

Warren Perry has been admitted into the Beaux Arts in Paris, 
where he will continue his studies in architecture. 

Edwin Berringer has been appointed a teacher in history and 
English at the California Polytechnic School at San Luis Obispo. 

The marriage has been announced of Chester F. Await to Lynn 
E. Cox, ex- '07, at Santa Cruz. 

Grover O'Connor passed the State bar examinations at Sacra- 
mento on December 9. 

Pluma Dutton is teaching at Golconda, Nevada. 

Eussell Galloway was married on January 1 to Lilla Ware at 
Santa Rosa. 

Samuel H. Beach has resigned his position in the Kern County 
High School to accept an appointment in the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, W^ashington, D. C. 

Margaret Chase has been appointed teacher of English at the Cali- 
fornia Polytechnic School at San Luis Obispo. 

Calvin Haffey has gone to Idaho to engage in mining. 

Mervyn Samuels was married on January 16 to Miss Alma G. 




The Alumni Secretary desires the present addresses of the fol- 
lowing. The letter D. before the numerals indicates the College of 
Dentistry; M., Medicine; L., Hastings College of the Law; P., 
Pharmacy; plain numerals, graduates of the Academic Colleges. 
Anyone having the desired information is requested to send it to 
the Alumni Secretary immediately so that the Directory of Grad- 
uates can be made as complete and correct as possible. 

Abraham, Isadore, L. '84. 
Adair, William H., P. '81. 
Adams, Herbert L., L. '82. 
Aiken, Perley B., D. '98. 
Aird, John W., M. '93. 
Alexander, Harry L., '95. 
Alexander, Monroe E., M. '88. 
Allen, Arthur F., '91. 
Allen, Edith M., '00. 
Allen, Henry G., D. '98. 
Allen, Mary G., '95. 
Anderson, Frank W., D. '00. 
Anderson, Jerome A., M. '73. 

Bacigalupi, Giovanni, L. '99. 
Badilla, Joseph, M. '95. 
Bagley, Hubert F., P. '93. 
Bahney, Luther W., P. '97. 
Baker, Arthur G., L. '07. 
Baker, George L., '03. 
Baker, John L., L. '85. 
Baldwin, John F., P. '97. 
Balfred, William J., P. '03. 
Ball, Henry A., P. '94. 
Barnhill, William A., L. '02. 
Barrows, Eay K., '05. 
Bartlett, Cosam J., M. '98. 
Beaisly, George T., P. '85. 
Beard, William M., L. '99. 
Beadsley, Edward M., M. '81. 
Beardsley, Louise J., '04. 

Arbulieh, Lerda E., '04. 
Arkley, William W., '98. 
Armand, Emile C, P. '98. 
Armstrong, Caroline, P. '03. 
Armstrong, James W., '06. 
Armstrong, Ruth H. (Mrs. H. L. 

Taylor), '00. 
Arnold, Marshall H., L. '82. 
Arnstein, Lawrence, '00. 
Arthur, Edgar A., M. '01. 
Asahina, Totaro, D. '03. 
Ashley, Julian W., D. '97. 
Atkins, John H., D. '98. 


Beatty, William A., '84, L. '87. 

Becker, Frank C, P. '95. 

Bell, William Lisle, M. '98. 

Beretta, Joseph W., L. '99. 

Bernheim, Louis L., P. '95. 

Bettis, Henry S., D. '85. 

Bickenson, Clarence F., M. '94. 

Blake, Charles M., M. '76. 

Blossom, May, D. '99. 

Blum, Edna (Mrs. G. S. Schwa- 
bacher), '98. 

Blum, Joseph H., P. '94. 

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Younger, Edward A., '79. 


Zumwalt, Eeuben S., M. '06. 


Vol. X APRIL, 1908 No. 2 


Isaac Flagg. 

Mark yon pale segment of the sky 

Where glows Aldebaran, 
Dim starry myriads marshali'd nigh, 

His Hyads in the van: 
Their solemn arbiter of old, 

Still from his beacon fall 
The fateful ruddy fires that hold 

A thousand worlds in thrall. 

Nathless, no star nor satellite. 

No galaxy of suns, 
Strewing vague splendor o 'er the night. 

Where its weird circle runs. 
Avails with changeful orb to move 

One jot or tittle fine 
Of aught, fair youth, that doth behoove 

My destiny or thine. 

Thy fortunes in their signs were writ, 

Those signs are writ in thee. 
As when some pharos-tower has lit 

Its image in the sea; 
Prefigured shone this bloodless hand, 

This beard, these sunken eyes. 
Ere yet Chaldean shepherds scann'd 

The dial of the skies. 

* Poem read at the annual banquet of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 
at Berkeley, April, 1907. 


Change, there is none. Thou wouldst achieve 

The future — hold the clew, 
Old threads unwinding, thence to weave 

A fabric of the New: 
Deem now the subtler wisdom his. 

Who seeks not, faltcriiigly. 
What ' ' was " or " will be, ' ' but what w 

And sJmll forever be. 

What though a fitful languor blears 

Dread Algol's gleaming eye? 
What though the pole-star reels and veers, 

Bending in sure reply 
To the slow-nodding Earth, ordain 'd 

To touch and turn once more 
The goal her slanted globe has gain'd 

Ten-thousand times before? 

Nay, ask me not what issue waits 

Thy venturous design: 
Tempt not the silence of the Fates, 

Nor, vaunting to untwine 
With hand untimely their eoil'd skein, 

The blameless stars belie, 
Call'd in the ambient sphere to reign 

Thy natal hour foreby. 

But tarry rather, whilst I trace 

The scant and simple lines 
Of a life-picture, that with grace 

Of no proud emblem shines; 
Not in vain lowliness conceived, 

Nor lofty passion's glow, 
But, like the inland mere, unheaved 

By pangs of ebb and flow. 

An only child was I; and one 

Of lonely temper — prone 
The boisterous merry throng to shun, 

And ramble forth alone; 
Sometime, high clambering to explore 

Paths of the still, dark wood 
That frown 'd down, where, hard by the shore. 

My mother's cottage stood. 


Yet, near the sea-bank's shelving sand, 

By swallows thri tided, best 
I loved to linger, on the strand 

Wave-wash 'd, in childish quest 
Of shells and stones and seaweeds bright ; 

Glancing, betimes, away 
To watch some white-wing 'd vessel 's flight 

Forth from the inner bay. 

Such eve as waits on brumal days 

Whose calm no cloudlet mars 
First won my rapt and curious gaze 

To this black night of stars: 
Sharp was their glitter; and methought 

They pierced the frosty air 
In stern, sad admonition, fraught 

With penance or despair. 

I learn 'd to know them. For there dwelt, 

Yet farther from the town 
Than we, beyond the brook and belt 

Of pine-trees straggling down 
Shoreward, with granite bowlders lined, 

A hermit old and gray. 
By children dreaded. He divined, 

When near his cell to stray 

Chance wanderings led me, my grave mood 

And meditative bent. — 
Bare hours, as with a grandsire good, 

By that rude hearth I spent. 
Wise proverbs held he, in full store. 

Tales and quaint histories; 
And secrets of supernal lore, 

Unshared of men, were his. 

What powers the fickle moon constrain. 

The hermit show'd me; what 
Portents to terrors dire pertain. 

By pest or famine brought. 
Much, so in pious order said, 

I heard and ponder 'd well; 
Yet, in his great black book I read 

More than he wist to tell. 


There, on its din}j;y pages wide, 

Lay spread the astral sphere, 
Which thrice-four ruling Signs divide, 

Twelve Houses of the year; 
While constellated figures strange 

Haunt each his native zone, 
Some toward the zenith wont to range. 

Some to the nadir known. 

And what I learn 'd I taught again. 

Deem not, sir stranger, those 
Who on still paths aloof from men 

Seeming to wander, close 
Their gates to the dull fatuous herd — 

Deem not the anchoret 
A pity-sever 'd soul, unstirr'd 

By fondness and regret; 

Nor that true thoughts, whose force hath swell 'd 

Springs of the pensive heart, 
Till by rich overflow compell'd 

Its burthen to impart. 
Shall fail their blessing to convey, 

With message vainly sped. 
Though a child finger point the way. 

And childish steps be led. 

To a near neighbor's fostering care 

A ship-wreck 'd man consign 'd 
(So his crush 'd fortunes to repair 

And in due season find 
The dear pledge biding its true claim) 

A little daughter. She 
Scarce eight years reckon 'd to her name; 

Eleven were past for me. 

Comrades we proved. No outer mark 

Did of like mien appear. 
To bind us. Her great eyes were dark. 

Her brow shone swarthy-clear; 
But a mysterious concord rare 

Of query and reply— 
Of mingled faith and wonder there; 

Here, of wise ministry. 


Oft, by the tide-worn marge, serene 

Still afternoons, heart-free. 
After the closed school, now between 

Gray crag and whispering sea 
We roved, now on the pebbly sand 

At the wet edge stoop 'd; fain 
The crab to capture, or lay quick hand 

(Dash'd with the briny rain) 

Upon small silvery fishes, flung 

Danger 'd or past restore. 
To gasp and leap and quiver among 

Strange mates of the dry shore. 
I told her how the frolic brood 

Their fierce foe fail to heed, 
Then in mad sudden flight pursued 

To shallow refuge speed. 

When autumn round the northern wave 

Night's mantle earlier threw, 
What time no gairish moonbeams drave 

The weakling stars from view, 
We, some hour (while below our feet 

My nested swallows slept), 
From the tall sea-bank's beetling seat 

Watch 'd the slow Wain, that swept 

Low-wheeling past the watery verge, 

Cloud-blended, threatful; yet 
Not once by that wild, darkling surge 

Are its bright axles wet. 
I show'd her there the pointers twain, 

Which to the lodestar lead, 
Whereof, her lost course to regain, 

Each errant bark hath need. 

Then, why the polar tract inclines 

With tilted shaft, I tried 
To show; and named the potent Signs, 

Some here at harvest-tide, 
Some missing. — She turn'd, wonderingly. 

And faintly smiled, at tale 
Of crabs and fishes in the sky. 

I said: "No ship shall sail 


' ' Your farthest ocean, nor even a bird 

Skim the wide billowy waste, 
But fateful planets erst concurr'd 

Thereto, with sure stars placed 
In dominant conjunction. So 

'Tis in wise books writ plain — 
What ancient men, mimlful to know, 

Solved, searching. Look again, 

"Where yonder huddling swarm, apart 

From their star comrades flown. 
Upward w'ith light wings seems to dart — 

As 'Seven Sisters' known. 
Six only though we now behold, 

Another in sooth there is. 
Seen sometime, sometime gone. Of old, 

Dove children, Pleiades, 

"Men call'd them: which fond daughters true, 

Once harvest-toils begun, 
Straight with ungarner'd shreds upflew. 

Their father's cheer. But one, 
Whenas betwixt white cliffs they sped, 

Each time was sunder 'd far, — 
That lost one. ' ' Myra laugh 'd and said, 

' ' / am the seventh star. ' ' 

Came winter; and, flowery spring withal 

From Myra's sire had come 
Tidings and token and the call 

To her far foreign home. 
All freighted the tall vessel lay. 

And would, from the quay-side, 
Drop seaward to the outer bay 

With the late-ebbing tide. 

Then straight, as she her cable slipp'd 

And the huge hull began 
To move, I, where the hill-ridge dipp'd. 

Back by the cross-path ran 
Homeward, and with expectant gaze 

Stood on our bank once more. 
Soon her black mast-tips I saw graze 

The sky-line, where the shore 


Sloped to the harbor-bar. And now 

She glided forth full-seen; 
And the fresh breeze athwart her bow 

Catching, I saw her lean 
And shiver, with cross-haul 'd topsails lit 

By evening's roseate glow, 
Fading behind me. Bathed in it, 

Through purple waters, slow 

But steadily the good ship clove 

A northward furrow, until. 
Hid by the rocks at Hermit's Grove, 

I lost her: — watching still; 
For, tacking easterly, anon. 

With her ship's light hove high. 
In the wide offing, pale and wan, 

Those sails I could descry. 

But to one formless spark they seem'd 

To shrink, which, with the sea 
Commingling, fainter and fainter gleam 'd; 

Spread and swam mistily; 
Then, like a firefly's bafiling trace 

That on some dewy lawn 
At nightfall sportive children chase. 

Glimmer 'd once — and was gone. 

As in a dream I turn'd. Some tinge 

Of the day's vanish 'd fire 
Did the hill-edged horizon fringe 

With dappled crests. And higher. 
Yet sunward leaning, the soft-named 

Planet, from heavenly seat. 
Her vesper sovereignty proclaim 'd. 

With silvery visage sweet. 

So to their orbits true those spheres 

Celestial meet and move: 
Which I, thenceforward, through the years. 

By comradeship should prove. 
Steadfast and guileless. For, all zest 

Of boyish pastime stale. 
And my good mother to her rest 

Now taken, her pittance frail 


Falling to me — enough for bread, — 

What reck'd 1, so, with men 
To walk, if the weird paths to tread, 

To know each denizen, 
Of infinite heaven 1 might essay? 

Nor hath slow age yet learn 'd. 
Here in my silent tower (what way 

Thy steps to-night have turn'd). 

To cease or lose or spurn the lore 

Through this true glass read clear. 
Men say forsooth, who at my door 

Entereth and shall hear 
Eesponse of mine, he can assure 

The hopes of his emprise, 
Or, by sage prescience, work cure 

Of treacherous maladies. 

And they believe not, when I ask. 

What i>rofits it, at noon 
To call night 's revel and unmaslc 

The spectral guests too soon? — 
The "future" ye feign, is — ia now; 

Nor, when in hour condign 
Led forth as present, doth its brow 

With borrow 'd graces shine. 



John Ellis McTaggart. 

1. The true nature of Time, and especially the question 
how far it is absolutely real, have been much discussed in 
philosophy. But there is, I think, no ambiguity in speaking 
of Time. Everyone means by Time the same characteristic 
of experience — a characteristic present in the experience of 
each of us. 

Time, however, does not admit of definition. There are, 
indeed, several general qualities which we can ascribe to it. 
We can say, for example, that it forms a single series, and 
an irreversible series. But these predicates, and any others 
we can add to them, do not form an adequate definition of 
Time. Something might have all of them, and yet not be 
Time. And thus we must say that Time does not admit of 
definition. If a person has not got the idea of Time, no 
combination of other ideas will give it to him. 

2. Eternity is a more ambiguous word. It is used in at 
least three distinct senses : to denote unending time, to de- 
note the timelessness of truths, and to denote the timeless- 
ness of existences. 

The first sense need not detain us long. It is admitted 
to be a rather improper use of the word, and is only im- 
portant on account of its frequency. The great majority 
of people, for example, who say that they believe that they 
will live eternally, do not mean that they believe in a time- 
less life, but that they believe in a life in time which will 

* Address before the Philosophical Union of the University of 
California, August 23, 1907. 


never end. This is not the only idea in the popular concep- 
tion of immortality, nor the best, but it is the most common. 
In this sense the relation of Eternity to Time is, of course, 
very simple. Time — finite Time — is simply a part of Eter- 

"We pass on to the deeper meanings of Eternity. But 
first I should wish to say that, although it may be a shallow 
view of Eternity to see nothing in it but unending Time, yet 
I cannot regard the question of unending existence in time 
with the contempt with which it is sometimes treated. If, 
for example, it were proved that the true nature of man was 
timelessly eternal, yet I cannot see that the question of his 
future existence in time M'ould be either unmeaning or un- 
important. It would, on any theory, have as much meaning 
as the statement of his present existence in time — which may 
be partially inadequate, but has certainly some meaning. 
And it may very well have great importance. This, how- 
ever, is a digression. 

3. The second sense in which Eternity is used is to de- 
note that timelessness which is said to be possessed by all 
general laws, and. indeed, by all truths, particular as well 
as general. "The angles of a triangle are equal to two right 
angles." "The flash of a distant cannon is seen before its 
report is heard." "The date of the Battle of Waterloo is 
the 18th of June, 1815." Of these truths the last two have 
reference to time, and the third is not a general law, but a 
particular fact. Yet, it is said, all three truths are timeless. 
Any man's knowledge of them, indeed, is an event in time. 
It begins at a certain moment, and has a certain duration. 
And there may well have been times when none of these 
truths was known to any person. But the truth, it is said, 
must be distinguished both from our knowledge of it, which 
is in time, and the subject-matter referred to, which may be 
in time. And the truth, it is said, is always timeless. 

There is much to be said for this view ; but also, I think, 
something to be said against it. I do not propose to discuss 


it here. It would take us too far, and is not essential for 
our purpose. For, if we define Eternity in this manner, the 
relation of Eternity to Time is very simple. It is simply 
the relation of a truth to the subject-matter of the truth. 
About every substance existing in time, and about every 
event in time, however slight or ephemeral, many proposi- 
tions — indeed, an infinite number of propositions — will be 
true. And since, on this view, nothing that exists will be 
eternal, but only the truths about them, the relation between 
Eternity and Time will simply be a case of the relation be- 
tween a truth and the reality of which it is true. What that 
relation is, constitutes, indeed, a highly interesting question. 
But the special natures of Eternity and Time will not enter 
into it. 

Nor does the establishment of an Eternity, in this sense, 
give us any fresh view of the nature of reality, or afford us 
a glimpse of any greater permanence or stability in the uni- 
verse than appears on a prima facie view of experience. 
Everything, no doubt, has on this view a certain connection 
with Eternity. But everything has exactly the same con- 
nection, and that without any transformation of its nature, 
but taking it just as it appears. We can look at ourselves 
suh quadam specie aeternitatis, for each of us exists, and the 
truth of his existence is eternal. But then — for an hour or 
two — a bridge-party exists, and it can be looked at sub 
quadam specie aeternitatis, as easily as a human being. 
And so can the bubbles in a glass of soda-water — I do not 
mean the substance of the water, but the shape which it 
assumes for a moment. 

And even events have the same timelessness. If I 
sneezed on last Christmas day, the truth which expresses 
that event is, in this meaning of Eternity, as eternal as 
the truth of love, or of man's existence, or of God's exist- 
ence, if he exist. No person and no thing are eternal on 
this view. But about everything, permanent, ephemeral, 
high and low, there are infinite eternal truths. The con- 


elusion may be correet, but it cannot be called very interest- 
ing or significant. 

The contemplation of eternal truths, indeed, may be in 
the highest degree interesting and significant, though 
whether it is — as Spinoza seems to have held — the highest 
activity of which spirit is capable may be doubted. But 
then the contemplation of eternal truths is not itself a 
truth. It is an activity. And it cannot, therefore, be eter- 
nal in the sense which we have so far discussed. 

4. We pass to the third meaning of Eternity, which will 
occupj'- us for the rest of the paper, in which it is used of 
the timelessness of existences. Existence is, I think, like 
Time, too ultimate to admit of definition. But it is not 
difficult to determine the denotation of the word. In so far 
as substances, or the qualities and relations of substances, 
are real at all, they exist. In so far as events are real, they 
exist. On the other hand, if truths, and the ideas which are 
the constituent parts of truths, have any independent real- 
ity, it is not a reality of existence — though of course our 
perceptions of such truths exist, since they are psychical 
events. Thus the Emperor of China exists. His moral 
character, and the reciprocal influences between him and his 
subjects exist. So do the events of his daily life. On the 
other hand the Law of Excluded ]\Iiddle, the Law of gravi- 
tation, and other true propositions do not exist, although 
my knowledge of the Law of Excluded Middle exists as an 
event in my mind. 

Whatever is temporal exists. This seems to be generally 
admitted, for those thinkers who hold that truths and ideas 
have a reality which is not existence, admit that such reality 
would be timeless. Whatever is temporal then, and is real 
at all, exists. But is the converse true? Is all existence 
temporal ? 

All existence which presents itself as part of our or- 
dinary world of experience presents itself as temporal. But 
there may be reality which does not present itself to us in 


the ordinary course of things, though search may reveal its 
presence. And, again, a thing may present itself in a more 
or less deceptive fashion. And it is frequently maintained 
that we have reason to believe that some reality which exists, 
exists timelessly — not merely in the sense that its existence 
endures through unending time, but in the deeper sense that 
it is not in time at all. 

5. The possibility of timeless existence has been denied. 
Lotze, for example, makes time an essential characteristic of 
existence — his terminology is different but it comes to this. 
But the general opinion of thinkers has been the other way. 
For most men have believed in the existence of a God, and 
most of those who have not believed in a God have believed 
in the existence of some impersonal Absolute. And God or 
the Absolute has generally been conceived as timeless. This 
has not been universal. Lotze regards God as existing in 
time. And among theological writers there have doubtless 
been some who, when they called God eternal, only meant 
that he existed through endless time, or that his nature did 
not change. But as a rule philosophy and theology have 
held that God exists timelessly. 

It seems to me that this opinion — that timeless existence 
is possible — is correct. To exist and to be in time seem to 
me two characteristics, each quite distinct from the other. 
And, while it seems clear that nothing could be in time 
without existing, I fail to see any corresponding impossibil- 
ity in something existing without being in time. If so, time- 
less existence is possible. Whether it is actual — whether we 
have reason to believe that anything does exist out of time 
— is a question which I shall not discuss in this paper. My 
object here is only to discuss the relation of existence in 
Time to existence in Eternity, should there be any such eter- 
nal existence. 

6. We, who are endeavoring to estimate the relation, ap- 
pear to ourselves to exist in time, whether we really do so 
or not. It is not strange, therefore, that men should have 


endeavored to express their relation to the Eternal by terms 
borrowed from Time, and to say that the Eternal is present, 
past, or future. We shall consider which of these terms is 
the most appropriate metaphor, and whether any of them 
are more than metaphoi's. 

In the fii'st place, we may consider that existence in Time 
and existence in Eternity are equally real. Then, since the 
same thing clearly cannot exist both in time and timelessly 
— if both predicates are taken in the same sense and as 
equally real — the only possibility would be that some exist- 
ent being was in time, and some existent being was out of it. 
(This is exemplified in the very common theological view, 
according to which God exists timelessly, but everything else 
exists in time.) What would the relation be. in such a case, 
between the temporal and the eternal ? 

The eternal is often spoken of, under circum- 
stances, as an " eternal present. " As a metaphor this has, 
as we shall see, some appropriateness, but it cannot, I think, 
be taken as more than a metaphor. "Present" is not like 
"existence" a predicate which can be applied in the same 
sense to the temporal and the timeless. On the contrary, its 
meaning seems to include a distinct reference to time, and a 
distinct reference to past and future. The Present has been 
future and will be past. I do not say this is an adequate 
definition of the present, but it does seem to be an essential 
characteristic of the present. If so, the timeless cannot be 
present. The eternal, the timeless, must be distinguished 
from what exists unchanged in time. The Pyramids exist 
in time, but they have existed through thousands of years, 
through all of which they have been present. And suppos- 
ing that huinan beings were really in time, but also im- 
mortal, we could say of every man, after he had been born, 
that he would be endlessly present, since in every moment 
of future time he would exist. But persistence through 
time is, as we have seen, quite a different thing from time- 
less existence. 


7. There is one reason which has, I think, led to regard- 
ing the eternal as an eternal present, which rests on a con- 
fusion. Of anything which exists in time, my judgment 
"It is true that X exists now" is true when X is in the 
present and not when X is in the future or past. Now sup- 
posing that Z exists eternally, my judgment "It is now true 
that Z exists" will be always true. Hence, I believe, it is 
sometimes supposed that Z is always present. But this is a 
confusion. For "It is now true that Z exists, ' ' where the 
"now" refers to the truth of the judgment that Z exists, is 
by no means the same as "It is true that Z exists now," 
where the "now" refers to the existence of Z. A judgment 
is a psychical event in my mind, and is in time, even if I am 
judging of the timeless, so that "now" is an appropriate 
word to use about it. But ' ' now ' ' cannot be used about the 
existence of the timeless itself. 

8. As a metaphor, however, there is considerable fitness 
in calling the eternal a present. In the first place, the 
future and the past are always changing their positions in 
regard to us. The future is alwaj^s coming nearer, while 
yet remaining future. The past is always going farther 
away, while yet remaining past. The present, however, 
while it remains present, does not change in this way. It is 
continually being born out of what was the future. It is 
continually changing into the past. But as present it does 
not change in its relation to us. 

This affords a certain analog.y to the timeless which, of 
course, is not capable of change. The timeless does not 
change, and therefore, nothing in the timeless can bring it 
nearer to us or farther from us. And the constancy which 
this involves has an analogy with the constancy of the pres- 
ent while it remains present. 

9. In the second place the present is alwaj^s regarded as 
having more reality than the past or future. So much is 
this the case that we feel no inappropriateness in saying of 
something which is not existing at present that it does not 


exist. We should not feel the expression unusual if we said 
that the Holy Roman Empire does not exist, which is the 
same expression we should use of More's Utopia. And yet 
we no more mean to deny the past existence of the Holy 
Roman Empire than we mean to deny the present existence 
of the United Kingdom. Now the eternal does not appear 
with the diminished reality of the past and future. It has 
all the reality of which its nature admits. And the eternal 
is generally considered as more real than the temporal, for, 
when some reality is held to be eternal and some temporal, 
it is God or the Absolute which is considered eternal, and 
the created or finite which is considered temporal. It will 
thus resemble the reality of the present more than the reality 
of the past or future, and so it will be an appropriate meta- 
phor to regard it as present. This is especially the case 
when we consider our emotions toward the eternal — a point 
of great importance since the eternal in this case would be, 
as we have just said, God or the Absolute. It is clear that 
the emotions of a man who loved an eternal God would stand 
much closer to the emotions of a man who loved a being 
existent in present time than they would the emotions of a 
man who loved a being who had ceased to exist, or who had 
not yet come into existence. 

10. In the third place it must be remembered that it is 
only the present, and not the past or future, which we re- 
gard as capable of exercising immediate causal influence. 
The future is not conceived as being a cause at all — since 
causality always goes towards what comes later, and never 
back towards what is earlier. The past is certainly regarded 
as acting as a cause, but not immediately. The past has pro- 
duced the present, and so is the remote cause of what the 
present is now occupied in producing. But it is not the im- 
mediate cause of what is now being produced. This, I 
think, is the inevitable way of looking at causality in con- 
nection with time. If it leads to contradictions — and I do 
not say that it does not — they are contradictions which 


spring from the nature of time. They may affect our judg- 
ment as to whether time is ultimately real, but we cannot 
get rid of them while we are looking at things in time. 

Now the eternal can be looked on as a cause. I do not 
wish to enquire whether the view is correct, which is often 
held, that the eternal can be the sole cause of anything. But 
there is no doubt that, if anything eternal exists, it can be a 
part-cause of an effect, so that the result would be different 
from what it would have been except for that eternal being. 
And the causation of this eternal being must be regarded 
as immediate, in the same way as the causation of a being 
present in time. For this reason, also, then, the present is 
an appropriate metaphor for the eternal. But it cannot be 
more than a metaphor. Presentness involves time, and can- 
not be predicated of the timeless. 

11. We must now consider another theory on the subject 
of timeless existence. This holds that all existence is really 
timeless, and that the prima facie appearance of Time which 
our experience presents is, in reality, only an appearance, 
which disguises the nature of the timeless reality. In this 
case we shall not, as in the previous case, divide all existence 
into two facts, one eternal and one temporal. All existence 
will be eternal. And though this will exclude the possibil- 
ity of any of it being really temporal, yet it will leave the 
possibility open that some, or even all, of it may appear to 
us as temporal. 

The theory of the unreality of Time is doubtless very 
difficult to grasp fully. And doubtless it presents very 
many difficulties. I do not intend, in this paper, to advocate 
it, or even to develop it at length, but merely to consider, as 
before, what would be the relation of Time to Eternity, 
should the theory be true. It cannot be doubted that it is 
worth while to consider the consequences of this theory. For 
it is one which is very largely held by philosophers. The 
exact nature of Eternity in Spinoza's philosophy, and its 
relation to time is a very difficult problem, especially since 


it is not improbable that Spinoza himself did not distinguish 
with sufficient clearness between the timelessness of truths 
and the timelessness of existence. But the doctrine that all 
reality is timeless was unquestionably held by Kant — though 
he would not perhaps have used this expression. It was 
held by Schopenhauer. It was a fundamental doctrine of 
Hegel's philosophy, and in this respect Hegelians have fol- 
lowed their master more closely than has been the case with 
other doctrines. And, at the present day, it is held by the 
greatest of living philosophers, Mr. Bradley. If we turn 
from philosophers to theologians we shall find the same doc- 
trine. The view that all reality is timeless is not so general, 
of course, among theologians, as the view that some reality 
is timeless. But theology has never in any country or in 
any age, remained for long together untouched by mysticism. 
And the unreality of time, although it is not held by all 
mystics, is one of the most characteristic mystical tenets. 

Once more in the Far East, where philosophy and theol- 
ogy do not admit even of that partial distinction which is 
possible in the West, we find the doctrine of the unreality of 
time assumes cardinal importance. 

A theory which has attracted so much support, and 
which continues to attract so much at the present day, must, 
right or wrong, have much to be said in its favor. Teachers 
so great, and so different, do not adopt such a doctrine with- 
out grave reasons. For my part I am convinced that in 
spite of the very great difficulties which belong to the theory, 
it must be accepted as true. But at present I am merely 
concerned to point out that, whether the theory be true or 
false, it is no waste of time to consider any consequences 
that would follow from accepting it. 

12. What is the precise description which we must give 
to Time on this theory ? We cannot call it a mistake, for to 
perceive things in time does not necessarily involve an er- 
roneous judgment. If a person who perceives things as in 
time believes that they really are in time, that would of 


course be an erroneous judgment. But if the theory is true, 
a person who believed the theory would not be making any 
erroneous judgments on the subject. His judgment would 
be " I perceive things as in time, and I cannot perceive them 
any other way, but they are not really in time, but time- 
less. " In this judgment there would be no error. And 
thus the perception of things in time must not be called a 
mistake. It hides, more or less, the true nature of things, 
but it does not involve making any false judgment about 
their nature. 

And since the perception of things in time does not neces- 
sarily involve an error, it follows that, when the error has 
been there, and is removed, it will not alter the perception 
of things in time. If I begin by holding the view — which 
may be wrong, but is certainly the most obvious view — that 
things are really in time, and are then convinced by philo- 
sophical arguments that they are really timeless, I shall, 
none the less, continue to perceive the things in time. 

Thus we must conceive our perception of things in time 
to be an illusion, of the same character as those which make 
us see the sun at sunset larger than at midday, and make us 
see a straight stick crooked when it enters the water, I do 
not, after childhood, suppose the stick to be really crooked. 
But however clearly I may satisfy myself, either by reason- 
ing or by the sense of touch, that the stick has not changed 
its shape since it was put in the water, I shall continue to 
get visual sensations from it resembling those which would 
be given me by a crooked stick in the air. Of this sort is the 
illusion of time — though it is far more general, and far more 
difficult to grasp. It hides part of the truth, it suggests a 
wrong judgment — for the obvious conclusion from our ex- 
perience, as I said just now, is to hold that things are really 
in time. But it does not necessarily involve a wrong judg- 
ment, and it is not removed by a right judgment. 

13. What relation, then, does Time bear to Eternity on 
such a theory as this? The answer will, I thing, vary. 


When we see existence under the form of time, the theory 
tells us, to see it more or less as it really is not. At the same 
time, the appearance is not mere illusion. We perceive, in 
spite of this illusive form of time, some of the real nature 
of the timeless reality. So if we look through a window of 
red glas-s we shall see the objects outside correctly as to their 
form, size, and motion, though not correctly as to their color. 
The question is, of course, much more complicated here. We 
cannot get round on the other side of time, as we can on the 
other side of the glass, and so discover by direct observation 
what part of our pre\'1ous experience was due to the form of 
time. And to reach and justify an idea of what the true 
timeless nature of existence may be is a very hard task, 
though I think not an impossible one. We must content 
ourselves here with the general results that where existence 
appears to us under the form of time, we see it partly, but 
not entirely, as it really is. 

Thus the way in which, at any moment of time, we re- 
gard existence is more or less inadequate. And it seems to 
nie that the relation of time to Eternity depends on the 
relative inadequacy of our view of reality at different mo- 
ments of time. 

The decisive question — this is the theory I wish to put 
before you — is whether there is any law according to which 
states in time, as we pass from earlier states to later, tend 
to become more adequate or less adequate representations of 
the timeless reality. 

14. Let us first consider what would happen if there were 
no such law. In that case there would be no tendency for 
the future, because it was future, to resemble the timeless 
reality more or less than the present does. There might be 
oscillations, even then, in the adequacy with which time rep- 
resented Eternity. At one moment my view of the universe 
might distort the truth either more or less than my view 
of the moment before had distorted it. But such oscil- 
lations are like the waves of the sea. At a particular 


moment the surface at a particular point may be higher than 
at the moment before. But this does not give us the least 
reason for concluding that an hour later on it will also be 
higher than it was at the past moment, or that the average 
height is rising. 

If the adequacy of the time-representations is in this con- 
dition, the relation of Time to Eternity will, I think, be ex- 
pressible in the same way in which we expressed it when 
Time and Eternity were taken as equally real. That is to 
say, the most appropriate metaphor for the relation is to 
consider Eternity as a present, but this is nothing more than 
a metaphor. 

The metaphor is appropriate for the same reasons as it 
was before. In the first place, the relation of Eternity to 
time is constant. In some particular moments of time we 
may, as I have said, get a less adequate representation of 
Eternity than at others, but if we take time as a whole it 
neither approximates to Eternity nor diverges from it. 
And, for the reasons explained above, there is a certain ap- 
propriateness in using presentness as a metaphor for this 
unchanging relation. 

In the second place, the metaphor is appropriate here, 
as it was before, to express the reality of the eternal. The 
eternal has not that diminished reality which we attribute 
to the past and the future. Indeed, its reality is relatively 
greater here than it was on the other theory. In that theory 
the Eternal was generally the most real, for it generally in- 
cluded God or the Absolute. But here it is an inevitable 
result of the theory that the Eternal is not only the most 
real, but the only true reality. It is more important than 
before, therefore, to express it by a metaphor drawn from 
the greatest reality in time. 

In the third place, the Eternal must certainly, on this 
theory, be regarded as exercising immediate causal influence, 
or, rather, as having a quality of which causal influence is 
an imperfect representation. For everything depends on 
the nature of the eternal, which is the only true reality. 


At the same time, to say that the eternal is eternally 
present remains a metaphor only. It is. not a literally cor- 
rect description. For the present, as we saw, is essentially 
a time-determination, and the eternal is not in Time. 

15. So far, I think, I have not said mnch that is contro- 
versial, and certainly nothings that I should claim as original. 
But I have now a thesis to put forward which, whether it is 
original or not, is certainly controversial. I submit that al- 
though to us, who judge from the midst of the time-series, 
the presentness of the eternal can never be more than a 
metaphor, yet, under certain conditions, the assertion that 
the eternal was past or future might be much more than a 
metaphor. This statement will doubtless seem highly para- 
doxical. The eternal is the timeless, and how can the time- 
less have a position in the time-series? Still, I believe this 
position can be defended, and I will now attempt to sketch 
my defense of it. 

16. So far we have considered what would happen if 
there were no law according to which states in time, as we 
pass from earlier states to later, tend to become more 
adequate or less adequate representations of the timeless 
reality. But what would happen if there were such a law ? 

Events in time take place in an order — a fixed and ir- 
reversible order. The flash of a distant cannon is perceived 
before the report. The report is not perceived before the 
flash. The Battle of Waterloo was fought before the Re- 
form Bill was passed. The Reform Bill was not passed be- 
fore the Battle of Waterloo was fought. Now what deter- 
mines this order 1 

The mere form of time does not do so. If things happen 
in time they must happen in an order, and a fixed and ir- 
reversible order. So much the nature of time demands. 
But it gives us no help as to what the order shall be. If 
the Battle of Waterloo and the passing of the Reform Bill 
are to take place in time at all, the nature of time requires 
either that they shall be simultaneous or that the Battle shall 


precede the Bill, or that the Bill shall precede the Battle. 
But it gives us no help towards determining which of these 
three alternatives shall be taken. 

What does determine the order of events in time, on the 
supposition, which we are now discussing, that Time is only 
an illusory way of regarding a timeless reality? I believe 
myself that there is good reason to hold that the order is de- 
termined by the adequacy with which the states represent 
the eternal reality, so that those states come next together 
which only vary infinitesimally in the degree of their ad- 
equacy, and that the whole of the time-series shows a steady 
process of change of adequacy — I do not say yet in which 

I think something can be said towards proving this state- 
ment, but it would want far more than a single lecture to 
say it, and I do not propose even to sketch it now. Nor is it 
necessarj^ for our present purpose, which is only to consider 
what the relation of Time to Eternity would be under vari- 
ous circumstances. Let us now proceed to consider what 
that relation would be under these circumstances. 

17. Let us suppose, then, that the states of the time-series 
were such that each state was a more adequate expression of 
the reality than the state on one side of it, and a less ad- 
equate representation of reality than the state on the other 
side of it, so that they formed a continuous series in respect 
of the adequacy of their representation. And let us sup- 
pose that the most adequate of these representations — which 
will be, of course, at one end of the series — differe from the 
reality it represents only by an infinitesimal amount. What 
L3 the relation here between Time and Eternity? 

This will depend upon the direction in the series in which 
greater adequacy is to be found. It may be, in the first 
place, that the later stages of the time-series are more ad- 
equate than the earlier stages. In that case the present 
stage will be more adequate than any of the past, and less 
adequate than any of the future. 


We may go further than this. If time is unreal, as we 
have supposed, then the illusion that time exists can no more 
be in time than anything else can. The time-series, though 
a series -which gives us the illusion of Time, is not itself in 
time. And the series is really therefore just a series of rep- 
resentations, some more adequate and some less adequate, 
arranged in the order of their adequacy. This — the series 
of adequacy — is the only serial element which remains as 
real, if time is to be condemned as unreal. 

When, therefore, we say that a certain stage in the time- 
series is still in the future, the real truth, if the theory we 
are considering is correct, is that the stage in question is a 
less inadequate representation of the timeless reality of 
existence than our present stage. 

Now the timeless reality itself contains all its own nature. 
And therefore it will stand to the least inadequate of the 
representations of itself as this stands to the next least in- 
adequate, and so on. Since, by our hypothesis, the repre- 
sentations of reality in the time-series approach the reality 
till the inadequacy finally becomes infinitesimal, the last of 
the series of time-representations will differ only infinites- 
imally from the reality itself. And, since time is contin- 
uous, the stage before the last will differ from the last in 
the same way — by being infinitesimal^ less adequate. 

Thus the timeless reality — the Eternal — may itself be 
considered as the last stage in a series, of which the other 
stages are those which we perceive as the time-series, — those 
stages nearest to the timeless reality being those which we 
perceive as the later stages in time. When, therefore, we 
are looking at things as in time — as we must look at them — 
we must conceive the Eternal as the final stage in the time- 
process. We must conceive it as being in the future, and 
as being the end of the future. Time runs up to Eternity, 
and ceases in Eternity. 

18. This conclusion will doubtless be rejected by many 
people without further examination as grossly absurd. How 


can the timeless have a position at the end of a time-series ? 
How can Eternity begin when Time ceases ? How can Eter- 
nity begin at all ? 

The answer to these objections, I think, is as follows: Of 
course, on this view, Eternity is not really future, and does 
not really begin. For Time is unreal, and therefore noth- 
ing can be future, and nothing can begin. What, then, is 
the justification of regarding Eternity as future ? It lies, I 
maintain, in the fact that Eternity is as future as anything 
can be. It is as truly future as tomorrow or next year. 
And, therefore, when, taking Time as real, as we must do in 
everyday life, we are endeavoring to estimate the relation 
of Time to Eternity, we may legitimately say that Eternity 
is future. From the point of view of time, the events of 
to-morrow and next year are future. And if Eternity is as 
truly future as they are, it is legitimate to say that Eternity 
is future. It is not absolutely true but it is as true as any 
other statement about futurity. And it is much truer than 
to say that Eternity is present or past. 

Let us recapitulate. If time is unreal then the time- 
series is a series of more or less adequate representations of 
the timeless reality, and this series itself is not really in time. 
If what determines the position of the stages in the time- 
series is the different degrees of adequacy with which they 
represent the timeless reality, then the series which is not 
really a series in time, is really a series of degrees of ade- 
quacy. If the most adequate of these stages has only in- 
finitesimal inadequacy, then the timeless reality, in its own 
completeness, forms the last stage of the series. And if 
the distinction between earlier and later stages is that the 
later are the more adequate, then — since the future is later 
than the present — we must place the timeless reality in the 
future, and at the end of the future. 

Thus to say that Eternity is future on this theory is far 
more accurate than it was, in the two previous cases, to say 
that Eternity was present. For in those cases Eternity, 


thouefli it had some analogy to the present, was not as fully 
present as to-day's sunlight is, which is in the fullest sense 
present. But in this case Eternity is as really future as to- 
morrow 's sunlight, which is in the fullest sense future. The 
presentness of Eternity was only a metaphor. Its futurity, 
in this case, is as true as any futurity. 

19. Let us pass to another case. Let us suppose, as be- 
fore, that the truth of the time-series was a series of repre- 
sentations arranged by their degrees of adequacy, and run- 
ning on until the extreme term of the series only differed 
from the timeless reality itself by an infinitesimal amount. 
But let us suppose that the series runs the other way, so that 
it is the more adequate members which appear as the earlier 
stages of the time-series, and the less adequate members 
which appear as the later stages of the time-series. In this 
case we should have to regard the timeless reality as the be- 
ginning of the past, instead of as the end of the future. "We 
should have to regard ourselves as having started for it, not 
as destined to reach it. It is obvious that from a practical 
point of view the difference between these two cases may be 
very great — I shall return to the practical importance of 
the relation later on. It seems to me that there are reasons 
for supposing that the first of the two cases is the one which 
reall)^ exists, and that Eternity is to be regarded as in the 
future and not as in the past. But our object here is mere- 
ly to realize that, if the second case is true, and it is the 
more adequate members which appear as the earlier, then 
Eternity must be regarded as in the past. 

20. For the sake of completeness we may mention a third 
ease, though I think it one which is very improbable. Let 
us suppose that the stages of the series were arranged, not 
simply in order of adequacy, but on some principle which 
placed the least adequate in the middle, and made them more 
adequate as they diverged from this at either end. And let 
us suppose, as before, that the more adequate representa- 
tions only differed from the timeless reality infinitesimally. 


Then it is clear that the timeless reality would stand to the 
earliest member of the series, as that stood to the next 
earliest. And it is also clear that the timeless reality would 
stand to the latest member as this stood to the next latest. 
And therefore the timeless reality would be a term at each 
end of the series, which would start from it and would re- 
turn to it. In that case we should have to consider the Eter- 
nal both as the beginning of the past, and the end of the 

21. Thus we see that, under certain suppositions, the 
Eternal may be said to be past or future, not only as a meta- 
phor, but with as much truth as anything else can be past 
or future. But this is not the case about the present. On 
no supposition could we be justified in saying now that the 
Eternal was present. If it were present, it would bear the 
relation to our present position in the time-series that the 
present does — that is, of course, it would have to be identical 
with it. And the timeless reality is certainly not identical 
with a position like our present one, which represents it as 
in time, and, therefore, according to our theory, represents 
it inadequately. On several suppositions, as we have seen 
above, the most appropriate metaphor for the Eternal is 
that of an eternal present. But on no supposition can it be 
more than a metaphor. 

22. It remains to say, as to the cases in which the Eter- 
nal is regarded as being the end of the future or the begin- 
ning of the past, that it is possible that the past or the future 
in question might be infinite in length. I do not see any- 
thing which should exclude this supposition, and enable us 
to assert that the present has been reached in a finite time 
from the Eternal, or that the Eternal will be reached in a 
finite time from the present. 

In mathematics that which only happens at an infinite 
distance is said to be the same as that which never happens 
at all. Thus two parallel straight lines are said to meet at 
an infinite distance. Since mathematicians adopt this meth- 


od of expression it has probably some real convenience for 
mathematics. But, apart from the conventions of that 
special science, it seems to me that there is a very real differ- 
ence between a series such that it reaches a result after an 
infinitel.y long process, and a series such that it never reaches 
that result at all. 

Even, therefore, if the series of stages which intervene 
between the present and the timeless reality were such as 
would appear as an infinitely long time, I should see no im- 
propriety in speaking of the timeless reality as the extreme 
stage of the series, from which it started, or to which it at- 
tains. At the same time, I see no more reason to suppose the 
length infinite than to suppose it finite. 

23. I propose to devote the rest of my paper to a con- 
sideration of some aspects of the possibility that it may be 
right to regard Eternity as the end of the future. 

It will be seen that this view has a very strong resemb- 
lance to a very common Christian view. The Christian 
heaven is sometimes looked upon as enduring through un- 
ending time. But it is also often looked upon as a timeless 
state. At the same time, it is generally looked on as in the 
future. We are not in it now. We have not been in it 
before birth — indeed, most Christians deny that we existed 
at all before the birth of our present bodies. We are sep- 
arated from it by death — not, indeed, that death alone would 
place us in it, but that we shall not reach it till we have 
passed through death. 

This has not been the universal view of Christianity, but 
I think it cannot be denied that it has generally been held 
that heaven was in the future. Heaven may be held to be 
a state of the mind, not a place or an environment. But 
still it is a state of the mind which is yet for us in the future. 
"Now we see in a mirror, darkly; but then face to face." 
(1st Epistle to the Corinthians, XIII, 12.) The beginning 
may be present here, but not the completion. Moreover, 
even what is attained of it on earth has to be attained, to 


be gained where it was not before, and so was once in the 
future and is still for many men in the future. 

This view of the Christian heaven has been severely 
criticised lately, both from inside and from outside Chris- 
tianity. It has been said that heaven, if it is perfect, must 
be timeless, and that it is generally admitted to be timeless, 
and that therefore it is absurd to place it in the future, and 
it should rather be regarded as an eternal present. 

The critics have a certain subjective justification. They 
have investigated the relation of Time to Eternity more 
deeply than the majority of those who hold the view criti- 
cised. They have perceived the difficulties of giving Eter- 
nity a place at the end of the time-series, while many of 
those who held that heaven was future had not perceived 
those difficulties at all. Yet we must hold, I submit, that 
the view of heaven as now future might, under certain cir- 
cumstances, be much truer than the view of heaven as now 
present could be under any circumstances. 

Let us recapitulate once more the conditions. The Eter- 
nal can be rightly regarded as future if time is unreal, if the 
series which appears to us as a time-series is a series of rep- 
resentations arranged according to adequacy, if the highest 
of the series only differs by an infinitesimal amount from 
the reality represented, and if it is the more adequate rep- 
resentations which appear as latest in the series. 

Now manj^ people who hold heaven to be future would 
hold that it was attained gradually, by advancing stages 
which got higher till the last led into the timeless perfection 
without any breach of continuity, and that the higher of 
these stages came later. Three of the four conditions are 
thus complied with. The first — that time is unreal — is, of 
course, less frequent. But if this is combined with the 
other three — as it often is, and may very well be — then it 
seems to me that the idea of a timeless heaven as future is 
quite justifiable, and that the Christians who held this be- 
lief, while not seeing so deeply as such critics as Mr. Bradley 


and Mr. Ilaldane, had in point of fact grasped the truth, 
thoucfh -without seeing very clearly Avhy it was true. 

24. The practical importance of the question whether the 
Eternal can be regarded as future appears to me to be enor- 
mous. The supreme question, from the point of view of 
practical importance, is whether good or evil predominates 
in the universe, and in what proportion. The practical im- 
portance of philosophy consists, not in the guidance it gives 
us in life — it gives us, I think, very little — but in the chance 
that it may answer this supreme question in a cheerful man- 
ner, that it may provide some solution which shall be a con- 
solation and an encouragement. 

In what way can we hope to do this? It cannot be done 
by empirical induction. Even granting that we have evi- 
dence for coming to a favorable conclusion about the state 
of people on this planet at the present time — and this is all 
we can know empirically — it would be far too small a basis 
for an induction which would give us even the least proba- 
bility as to the universe as a whole through the whole of 

The belief in a God who is on the side of the good has 
been one of the supports on which men have most often 
tried to base an optimistic solution of this question. But, 
even if we accept the existence of such a God, it will not by 
itself afford sufficient ground for what we seek. We are 
wrecked against the old difficulty — the difficulty which 
Augustine stated with perfect clearness, and which theists, 
in all the centuries that have passed, have never avoided. 
Either God can do everything he likes, and then evil, since 
it exists, cannot be repugnant to him, and his existence af- 
fords no ground for limiting its extent or duration. Or 
else God cannot do everything he likes, and then we cannot 
be certain that evil, in spite of God's efforts, may not pre- 
dominate over good now, and be destined to increase in the 

Attempts have been made to prove the predominance 


of good from the intrinsic nature of good and evil. But 
here, as it seems to me, any argument which proves anything 
proves too much, for they all tend to prove that there is no 
evil at all. And such an argument may, I fear, be dismi.ssed 
as a reductio ad absurduni. 

25. What other course remains — to those of us who are 
not so happily constituted as to be able to believe a thing 
because we want to believe it? One attempted solution re- 
mains — that on which was reared the most magnificent op- 
timism that philosophy has ever seen, the optimism of 
Hegel. This solution rests on the unreality of Time. Only 
the Eternal reality exists, and the Eternal is perfectly good. 
All the evil which we suppose to be in existence is part of 
the Time-element which we wrongly suppose to be in exist- 
ence. And so there is no evil at all. 

This solution, however, in the form which it takes with 
Hegel, will not give us what we seek. In the first place, it 
has really no optimistic result. To tell us that evil is unreal 
does not make what we think to be evil in the least less un- 
pleasant to sufi'er or in the least less depressing to expect. 
And even if it had that effect on the people who know the 
truth, how about the people who do not know it ? The only 
ground of optimism would be found in a belief that this 
illusion of evil was limited in quantity or transitory in ap- 
parent duration. And the assertion of its unreality would 
not permit us to limit the extent or the duration of our il- 
lusion of its reality. 

In the second place, I do not think that the theory can 
be accepted as true. It is possible that there is no sin in 
existence — indeed, if time is unreal, it seems inevitable that 
there should be no sin. It is even possible that there should 
be no pain — though that is not so simple. But evil is 
wider than sin or pain. And it seems, to me at any rate, 
certain that even the illusion that I am sinful or in pain is 
evil. I may not be really sinful or really in pain, but in 
some sense the illusion of the sin or pain exists, and that is 


a real evil. If we doubt it, let us ask whether we should not 
think the universe better if a given illusion of sin or pain 
was rephiced with an experience of virtue or pleasure. Or 
let us ask whether we should not blame a creator who need- 
lessly inserted such illusions into the universe he created. 

26. But if we abandon the attempt to base an optimistic 
solution on the unreality of time through the unreality of 
evil, yet there is another way in which the unreality of time 
may help us. 

It is a certain fact — which may some day be accounted 
for, but which cannot be denied, whether it is accounted for 
or not — that good and evil in the future affect us quite dif- 
ferently from good and evil in the past. Let us suppose 
two men, one of whom had been very happj'' for a million 
years, and was just about to become very miserable for 
another million years, while the other had been very miser- 
able for a million years and was now about to be very happy 
for the same period. If we suppose them to remember the 
past and to be certain of the future, it is certain that the 
second would be in a very much more desirable position than 
the first, although the total amount of life which each would 
be contemplating shows exactly the same amount of pleasure 
and pain. 

Past evil, as such, does not sadden us like future evil. 
"We may be saddened by the results which it has left behind 
in the present, or which may be expected to appear in the 
future — if those results are themselves evil, which of course 
is not always the case with the present results of past evils. 
Or the remembrance of past evil may remind us that the 
universe is not wholly good, and make us fear for evil in 
the future. And a particular past evil may give us, not 
merely this general apprehension, bvit particular reasons to 
fear some particular future evil. And, once more, if past 
evil has been caused by the wickedness of any person, the 
fact that the evil has passed away will not affect the fact 
that the responsible person is still wicked, unless indeed he 
has improved and repented. 


27. If, therefore, we arrived at a theoiy of the universe 
which was unable to deny the existence of evil, or to assert 
that over the whole of time good predominated over evil, or 
that it did so at present, there would be still a chance for 
optimism. If such a theory were able to assert that, what- 
ever the state of the universe now, it would inevitably im- 
prove, and the state of each conscious individual in it would 
inevitably improve, until they reached a final state of per- 
fect goodness, or at least of very great goodness — surely 
this would be accepted as a cheerful theory. Surely this 
would give, as much as any belief can give, consolation and 
encouragement in the evils of the present. Indeed, it is 
nearly as favorable a theory as could be framed, for if we 
went much beyond this in the direction of optimism, we 
should soon reach the denial of evil, and then, as was said 
above, our theory would break itself against facts which 
cannot be denied. 

28. But how could such a theory be established? No 
empirical evidence which we could reach would afford even 
the slightest presumption in favor of such a vast conclusion. 
And how can we prove a priori that good will predominate 
over evil more in the future than it has in the past, or than 
it does in the present? What link can a priori reasoning 
find between the later and the better. 

I do not see how it can be done if Time is to be taken as 
rekl. But if Time is unreal, I do see a possibility — more I 
do not venture to say at present — of such a demonstration. 
I do see a possibility of showing that the timeless reality 
would be, I do not say unmixedly good, but very good, bet- 
ter than anything which we can now experience or even 
imagine. I do see a possibility of showing that all that 
hides this goodness from us — in so far as it is hidden — is the 
illusion of time. And I do see a possibility of showing that 
the different representations which appear to us as the time- 
series are in such an order that those which appear as later 
are the more adequate, and the last only infinitesimally dif- 


fers from the timeless reality. In that case we must look on 
the Eternal as the end of Time ; and on Time as essentially 
the process by which we reach to the Eternal and its per- 

The reality of the Eternal can only haA'e comfort for us, 
then, if we conceive it as future, since it is to the future 
that optimism must look. Nor do I see how we can regard 
the future optimistically unless we regard it as the progres- 
sive manifestation of the Eternal. Whether this can be 
done, will be for the future to pronounce — the possibilities 
of which I have spoken may prove to be demonstrations or 
to be the merest fallacies. Only I do see a chance of a 
happy solution in the relation of Time to Eternity, and, as 
philosophy stands at present, I see it nowhere else. 



Geoege H. Boke. 

The pessimism that exists in the minds of many thought- 
ful Americans over the outlook for democracy is due to the 
distressing inability to see how the present situation of an 
inert and exploited citizenry can be bettered. Governed to 
so large an extent by the secret rule of an exploiting class 
which largely controls the political machinery to its o^\ti 
ends, the mass of good citizens presents the bewildered front 
of helpless sheep with the cry of the wolf-pack resounding 
night by night. There is a sound faith among us that there 
is a way out of our helplessness, but thus far we haven't 
found it. Political reforms are but palliatives at best. 
Prosecution of real offenders, — the corrupters of corrupters 
in the body politic, — is difficult, sporadic, and but a prepar- 
ation for the way out. Some things, however, are plain as 
we pass. One is that in some way the new generation of 
leaders in our social order, — the men of the professions, 
trade, commerce, transportation, government, — must be 
quickened into a higher sense of public honor than exists 
among the present generation of these types. This is not, 
on the whole, so much a matter of character, as it is a mat- 
ter of awakening the consciousness to the standard of social 
honor, and there fixing it — lining a man up to fight under 
the banner of democracy instead of leaving him alone until 
he is draAvn by private advantage into the ranks of the 
army of selfish interests fighting against it. 


Our universities should be quickening centers of democ- 
racy. They are at present the dead spots of democracy, 
unresponsive, unquickened, standing for nothing that 
counts in the present struggle — the students absorbed in 
their games and little life like big school-boys, hearing no 
battle-call, unheeding the messages coming from the field of 
action, giving forth no virile voice of defense and taking 
no spirited stand for warfare against the foes of their own 

European universities have been centers of freedom at 
all critical times. In Russia to-day the university is a place 
of rebellious mass-meeting; the students are active in the 
propaganda of freedom. Young men and young women 
risk careers, position, life, and even more, in carrying the 
message of rebellion against oppression to the inert mass of 
their fellowmen. In America the college student himself 
belongs to the inert mass. From his ranks as he goes forth 
come the very men that assist in the covert destruction of 
the national life for private gain. The great student bodies 
of America give forth no cry of freedom, no expression of 
heroism, no willingnass to sacrifice a career for a principle. 
As Governor Hughes said to the writer, "These young men 
leave our colleges, go out into our cities with but one aim, — 
to get on ; they lack the sentiment of honor. ' ' 

The college man will attend a football rally en masse. 
Yet so indifferent is he to the currents of life about him, 
that lately in the University of California his leaders dared 
not call a mass meeting of students to record itself for good 
government after the recent victory at the November elec- 
tion in San Francisco. "The men won't be interested 
enough to attend in any number," said the President of the 
Associated Students, "and we run the risk of having it fall 
flat." Likewise when it was proposed that some time be 
given at the football rally, which came a couple of days 
after the election, for the student body to record itself on 
the matter of the fierce fight for good government, this was 


vetoed by the Committee in charge on the ground that the 
men would not listen to anything but football. This is not 
the record of boys, but of young, powerful men of rifle- 
bearing age. Their prototypes of '76 and '61 were think- 
ing and acting, and leading other men. These young men 
are just as brave; but because the enemy to-day is of the 
intangible, secret sort, and because there is no fife and drum 
and drilling of regiments and flying colors to raise thrills 
and enthusiasm, they are yet asleep — almost sound asleep. 

The League of the Republic, Militant, was organized in 
May, 1907, at the University of California, as a means of 
"lining up" the college student in the social battle now on 
in America, giving him opportunity to take his stand, to be- 
come acquainted with the real situation in the battle of the 
"interests" against the people, and to become himself a 
present force on the side of the democracy that is educating 
him. He may not be interested. He may prefer his priv- 
ate affairs, his games, and his social life. If so; he has 
taken his stand there. The League of the Republic, Mili- 
tant, says to him, however, "Time now for marching or- 
ders. Be something — join one army or the other. Here's 
a chance to line-up for Democracy. ' ' 

President Roosevelt says the trouble is that the vital col- 
lege man doesn't join the Civic League bodies, and Mr. 
Heney and Mr. Steffens tell us that this same \ital college 
man is carefully and subtly steered into the ranks of the 
"special interests" when he leaves his university. They 
see to the success of that man who can take orders, put his 
clients' affairs above the standards of honor, and connive 
at the evasion of law and public corruption. The League of 
the Republic, Militant, urges the vital strong man to come 
in and work. There's a bigger game to be played than 
football. A fight that will be hard and long; a battle-call 
that challenges every drop of true, red blood in a man. No 
college man of spirit can hold out against this call to arms 
if he once hears it. At present they don't hear — most of 


them don't. The clash seems to them far away, the issue 
unreal, their own interest only abstract. But the day comes 
when man by man each will hear the call, and respond. 
The Leatrue of the Republic, Militant, differs from the Civic 
League Societies of many of the collejios in its militant idea. 
It is founded for the purpose of enrolling the college stu- 
dents of America on the side of democracy. Its plan is to 
arouse the somnolent heroism of the college man, who is at 
bottom vital, courageous, and spirited ; to awaken his 
social consciousness ; to enlighten him as to the real condi- 
tions that confront his egress from college to life; to con- 
vert him to the religion of true democracy, — and finally, 
to enroll him as a part of a great army of spirited and in- 
telligent men who shall stand against the present horde of 
organized self seeking interests undermining the Republic. 

The plan of the League of the Republic, Militant, is to 
be concrete, not academic. "Wherever its members can 
share in the political life about them, to do so actively: at 
all events to get an acquaintance with actual conditions by 
every means possible, some of which shall be by contact. 

Concretely, the work up to the present time has been of 
the foundation sort. Speakers have come before the League 
with information as to conditions in public life, of the work 
of university students for freedom in foreign universities, 
and of the possibilities in our own midst. During the re- 
cent campaign in San Francisco, the members came in con- 
tact with active political conditions to some extent. The 
League has taken a definite stand to support, in any way in 
its power, the efforts of the present prosecution to bring 
those accused of public corruption to trial, believing in the 
cause as a great moral and social issue, and having entire 
faith in the honesty and uprightness of motive of the men 
who are carrying this work of the people in the midst of 
attack and vituperation. The League believes that a cam- 
paign of moral arousal needs to be waged in the student 
body on this very issue, — in line with the concrete purpose 


for which the Lea^e of the Republic was formed. It plans 
a crusade among college men, finally organizing in every 
American college and university, sweeping as a wave of the 
awakened consciousness of democracy over the youth of the 

Its beginning has been quiet. It was organized in the 
University of California and in Stanford University, pri- 
marily among the law students, in May, 1907. In the Uni- 
versity of California the League meetings have steadily 
gone on as the founding of a permanent institution. 

To the casual observer, the League was of very little ef- 
fect. Some of the students who came in under the en- 
thusiasm of the first idea, failed to attend. But the real 
promise of the League is in the steady, persistent faith of 
a small body of men. These men are willing to deliver 
stroke after stroke in the dark, believing in the cause they 
stand for, and its ultimate victory. These men come to the 
League meeting as a Puritan attended church ; they earnest- 
ly lay their devotion upon the altar of Democracy. They 
go forth upon the propaganda of freedom in the Dem- 
ocracy with ardent faith. These men remember that Gar- 
rison fought almost single-handed during a generation for 
race freedom — that he saw a vision of freedom when his 
respectable contempories saw only a disturber of the peace. 
They think the conditions to-day are ready for the awaken- 
ing, but they are willing to enlist for a long campaign if 

The time is at hand for the spread of the Gospel of True 
Democracy. Young college men are slumbering fires of 
spiritedness. Who shall be able to stay the flame of Dem- 
ocracy which shall one day flash forth from these men ? In 
this cause, the League of the Republic, Militant, plants its 



William Dallam Armes. 

In the course of a study of London as it was in the time 
of Chaucer, the same city as it was known to Shakespeare, 
and the London of Milton, I have had occasion to consider 
the effects of several virulent outbreaks of "the plague;" 
and am led to publish some of the results by the hope that 
this study of the past may contain some lessons for the pres- 

Everyone knows that London was devastated by plague 
just before the great fire ; many know that it suffered from 
the same dread malady in the 14th century; few realize 
that in the intervening centuries the plague was almost 
continuously present, a constant menace. A brief account 
of its course before 1600 may, therefore, not be out of place 
as preliminary to a consideration of the 17th century statis- 

"The plague" first appeared in Europe during the 11th 
century. The common opinion is that it was introduced 
by the returning crusaders; but as there was a severe out- 
break in 1094, two years before the First Crusade began, 
the means of introduction must be sought elsewhere, and is 
probably to be found in the commercial relations with the 
Orient. Later visitations were, however, undoubtedly at- 
tributable to the commonly assigned cause : the returning 
army of Frederick Barbarossa, for instance, was practically 
destroyed by the plague in Italy in 1167. Another outbreak 


occurred in 1270, and in the fifty years that followed 1294, 
in which it was especially severe, there were six. 

The culmination came in the middle of the 14th century, 
when there was an outbreak that surpassed in destructive- 
ness all others of which there are historical records. Plague 
appeared in Constantinople in 1347, and by 1350 it had 
spread over the whole of Europe, causing, it has been es- 
timated, the death of fully a quarter of the population 
before it subsided. It reached England in 1348, and in 
London alone carried away a hundred thousand persons. 
One contemporaneous writer (Galfridus le Baker de Swyn- 
broke) says that "it cleared many country villages entirely 
of every human being" and attacked "the whole of England 
so violently that scarcely one in ten of either sex was left 
alive." This may be an exaggeration; but if so, it is the 
exaggeration of an eye-witness and shows the impression 
made upon him by the horrors of which he writes. Certain 
it is, that the great mortality among the laboring classes 
brought about a social and economic revolution and that 
agriculture and trade did not recover from the paralyzing 
effects of the visitation for fully two hundred years. 

Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, outbursts of 
plague were not infrequent. It was in London in 1543 and 
1548, and between 1550 and 1553 "it spread itself success- 
ively over almost all the habitable world. ' ' In 1549 Cran- 
mer compiled the prayer-book of the English church: nat- 
urally its litany contained the petition, "From plague, pes- 
tilence, . . . and from sudden death, good Lord, de- 
liver us ; " even as an earlier English litany had begged for 
deliverance ' ' from the fury of the Northmen. ' ' 

But London was free from plague only fifty-two years 
out of a hundred and thirty-six for which there are records. 
In less than seven months — April to November — in 1563 
23,000 died of it; in 1581-2, 6930; in ten months of 1592— 
March to December— 11,503 ; and in 1593, 10,662 : a total 
of 52,095 in forty months. 


It may be argued that some of these figures are mere 
estimates ; but a study of the statistics for the 17th century, 
as compiled by ]\Ir. Baldwin Latham from the annual rec- 
ords of weddiug-s, christenings, and burials, and published 
in Simpson's "A Treatise on the Plague" (Cambridge, 
Eng., The University Press, 1905), will show that the esti- 
mates are well within the bounds of probabilitj^ ; for in four 
years of that century the recorded burials of plague victims 
were over 150,000. This is no estimate, but recorded fact ; 
and as the record is but of those that received burial by the 
authorities, the number of deaths from the plague may have 
been greater ; it cannot have been less. The official records, 
giving each year from 1603 to 1680 the total number of 
burials and the number of these that were of victims of the 
plague, are certainly worthy of serious study. 

In the seventy-seven years from 1603 to 1680 we find 
but four in which there were no burials of persons who had 
died of the plague, fifty-three M^hen the number of deaths 
attributed to this cause was less than ten per cent of the 
total number recorded, and twenty when the number was 
over ten per cent. During two severe outbreaks the burials 
of plague \nctims were two-thirds of the entire number, and 
in another case they were over three-fourths. 

Let us examine the records a little more in detail to see 
whether an exceptionally virulent outbreak gave warning of 
its approach and retreated gradually, or whether from 
fancied security London was plunged at once into the hor- 
rors of a plague year and almost as suddenly freed from 
the incubus. 

In 1603, the first of James I., there was an especially 
severe epidemic; the deaths recorded as from plague were 
36,269 in number, from all other causes but 5773. In the 
following year they were only 869 out of 5219 ; and in 1605 
but 444 out of 6391. Apparently London was rapidly re- 
covering from the outbreak. But the plague had not en- 
tirely disappeared, and in the next year it broke out afresh. 


This attack was not as virulent as the former, but lasted 
longer ; in five years plague caused the death of 49,919 per- 
sons, and in every year but one over a quarter of the burials 
were of its victims. After the climax, however, there was 
a rapid decline; while the number of deaths from other 
causes rose from 7545 in 1609 to 7778 in 1612, the number 
from plague fell from 4240 to 64. In the next twelve years 
the number of deaths from plague recorded was only 193. 
In 1624 there were but 11 out of 12,210 ; and James I. must 
have gone to his grave full of confidence that his capital 
would have no further trouble from the pestilence. 

But it was lying in wait to welcome Charles I. to the 
throne even as it had his father. In 1625 it carried away 
nearly two-thirds of the London citizens that received burial, 
35,417 out of 54,265 ! 

It passed away almost as rapidly as it came, and it 
passed away completely'. In 1629, for the first time in the 
century, a year passed without the record of a single death 
from plague. 

And the very next year there were over a hundred a 
month ! How that dreaded destroyer does disappoint ex- 
pectations ! 

But in 1632 there were only eight deaths from it, and in 
the next three years, though 30,158 citizens were buried, 
only one is recorded as having died of plague. Surely at 
last the Londoners had reason to congratulate themselves 
that the pest had passed away. 

But history repeated itself, and in 1636 the plague 
caused 10,400 deaths out of a total of 23,389 ! Will Lon- 
don never be free ? 

For over a decade it looked as if the answer to this ques- 
tion would have to be No ; for between 1636 and 1648 there 
were only three years when the deaths from plague were 
less than ten per cent of the entire number. Then they 
dropped from 3597 in 1647 to 611 in 1648. 


The Coniinonwealth received no such unwelcome wel- 
come as had the Stuarts. In 1649 the deaths from plague 
were but 67 out of 10,532; and during the whole period, 
1649-1660, only 212 citizens of London died of it. During 
the first five years of the reign of Charles II. the death rate 
from this disease was even lower, averaging but twelve. 
In 1664, out of a total of 18,297 deaths only six were from 

And then "King Pest" made up for his delay in greet- 
ing the new Stuart sovereign ! In 1665 over two-thirds of 
the number of burials were of plague victims, and the mor- 
tality was something appalling. Though "200,000 people 
had followed the example of the king and court, and fled 
from the doomed city," no less than 97,306 were buried in 
the cemeteries, or in the great trenches and pits that were 
dug in the fields outside the walls. Of these 68,596, ac- 
cording to the records, died of the plague; but how many 
died without even a record is, as the old chronicler of the 
14th century visitation puts it, "known to God alone." At 
least two-thirds of those who remained in the city perished 
during this outbreak, the severest since that of Chaucer's 

But this was the plague's last display of power in Eng- 
land : "the INIerrv Monarch" lived to see the death of his 
formidable rival. In 1667 the deaths from plague were but 
35 out of 15,842, and in 1670 there were none. During the 
next decade there were a few sporadic cases, thirty in all; 
but these were merely the dying gasps of the expiring 
monarch. From 1679 no deaths from plague were recorded 
in London till late in the 19th century. 

Because of the powerfully realistic descriptions in two 
works of fiction — "A Journal of the Plague Year" that 
Defoe, who was but a child of from four to six in 1665, 
wrote fiftj'-seven years later, on the occasion of a scare 
caused by a fresh outbreak of the plague in Marseilles ; and 
Harrison Ainsworth's "Old St. Paul's," written in 1840— 


this is by far the best known of London's experiences with 
the plague. The general belief is that its sudden cessation 
and complete disappearance were due to the great fire by 
which, in the following year, "London, as a city, was oblit- 
erated from the map." This, it was formerly said, con- 
sumed the disease-breeding filth that had been accumulating 
for centuries; it is now more the fashion to say, killed the 
rats. Mr. Loftie in his invaluable "History of London," 
states as a more probable reason the fact that after 1666 
the Londoners, because the old wells on which they had 
largely depended for their water supply were choked up by 
the rubbish from the fire, were forced to use the pure water 
that forty-six years earlier had been brought to the metrop- 
olis from springs forty miles away by the enterprise of a 
private citizen ; but that had come into so little general use 
that Sir Hugh Myddleton was financially ruined by his 

Both these explanations, however, leave out of consid- 
eration three facts : first, that, though the fire did not break 
out until September 2, after two-thirds of the year had 
gone, the total number of deaths from the plague in 1666 
was but 1998, hardly more than a third of the average for 
a single month during the preceding year ; second, that after 
previous similar periods of virulence the number of deaths 
from the plague rapidly decreased almost or quite to the 
vanishing point; and third, that during the same century 
the plague appeared suddenly, raged violently, and disap- 
peared quickly and completely in many continental cities 
that were blessed with neither great fires nor new water- 
systems. Why in the latter part of the 17th century the 
plague ceased to be epidemic throughout Europe generally, 
seems to be a problem still unsolved. "Whoever solves it 
will go far towards plucking out the heart of the mystery 
connected with the proper means for preventing an epi- 
demic of this dread disease. 

Long ere this a question has occurred to every reader, 


Was "the plague" of which we liave been reading what is 
now termed "the bubonic plague"? I can only say that 
the authorities I have consulted think it was, in one or more 
of its several manifestations. 

The answers to certain other questions that are now mat- 
ters of controversy — whether there has really been any 
bubonic plague in San Francisco ; if so, whether the danger 
from it is grave, whether the means taken for preventing 
its spread and stamping it out are the wisest, whether, in 
view of the small number of cases that even the most pessi- 
mistic specialist considers well authenticated, the threats of 
more drastic measures are justifiable — I leave to others. 
Being merely "one of them literary fellers," I express no 

But certainly a study of the figures that show what the 
plague did in London during the 17th century will convince 
even the least scientific that it is not a disease that appears 
in virulent form only in tropical or semi-tropical countries ; 
that the infrequency of deaths of Europeans during epi- 
demics in India and China is due to the small proportion 
that they bear to the millions of those countries and their 
superior standard of living rather than to any especial and 
peculiar immunity of the Caucasian race ; and that a decline 
in the number of new cases is no adequate reason for re- 
laxing vigilance or lessening assiduity in carrying out pro- 
tective and repressive measures. Not till the plague has 
gone, not till it has entirely gone, and not till it has been 
gone for years is a community where it has once appeared 
free from the danger of new outbreaks from local causes. 
"Fears may be liars," it is true, but if we come hereafter 
to recognize that they were, the recognition will be attended 
by none of the poignant but nevertheless unavailing regret 
that would accompany the wail, "Hopes were dupes." 



A Table Showing what the Plague did in London during 
THE Seventeenth Century; made from the statistics compiled from 
the official records by Mr. Baldwin Latham. 






















































































































































































































































































































1 fidi 







941,430 1 




Frank S. Wrinch. 

In the paper preceding this, which was read by Prof. 
Loeb before the Kosmos Club, thinking or consciousness was 
assumed to be a special form of nervous activity, i.e., some 
form of chemical activity, in certain parts of the nervous 
sj'stem. With the statement of this assumption, the ques- 
tion as to the nature of thinking was shelved for the present, 
as an unprofitable field of inquiry, on the grounds that there 
are many simpler physiological processes, which still await 
their analysis, and that until this preliminary^ work has been 
done, we must let the more obscure and complex problem 
await its turn. In the meantime, we must assume the above 
hypothesis, as a working basis for further investigation. 

The experimental evidence, which is presented in sup- 
port of this hypothesis, consists principally in the discovery 
of certain tropisms, heliotropism, galvanotropism, geotrop- 
ism, stereotropism and chemotropism. Some of these tropic 
reactions have already given up their secrets to the chemical 
investigator, and the rest will in all probability eventually 
have to resign themselves to his ingenuity. We may sup- 
pose that not only certain forms of motor activity in animal 
organisms, but that all forms of motor activity, using the 

* Bead before the Kosmos Club of the University of California, 
November 12, 1907. 


latter term in its broadest sense, will finally be analyzed into 
chemical reactions. If this supposition, which at present 
has the nmk of a working hypothesis, were demonstrated 
fact, what would be the status of the problem as to the exist- 
ence and nature of consciousness, — would thinking then be 
explained ? 

If we examine the motor reactions of certain simple in- 
vertebrate organisms, we find some of them definitely con- 
trolled by known chemical substances ; if certain of them are 
thus determined, it is probable that further investigation 
will show that all their possible movements are determined 
by known chemical substances. On the principle of the 
economy of nature, we may then infer that these organisms 
are simply chemical machines. Consciousness not only plays 
no part in their behavior, but being a needless encumbrance 
it probably does not exist at all. We may take it as a gen- 
eral principle of biological development that the several spe- 
cial organs come into being with the rise of special require- 
ments ; and when the organism has its environment changed, 
in such a manner that a particular organ is no longer re- 
quired, it gradually becomes modified and is finally elim- 
inated. There would seem to have been no occasion for the 
advent of consciousness in the earlier history of those simple 
organisms, mentioned above. And their present behavior 
has been for the most part explained in terms of chemical 
reaction, with the explanation of any remaining factors of 
conduct almost within sight of the most advanced physio- 
logical outposts. Even had consciousness appeared at an 
earlier period, its long disuse, in their present form of ex- 
istence as chemical machines, would have eliminated that 

This line of argument does not prove conclusively that 
the gammarus pulex, when in response to an acid stimula- 
tion it swims towards the light, is wholly unconscious of its 
tropic reaction ; it only arouses a very strong presumption 
against the presence of consciousness in that organism. The 


same arsxiinient might be urged, perhaps with equal force, 
agaiust the consciousness of a dog or a man ; on our physio- 
logical working hypothesis they also are chemical machines. 
The chief defect of the chemical machine theory, which 
presents that strong presumption against the presence of 
consciousness in the invertebrate organism, and by a similar 
argument also in man, is that, in the case of the latter at 
least, it is contradicted in point of fact. The fact that I 
am conscious of many actions performed during my waking 
moments cannot be denied. The question whether I do 
freely those actions which are done, or whether like the 
Paramecium I do them because I have come into a medium 
charged with a certain chemical, may be shelved for the 
present; at least I am conscious of doing whilst the action 
is in progress, and of having done after it is completed. 
This last point will hardly be denied from any scientific 

So far as the experimental investigation has gone, the 
evidence in reference to consciousness in those simple forms 
of invertebrate organism is negative. Every feature of 
their behaviour seems to have an adequate causal explana- 
tion, without any implication of consciousness. The infer- 
ence is that there is no consciousness in these organisms; 
they are simply chemical machines. In the case of man, 
though he ought also by analogy to be only a somewhat more 
complex chemical machine, the fact cannot be denied that 
he is immediately conscious of his behavior. From the im- 
mediate evidence of the presence of consciousness in one 
class of organic chemical machines, and the absence of any 
positive evidence against its presence in any other class, the 
general inference has been loosely drawn to the effect that 
all such organisms are conscious. The inference, however, 
is not necessarj\ Consciousness may be present only in 
certain types of organism. And that is the point of view 
taken by a number of physiological psychologists. Judd 
traces the parallel relation between the respective stages in 


the development, of complexity in animal behavior and in 
the structure of the nervous system ; and sums up the situa- 
tion with the inference that consciousness has its dawn 
phylogenetically at that stage in the development of the 
nervous system where there first occurs central reorgani- 
zation of the afferent nervous impulses, before the motor 
response. His views may be illustrated by the decerebrized 
frog. In this case, the reorganizing centre is gone and the 
reactions are definite and uniform ; every time it is stroked 
it croaks. On the other hand when the nervous centre re- 
mains intact the reaction is indefinite and irregular. At the 
stroke the animal may croak, or it may jump in any one of 
several directions. J. R. Angel 1 makes a statement in ref- 
erence to the same problem. He places the dawn of con- 
sciousness at that stage in the development at which the 
stock of inherited reflexes, or reflex systems, i.e., the in- 
stincts, are no longer equal to the demands made by en- 
vironment upon the organism. At that stage consciousness 
appears and new responses are devised to meet the novel 
situations. Following a distinction made upon the pro- 
gram of the club, this might be referred to as the point 
where 'thinking' develops out of 'instinct,' with the under- 
standing that the term development merely marks historical 
progress, not efficient causation. 

Both of these views, apparently so clear-cut and definite, 
prove in their application to be specially characterized by 
.neither of these qualities. In connection with the first the 
phrase "central nervous reorganization" is but an indefinite 
figurative expression ; and from the present standing of 
physiological science there is every reason to believe that 
the differences between the central nervous process for a 
simple reflex, and that for what may be spoken of as a com- 
pound or chain reflex, or for a conscious motor reaction, 
are but differences in complexity, not in nature. So there 
is no specific reason given why consciousness should dawn 
at that stage in organic development. Angell's statement 


carries iis hardly a step fnrllier towards the light. It 
would, on general principles of economy, seem natural that 
consciousness should not appear until it was needed ; and 
there seems no need of consciousness so long as inherited 
retlexes are adequate to the task of adaptation of the organ- 
ism to its environment. The inference follows, conscious- 
ncvss dawns at that point where novel situations arise for 
which there are no appropriate inherited reflexes, and the 
adaptation is accomplished by the aid of the new factor. 
The inference appeare natural enough. But the human in- 
dividual is also conscious of many of his reflex and instinc- 
tive actions. Why should he be conscious of them at one 
stage and not at another when it is granted that the same 
nervous process occurs at both stages? The brief is not 
much better held for the conditions which are necessary to 
a conscious experience, than for the historic point at which 
it has its advent. According to the above view, conscious- 
ness appears when there arises a need which is not satisfied 
by an instinctive movement; and you might resolve con- 
sciousness, as Gustav Spiller does, into a system of needs 
and their satisfaction. It is true that consciousness be- 
comes intense under conditions of great need, and rela- 
tively imperceptible when everything is running smoothly 
and the equilibrium of need and satisfaction is perfect. The 
condition of consciousness is, however, not a need but a series 
of discriminated related facts or events. Consciousness, so 
far as we know it empirically, is only present where there is 
a group or series of discriminated and related contents, be 
they sensations, ideas immediately aroused by stimulation 
of the sense organs, or memory images wherever empirical 
consciousness is, there is such a discriminated, related group. 
That those conditions are present in the Paramecium, which 
immediately swims from anode to cathode when the gal- 
vanic current is turned on, is not shown by his behavior. 
There need be no such complex situation present ; the human 
being may make such simple reactions quite unconsciously. 


The stimulation in this case is not necessarily discriminated 
from some other form of irritation ; it occurs and the re- 
sponse is immediate and uniform. 

The above statement in reference to the minimum of 
factors which are found from experience to be always pres- 
ent in any conscious state may be made somewhat clearer 
by noting that stimuli which under other conditions would 
be quite adequate to produce sensory experience, when they 
are not discriminated in the content of consciousness 
present at the time, pass without any conscious experi- 
ence. One may sit in an office throughout a whole morn- 
ing within very easy hearing distance of the bell in the 
library tower ; his attention is closely occupied, and the clock 
strikes the hours without his being in the least conscious of 
the fact. In this case the sound of the bell was not dis- 
criminated from the other content of consciousness present 
at the time ; one condition of the consciousness of it was not 
fulfilled. A series of experiments (being carried on at pres- 
ent in our own laboratory) for the purpose of investigating 
the process of mental abstraction, indicates that one may 
observe groups of five rather simple geometrical figures, ex- 
posed serially for a fifth of a second each, in which only one 
figure is repeated, and yet sometimes, after five, ten or even 
fifteen groups have been exposed, may be wholly uncon- 
scious that any one of the five figures in the respective 
groups has appeared more than once. One of the condi- 
tions of consciousness of that figure has been fulfilled ; it 
has appeared among a group of other figures. But the 
second condition, its discrimination, has not been fulfilled 
and the subject is wholly unconscious of the fact of its 
having been repeated. 

A rather striking illusion was effectively imposed upon 
the secretary of the society for psychical research by a 
slate-writing medium in San Francisco, which was based 
upon similar grounds, i.e., the unconsciousness of an un- 
discriminated factor in the visual complex presented to him. 


As usual the statement was made that the spirits will not 
write whilst you are looking at the slate ; and at that point 
the slate was put under the table. After the lapse of a few 
minutes, durinc: the latter part of which there were audible 
sounds, such as mitiht be produced by the friction of a 
pencil in the process of writin^r, the slate was carefully 
broucrht up with the piece of pencil still moving at the end 
01 the message, and Prof. Hyslop was convinced that he saw 
it write the final letters of the last word. Later the scheme 
by which the writing was done was discovered by Charles 
Keeler, and a careful observer, posted before hand, was sent 
over to take a sitting and make observations. The same 
course of procedure was followed and the slate brought up 
with the pencil still moving, the medium at the same time 
made remarks to divert the attention of the observer, and 
held the slate so as to give him a foreshortened view of its 
surface. Nevertheless he succeeded in seeing the writing to 
the end of the line beyond the point at which the pencil was 
unsteadily moving w^hen the slate first came from beneath 
the table. Hyslop had obviously seen the same visual com- 
plex, but had not discriminated the line ahead of the pencil ; 
and, seeing the letters afterwards where the pencil had 
passed over, he was convinced that they had been Avritten 
whilst he was watching the pencil. Further experimental 
evidence and logical grounds might be added to show that 
the above mentioned are the minimum of factors which must 
be present in any empirical conscious experience. Our pur- 
pose at present is served in showing that they are de facto 
always present. Whether they are a priori necessary or not 
may be left for other consideration. 

The physiological development which is necessary as a 
basis of the above-mentioned conditions of the existence of 
any empirical consciousness, may be, as a minimum, what a 
comparative psychologist mentioned above, has spoken of as 
the mechanism of associative memory. According to his 
statement, "psychic phenomena appear, invariably, as a 


function of an elementary process, namely, the activity of 
associative memory. ' '^ That process, according to the same 
author, involves a mechanism by which a stimulus not only 
produces its own proper effect, but also the effects of other 
stimuli which formerly acted upon the organism almost or 
quite simultaneously with its own proper effect. In order 
that such a series of events may be possible, we are told, 
there must be two peculiarities characteristic of the nervous 
system. First, "Processes which occur there leave an im- 
pression or trace by which they can be reproduced even 
under different circumstances than those under which they 

originated The second peculiarity is, that two 

processes which occur simultaneously or in quick succession 
will leave traces which fuse together, so that if later one of 
the processes is repeated, the other will necessarily be re- 
peated also."- In other words, the phrase "activity of 
associative memory," stands for the development of a rela- 
tively permanent modification of the central nervous sub- 
stance, produced by the transmission of a reaction, origin- 
ated peripherally. The nature of this central process is 
such that it may recur, at the instance of the reaction of a 
neighboring central tract, without the recurrence of the 
peripheral part of the stimulation. We have in this com- 
plex of events, presumably, nothing but a series of chemical 
reactions in organic substance. And psychic phenomena 
are said to appear invariably as a "function" of this form 
of process. 

The sense in which the term "function" is used is some- 
what uncertain. It might be interpreted as concomitant 
variation between the psychic facts and the activity of the 
nervous organism; the more general physiological use is to 
identify function with the normal activity of the organ it- 
self. For example, the function of the iris is to contract 

'J. Loeb, "Comparative physiology of the brain and compara- 
tive psychology," p. 213, New York, 1902. 

= Op. cit., p. 213. 


and expand, increasing- and reducing the size of the pupil 
of the eye. Or the term may be used of the causal relation. 
In the latter sense psychic facts will be the effect of the 
physiological process of associative memory. The second 
of these usages is perhaps the only one which could be 
logically justified in the context in which the theory is de- 
veloped. It must be remembered that the "activity of as- 
sociative memory" is but a slight modification of the me- 
chanism of the unconscious nervous reflex. The latter dif- 
fers from the activity of associative memory only in this 
respect, that the nervous reflexes, occurring either simul- 
taneously or in immediate succession, fuse, so that the re- 
currence of the one is followed by the other without the lat- 
ter having been preceded by its customar}^ physical stim- 
ulus. The point is well taken that this procedure, i.e., the 
fusing of several processes, is a necessary condition of the 
possibility of training an animal or learning from experi- 
ence. It provides a physiological basis for one of the above 
mentioned necessary conditions of empirical consciousness, 
i.e., a related group of events. But is it sufficient to account 
for the dawn of consciousness? This question could only 
be answered in the affirmative if the sense-perception of an 
object were identical with the chemical process in the cen- 
tral nervous system w^hich occurs at the occasion of peri- 
pheral stimulation, and which must be finally expressed in 
terms of molecular movement. To show that these two pro- 
cesses are not identical requires but a cursory reference to 
the facts concerned. In the case of the chemical process, 
we have a change of the spatial relations of the respective 
elements to one another, a fact which I may very well rep- 
resent to myself as a visual picture. In the ease of a sensa- 
tion of redness, or better the sense-perception of a red ob- 
ject, I have an immediate fact belonging to the same sense 
department. But no fair minded observer could identify 
the visual experience of a red globe with the visual ex- 
perience, for instance, which would occur in watching the 


transformation in the spatial relation of particles, originally 
arranged in the form of a pyramid, to a relation in which 
they appeared in the form of a cube. If it were necessary 
to add anything further to a point already so obvious, one 
might refer to the fact that it is not diiBcult to communi- 
cate to a person congenitally blind the nature of the mole- 
cular movement referred to, but it is impossible to convey 
to him any notion whatever of the visual experience of the 
red globe. 

The above considerations make it quite impossible to ap- 
ply the term function, in its usual physiological sense, to 
the relation between the immediate facts of consciousness 
and the organism of associative memory. The case is not 
much better for the causal interpretation of the term func- 
tion. The usual scientific significance of the causal relation 
implies at least quantitative equivalence and a certain tem- 
poral succession, and perhaps also continuity of process 
from cause to effect. The first and last of these factors 
cannot be demonstrated in connection with the above men- 
tioned functional relation. I cannot speak of quantitative 
equivalence between two things which have nothing in com- 
mon ; and even if one should grant the first step of the pro- 
cess, i.e., that the sense perception is the effect of the mole- 
cular movement, still it remains impossible to prove the pro- 
cess by reconverting the sense-perception to molecular move- 
ment, and in reference to continuity of process, on the basis 
of the chemical theory, there would be a continuity without 
leaving any place for a link of consciousness. 

There remains the third form of functional relation be- 
tween the mechanism of associative memory and the facts of 
consciousness, the relation of concomitant variation. Against 
this form of relation I think no valid objection can be sus- 
tained. But it must be clear from what has been stated 
above that this does not reduce sense-perception to molecular 
movement, nor consciousness to chemical action. 

The conclusion which the above review of the facts forces 
one to take is, that although we have found almost beyond 


a doubt in the physiological meelianisni of associative mem- 
ory a factor which varies concomitantly with the facts of 
consciousness, still the latter are not identical with it, nor 
are they explained by it. We are left, then, after the 
analysis of what proves to be the probable physiological 
basis of the facts of consciousness, with only one related 
factor added to the above-mentioned de facto conditions un- 
der which empirical consciousness appears : we may now 
afftrm that the elements of that related group of discrim- 
inated facts vary concomitantly with certain central nervous 

With the statement of the conditions under which con- 
sciousness appears, we have not yet developed the modern 
psychologist's conception of mind. In order to get at the 
latter, we shall have to retreat a few steps and examine the 
circumstances under which the transition from the original 
metaphysical to the empirical point of view occurred. This 
may be accomplished most satisfactorily by referring first 
to the ease of the physical sciences and then to that of 
psychology. The earliest attempts at natural philosophy 
sought to develop a logical unified conception of the uni- 
verse. Their problem was, what is the ultimate basis of all 
things. Thales answered water; Anaximines said air; Em- 
pedocles, earth, air, fire and water. After the decision had 
been made as to the ultimate universal essence of all things, 
the next step was to show how the other natural objects 
might be logically developed from these elements. The 
exigencies of practical life were not served by that form of 
natural philosophy. Working out an ingenious logical 
scheme, by which the four elements, acted upon by the two 
primal forces, love and hate, might develop mountains, 
threw no light on the practical problem of how marble blocks 
weighing tons might be elevated to their places in the lofty 
columns of the Parthenon. There were practical problems 
pressing more vigorously for solution with the growing com- 
plexity of individual and social requirements. The solution 


of these problems gradually turned the attention, or at least 
diverted it in part, from the development of speculative pos- 
sibilities to the examination of concrete actualities. Instead 
of asking what is the ultimate basis of being, and how may 
the particulars be deduced from it, the problem became, 
what is the causal relation of this event to what preceded it 
and to what follows. In other words, the requirements of 
practical life first developed the empirical point of view in 
the physical sciences, i.e., the effort to determine the laws of 
nature from an examination of the facts as they are experi- 

That the physical sciences developed earlier than em- 
pirical psychology is natural enough. It was the conquest 
of physical obstacles that pressed hardest and most persist- 
ently upon man in the more primitive stages of his develop- 
ment. They very naturally occupied his attention and exer- 
cised his genius first. But with the solution of the grosser 
practical demands, the problems of the physical sciences 
became more intricate; and, in addition, new ones arose in 
connection with the relations of man to man — problems of 
ethics, jurisprudence, economics, and education. These 
more exacting demands made upon the mental capacity of 
man by the continually growing complexity of the problems 
facing him, turned his attention to the investigation of the 
facts of his own conscious life : perchance there too laws of 
antecedent and consequent might be discovered. If I am 
to investigate what a man ought to do, I must first learn the 
possibilities by generalizing from what he does do, and why 
he does it. And so for the above-mentioned sciences, which 
are concerned with the action of people in communities, the 
first step must be a study of what the individual springs of 
action are. With that as his starting point, one is prepared 
to advance to the problem of what man will do in society and 
why. Thus, the practical requirements for an empirical 
science of psychology came somewhat later than in the case 
of the physical sciences. But the science had its birth in 


an aualag:oiis situation, and the change from the metaphysi- 
cal to the empirical standpoint is similar to the transition 
described in connection with the physical sciences. That is, 
from the attempt to build a logical system into which all the 
particular facts might be fitted, the attention has been 
turned to the investigation of the immediate facts of con- 
sciousness, or of experience, and to the task of discovering 
the laws which govern these facts, in general to the problem 
of organizing these facts into an interdependent system. 

With the change from the rational to the empirical point 
of view, the significance and purpose of the concepts matter 
and mind have changed. The purpose of the development 
of the concept matter, in the earlier point of view, was that 
it might serve as an elementary basis out of which a rational 
system of nature might be developed. In the latter point 
of view the concept grew out of the requirements of the de- 
velopment of empirical science, i.e., the explanation of the 
facts of nature causally. In like manner the modern scien- 
tific point of view has changed the concept of mind from 
that of a metaphysical substance, which should be equal to 
the task of developing a universal, logical world-system, in- 
cluding both nature and the individual existence, to that of 
an auxiliary concept, signifying primarily the totality of 
psychic experiences, and secondarily the causal interpreta- 
tion of the same. In both sciences the particular actual 
facts are explained by secondary causes. But, in addition 
to the demands of practical life, there is a general demand 
of our thinking which requires that all our experiences shall 
be arranged in the order of reason and consequent. Thus, 
these secondary causes finally lead back to some general, 
unified basis, to which ultimately all the particular facts 
are theoretically reduced. The general concepts of matter 
and mind, so far as their causal interpretation goes, always 
lie one step beyond the cause of any actual fact. They 
themselves are really secondary, supplementary concepts, 
subordinate to the more general concept of causation. They 


are involved in completing the causal system. The signifi- 
cance of mind, then, must be conceived after the same 
fashion as the significance of matter for the physical 
sciences. I group the whole of what may be spoken of as 
the processes or facts of nature, under the general term 
phj^sical facts. My scientific analysis of these facts leads 
me by causal sequence to a unitary basis which I call matter. 
On the other hand I group the facts of consciousness as 
such under the general term mental facts; and my scien- 
tific treatment of them leads me, by causal sequence, to a 
unitary basis, which I call mind. There is one striking 
difference, however, between the two concepts, in as much as 
matter lies wholly beyond the material or physical facts, 
whilst mind is present in the mental facts. In the words of 
Th. Lipps : " 'To sense' is the same as to say 'I have a sen- 
sation of something objective,' . . . and to say 'I feel' 
is equivalent to saying 'I feel myself.' "^ Thus, in the 
psychic causal realm, I do not go beyond the mental facts 
to find the concept which is involved in completing the 
system. It is actually present in those facts, and is the 
basis of their unity. 

In the above paragraph I have reached what may be 
considered the modern psychologist's conception of mind, 
since the modern psychologist, in so far as he has any right 
to be distinguished from the ancient, is the one who ap- 
proaches his subject from the empirical point of view. This 
does not preclude the possibility of there being psycholog- 
ists today who M^ould to some extent differ from this point 
of view. As the poor, the ancients we have always with us. 

There is one distinction brought out in the previous dis- 
cussion which ought, perhaps, for the sake of clearness, to 
be somewhat further elaborated. I have spoken of the facts 
of nature, or physical facts, and of the facts of conscious- 
ness as such, or mental facts. How are these two orders of 
facts to be discriminated? A quotation from a recent ut- 
terance of Wundt, involved in his reply to some criticisms 

' Vom Fiihlen Wollen & Denken, p. 2, Leipzig, 1902. 


of ^Mtniniaiin. will perhaps throw some light on the question. 
In support of the contention that there are not two separate 
and independent orders of facts, lie points out that "the 
same tree which tlie botanist considers from the point of 
view of its structure, or classification, the chemist from the 
point of view of the composition of its tissue, and the phy- 
sicist as the bearer of certain physical effects, can, as a space 
presentation with which certain sensational qualities and 
feeliutr excitements are connected, be an object of psychol- 
ogy."* The immediate experience of such an object, with- 
out any explicit distinction between perceived object and 
perceiving subject, is the meeting place of physical science 
and psychology. That is what Wundt calls the "Vorstel- 
lungsohject." This, then, is opposed to the subject as inde- 
pently real, i.e., it is regarded as an object existing inde- 
pendently of a perceiving subject. The question of physi- 
cal science is: hoAv is this object to be apprehended? "On 
the other hand the presentation-object is apprehended as a 
presentation, i.e., a certain form of subjective experience. 
In this sense as the content of perception it is opposed as 
object to the perceiving subject. The question of psychol- 
ogy is — how are such objects of perception, or presentations, 
constructed and related to other contents of experience. "° 
According to this empirical view of the situation, it is ob- 
vious that the physical and mental are not two separate 
and independent orders of facts, but only two aspects or 
differences of standpoint from which the same object is 
approached. This, from the outset, removes all question of 
a causal relation between the two series. If the two sides 
are to be organized, then each should be grouped in its own 
causal order; and if the connection of the two series is 
required, then from the original connection of object and 
presentation the assumption may be made that the two 
causal series run parallel. 

This view of the relation of physical and mental is not 

* Archiv fiir die gesamte Psychologie II, p. 337. 
•Op. cit., p. 340. 


peculiar to Wimdt, the prophet of modern empirical psy- 
chology, on whom the mantle of G. T. Fechner fell. Th. 
Lipps, the man among the important figures in psychology 
in Germany, who is slowest to come to the experimental 
standpoint, also takes a similar view in reference to a causal 
relation between the physical and mental. And psycholo- 
gists of other folds, such as Ebbinghaus, Jodl, and Heymans, 
take a point of view similar in reference to causation and 
only slightly different in reference to other points discussed 
above. Jodl, e.g., in a critical review of Exner's " Entwurf 
einer physiologisclie ErMurung der psychischen Erschein- 
iingen," says: ''Science has abandoned the attempt to 
establish a causal relation between the physical and the 
psychical. The lavv^ of causality holds between physical and 
physical, and between psychical and psychical ; not between 
physical and psychical. What we have are two aspects of 
the same actuality, an outer and an inner."® 

Monist, Vol. VI, p. 113. 


Under the wide and starry sky, 
Dig the grave and let me lie. 
Glad did I live and gladly die, 
And I laid me down with a will. 

This be the verse you grave for me : 
Here he lies where he longed to be; 
Home is the sailor, home from sea, 
And the hunter home from the hill.^ 

Conde, precor, cineres astris tellure patenti, 

laetus enim vixi, nunc obeoque libens. 
HIC UBI VULT SITUS EST, tnmulum sic carmine signa, 

L. J. K. 

1 Robert Louis Stevenson : Underwoods, xxi. 



Bernard Moses. 

It has given me great pleasure to accept your invitation 
to be present on this occasion. More than thirty years ago 
I had the good fortune to be brought into intimate friendly 
relations with one of your countrymen, who has since con- 
tinued to be associated with the imperial court. This friend- 
ship, unbroken through all these years, has exerted a power- 
ful influence in keeping my mind turned to the affairs of 
your country. Moreover, the courtesies which have been 
extended to me on various occasions in Tokio and in Kioto, 
have kept fresh in my mind the most agreeable memories. 
Remembering these things, I am especially gratified at be- 
ing able to have part in this meeting, called to give expres- 
sion to Japanese patriotism, which in this celebration takes 
the form of loyalty to the national ruler. 

In any nation patriotism is the fundamental civic virtue. 
There is no other firm foundation for the modern state. 
The political structure that does not rest on this quality in 
the people is like a house that is built on the sand. It may 
endure through a period of calm and fair weather, but when 
the storms come and beat upon it, it will fall. The devo- 
tion of your countrymen to him who is exalted by your tra- 
ditions, who stands above the passion of parties, and who 

* Delivered in San Francisco, November 3, 1907. 


represents the state, is the greatest element in your national 
life. It is your patriotism. 

To us who look from without upon the affairs of your 
country, a sentiment like this appears to be the force that 
has made a nation out of the inhabitants of a number of 
feudal provinces. In fact, whether we look to the East or 
to the West, it is this sentiment that constitutes the most 
powerful factor in nation-making. It is not the number of 
the inhabitants, nor the abundance of the wealth, nor the 
extent of the territory that makes a nation ; it is the pres- 
ence in the population of a common sentiment — a sentiment 
of kinship, of a common origin, and of a common purpose. 

Without this sentiment a great population, like that of 
India, may waste itself in feuds, in caste and provincial 
antagonisms, and become the prey of invaders. Through 
all the centuries the inhabitants of India appear never to 
have felt a comprehensive and inspiring patriotism. They 
never erected a national altar, on which the individual man 
was willing to make the great sacrifice. 

Devotees of religion in many ages have found virtue in 
keeping a living fire on their altars. In coming here to cele- 
brate the birth of him who stands for your nation, or when 
Americans assemble to do homage to the memory of Wash- 
ington, there is in either case a gathering about the national 
altar ; and it is well for a nation Avhen patriotism has some- 
what of the sacredness of religion, and burns in the hearts 
of men like the unquenched altar fires. Such a patriotism 
is not the blind, unreasoning subserviency of the earlier 
days, but devotion exalted and enlightened by intelligence. 
The United States and Japan are the two nations of the 
Pacific in which this form of patriotism has hitherto been 
developed; and this fact gives them a certain precedence 
and leadership in a new phase of civilization. The first 
phase of civilization in the West was that of the ]\Iediter- 
ranean Sea, finally dominated by Rome, who built up her 
wealth and her dominion on the spoils of conquest. The 


second phase was the Christian civilization of the Atlantic, 
stained and disgraced by wars for religious supremacy, and 
by conflicts for the maintenance of this or that form of gov- 
ernment. The third phase is the civilization of the Pacific, 
on which we are now entering, and where, fortunately, most 
of the causes are wanting that made the Christian civiliza- 
tion of the Atlantic a thousand years of war. It is, for in- 
stance, not a part of China's business to give us her reli- 
gion, and it is not our business to undertake to give China 
our religion. The civilizaticm of the Pacific will not be 
marked by religious wars. We are, moreover, not con- 
cerned with the form of government which the enlightened 
patriotism of Japan may lead that nation to maintain ; and 
the people of the Orient are equally indifferent with respect 
to the form of government in the United States. The civ- 
ilization of the Pacific will, therefore, not be disgraced by 
wars for the maintenance or suppression of any governmen- 
tal forms. And war to increase a nation's trade is about 
as effective as taking chloroform to promote w^akefulness. 
In the great community of nations about the Pacific there 
are fewer real causes of war than ever existed before in any 
equally large portion of the human race. Moreover, the 
varied resources and diverse industrial habits of these dif- 
ferent nations enable them to supplement one another. 
Their different products lead them to find their supreme 
advantage not in rivalry but in co-operation. It may be 
reasonably expected, therefore, that having eliminated the 
main causes of international or civil conflict, which have dis- 
tracted Europe, the civilization of the Pacific will run its 
peaceful course. 

International differences will doubtless appear from 
time to time, just as differences may arise in the most 
harmonious family, but the ties of family union are not 
thereby destroyed. In fact, a family in which the indi- 
vidual members have not sufficient independence and posi- 
tiveness of character to seek to maintain views of their own 


is either undeveloped or well on the way to degeneracy. 
In the same v^ay the strong nations of the Pacific will neces- 
sarily have their individual views, but the international 
differences which arise from the clashing of these views 
must be very great differences to make war worth the while. 
Not that war in itself is always to be condemned. When it 
comes as the only means of uniting the fragments of a 
nation into an effective power; or to preserve the integrity 
of a nation ; or to ward off the encroachments of a neigh- 
boring nation that threatens its independence, it comes in- 
deed as a calamity, but as a calamity that must be faced 
with patriotic devotion. Italy fought such a war to secure 
the long-delayed unity of the Italian people. Germany 
fought such a war to set aside the political demoralization 
of a nation broken into a multitude of fragments. The 
United States fought such a war to put down a rebellion 
that threatened its national integrity. Japan fought such 
a war to ward off the encroachment of an ambitious and 
powerful neighbor. Through these conflicts these several 
nations attained a stable po.sition, approved by the com- 
munity of the world's great powers. At the same time no 
one of them can carry its armed hostilities beyond its pres- 
ent borders without running the rick of incurring the 
world's just condemnation. 

The programme for the future is a programme of peace. 
The United States knows that its continuance in the good 
opinion of the world is dependent upon its using its great 
power to maintain this peace; and we participate in the 
general opinion that the imperial leader whose birthday we 
celebrate will so use his exalted position that the harmony 
of the nations of the Pacific will remain unbroken. 



John Fkyer. 

To the careful observer of recent events in the world's 
history, there seems to be but one great object towards which 
all human affairs are trending. This object is no less than 
the early uplifting and unification of mankind. Further- 
more, the Anglo-Saxon and the Japanese peoples seem des- 
tined, as chosen instruments, to take a large share in bring- 
ing about this "consummation devoutly to be wished." 

The thoughtful student will find it to his advantage to 
trace the separate workings of the Divine hand in the origin 
and development of these two peoples on the opposite sides 
of the Old Continent, and their being brought at the right 
psychological moment into close contact and friendly rela- 
tions. In the excitement of our domestic and international 
politics this wise over-ruling of Providence is apt to be 
overlooked. Yet we can only properly understand the pres- 
ent, and arrange for the future, by keeping in mind the ex- 
periences of the past and investigating their causes and ef- 
fects in the light of the great laws of nature. We do well 
to pause at frequent intervals to ask what is the inner mean- 
ing of each series of events and to trace how it fits into the 
great mosaic of Divine purposes. 

* Reprinted from the Berkeley Lyceum of September 30, 1907. 


Our relations with our nearest Oriental neighbor on the 
other side of the Pacific will be better understood by the 
help of sidelights of this description. The far-seeing pur- 
pose underlying the preparatory stages in the history of 
both races ; the way in which the purpose seems likely to be 
fulfilled; what we should do in order to facilitate the ful- 
fillment; — these and many similar questions are very op- 
portune just at the present time. Above all, it is most im- 
portant for every right-minded person to investigate how 
we can happily be fellow-workers with God in carrying out 
His wonderful plans, and how we can avoid the misery aris- 
ing from acting in opposition to them. 

The Anglo-Saxon or English speaking part of the Cau- 
casian race is descended from certain tribes that migrated 
westward in the distant past. Migration after migration 
traveled toward the British Isles, where their descendants 
are still found as the English, Welsh, Scotch and Irish. 
The peoples they passed through and mixed with on their 
journey were influenced by them in no small degree, espe- 
cially the Angles and Saxons of Germany. When these peo- 
ples also moved over to the British Isles, the combination 
formed the stock of the most progressive and vigorous race 
the world has ever seen. Yet almost fifteen centuries was 
subsequently required to bring the race to a state of matur- 

When all was ready, God sent Columbus across the At- 
lantic to discover a new and larger home, and caused the 
Anglo-Saxon peoples to cross over and take possession. 
America is held today by the proudest and purest strain of 
Caucasian blood to be found in the whole world. She is 
undoubtedly the final goal of the great migrations of the 
white races in their long journeyings westward. 

And what is the mission of the Anglo-Saxon race? 
Surely it is on the lines of uplifting humanity, physically, 
intellectually and morally, and thus promoting the unifica- 
tion of the people of the whole world. In a word, it is 


"proszrcss." In pursuit of this Divine task the race has 
iuventod means for ameliorating the condition of mankind 
and especiall}' for rapid connuunication and transportation; 
so that all the habitable parts of the earth have already- 
been reached and the various peoples brought more or less 
into close touch. It is thus that the interchange of new 
ideas and methods, and the expression of mutual sym- 
pathies have been greatly facilitated. Who can doubt that 
the English-speaking peoples have a God-given supremacy 
and are destined to carry their mission of progress into 
higher and higher planes as centuries roll on? 

Turning now to the Isles of Japan, on the opposite side 
of the Old Continent, we tind they occupy a very similar 
geographic position to that of the British Isles, which were 
the home of the Anglo-Saxon race. We also find that vari- 
ous migrations of the Turanian races traveled eastward 
from central Asia, under Divine direction, toward the rising 
sun, because these islands of Japan were their appointed 
goal. One after another they arrived, either from Korea 
or other points on the coast of Asia, and gradually amalga- 
mated into a mixed race of wonderful characteristics, 
among which the capacity for progress and a keen sense of 
honor are conspicuous. It took many centuries for this 
race to reach its maturity and to produce the unique Japa- 
nese national character. Although borrowing largely from 
China in the line of religion, education, and all the accum- 
ulated treasures of Chinese civilization, the Japanese are 
today entirely distinct from the Chinese, ethnographically, 
physically, intellectually, and morally. It is, therefore, to 
be expected that this difference in racial origin should tend 
to produce the difference in development which is notice- 
able between China and Japan under the influence of the 
same contact of Anglo-Saxon civilization. 

Perhaps the most prominent feature in the formation of 
the Japanese national character has been the high form of 
chivalry known as the "Bushido," which has been rightly 


called "the soul of Japan." Though represented chiefly 
by the Samurai, or warrior class, it did not disappear when 
that class was abolished, but on the contrary, was carried 
over into the army and navy and into the offices of the 
government. This lofty sense of honor, which cannot bear 
to be looked down upon as inferior in any point of civiliza- 
tion, was the strongest motive that led to the sudden trans- 
formation of Japan directly she came fully in touch with 
the Anglo-Sason race. While fully accepting all that 
Western nations have to impart in the material elements of 
civilization, the Japanese have retained unaltered their in- 
tense patriotism. To die for their country and their em- 
porer is the highest object of their ambition. It is this 
spirit which has led to the victories of their army and navy 
over the best forces that China and Russia could bring 
against them. 

Another strong feature in the Japanese national charac- 
ter is the ready ability to accept and assimilate whatever is 
seen to be good in other nations. Unrestrained by conser- 
vatism like China or by traditions and customs like Euro- 
pean nations, she is able to assimilate at once whatever she 
pleases and carry it into almost immediate, general use. 
This appears more especially along the lines of education. 
To establish a large university at Tokyo, with colleges and 
schools of various grades, all over the Empire, was the work 
of an incredibly short time. The best educational systems 
of Europe and America were carefully weighed in the bal- 
ance and then only accepted where found to be suitable for 

In the same way that such a mixed race as the Anglo- 
Saxon was able not only to accept Roman and Greek civil- 
ization but to improve upon it, so we may expect to find 
the Japanese pressing forward in the various realms of 
science, art and manufactures that they have adopted, and 
actually improving upon them. There is no fear that Japan 
will ever stand still, much less go back, in the path she is 


now pnrsuinp:. She has rosponded too fully to the spirit of 
progress ever to relinquish the firm hold that she has taken. 

The two races are now looking at each other across the 
waters of the Pacific and wondering what is to he their 
next move. One has traveled in its migrations toward the 
west till it has reached the eastern shores of the Pacific; 
the other has journeyed eastward till it has settled on the 
western shores of the same great ocean. Only a few days 
of steamboat journey separates them, while the waters of 
the Pacific are alive with the ships of both races that are 
coming and going in ever-increasing numbers. When the 
railway extends from shore to shore under the Behring 
Straits only a few hours' of land-journey will soon be all 
that divides the Old World from the New. 

The moral of all these facts is that the sooner a complete 
and permanent agreement for peaceful co-operation be- 
tween all the Anglo-Saxon peoples and the Japanese can be 
effected, the better for both sidas and for the whole of hu- 
manity. Union is strength. Everything is to be gained 
and nothing to be lost by cementing the closest bonds of 
friendship ; and this will rapidly tend toward the advance- 
ment of what appears to be the Divine purpose. Japan is 
our younger brother in the great family of nations, having 
as a special mission the advancement of all Oriental peo- 
ples. Let the older brethren of the Anglo-Saxon race take 
Japan cordially by the hand, and welcome every possible 
interchange of sentiment and good offices. Let both sides 
seek each others' interests as well as their own. Let all our 
national educational establishments be thrown open for 
exery well-conducted Japanese student to enter and learn 
whatever he thinks will benefit him and his country. Give 
each class of Japanese all the consideration and privileges 
of the same class of other races. Every Western nation 
can well afford to be generous in this and many other re- 
spects. The friendship and co-operation of Japan in the 
great tasks that lie before the world at the present time, 


and which tend toward the uplifting and unification of 
Occidentals and Orientals alike, will be thereby greatly pro- 
moted. In this way the great object which we believe an 
overruling Providence seems to have in view, and which is 
the very opposite of warlike contentions, will be brought 
about more easily and in a much shorter time. Yet let both 
races ever remember, "There's a Divinity that shapes our 
ends, rough hew them how we will." 





The entire control of the use of the Greek Theatre for 
dramatic and musical purposes and for "rallies," save for 
the Senior Extravaganza, the Freshman Rally, and the 
Football Ralh% ha\ang been vested in the Greek Theatre 
Committee by act of the President of the University, the 
committee adopts the following regulations for its guidance. 

I. — The chairman of the committee, with the consent of 
a majority of the members, may arrange for the production 
of dramatic and musical works by professional performers. 
Only performances, by artists or companies of recognized 
standing, of works considered to have educational value and 
to be adapted for production in the Greek Theatre shall be 
permitted. Whenever possible, such performances are to 
be undertaken upon a percentage basis. 

II. — As the Sunday "Half-hours of Music" are given 
by artists who serve the University, on these occasions, 
without charge, admission to these concerts shall be free. 
In case of inclement weather the Half-hour of Music shall 
not be given. 

III. — Organizations not connected with the University 
may give musical and dramatic entertainments in the Greek 


Theatre only with the unanimous consent of the committee, 
following one month's notice, the conditions of presentation 
for each such production to be determined by the committee. 

IV. — The English Club is permitted the use of the 
Theatre for one dramatic performance each semester, the 
date of which shall be set by the committee, provided the 
play to be given, the coach to be engaged, the stage plan to 
be adopted, and the advertising to be contracted for meet the 
approval of the committee, and provided the try-outs shall 
be conducted under the supervision of the authorized coach 
in such a manner as to satisfy the committee that partici- 
pation in the plays is open to all students of the University 
without favor. The Greek Theatre Committee shall control 
the financial management ; all purchases must be authorized 
and bills passed by it; and all profits shall pass into the 
University Dramatic Fund, from which all losses shall be 
paid. The name of the play to be presented must be sub- 
mitted to the committee one week before the end of the 
semester preceding that in which it is purposed that the 
performance shall take place. 

V. — Other student organizations shall have the same 
right to present amateur dramatic and musical productions 
in the Greek Theatre subject to the several conditions above 
stated. Departments of the University may present ama- 
teur dramatic and musical productions under the same 
conditions, or may assume the entire financial control and 

VI. — No advertisements, save notices of performances 
under the management of the committee, shall be permitted 
on the programme of any entertainment given in the Greek 

VII. — The finances of the committee shall be operated 
under four funds : The Symphony Fund, the Choral Fund, 
the University Dramatic Fund, and the Greek Theatre 


The Synipluniy Fund is ostablisliod by guarantee, and 
the means for the maintenance of symphony concerts shall 
be derived solely from such o'uarantee and from the income 
of said concerts. Money is not to be transferred from the 
other specified funds to the Symphony Fund. 

The Choral Fund is established by guarantee or by 
specific appropriation by the University, and the means for 
the maintenance of choral productions with orchestra shall 
be derived solely from such guarantee or appropriation and 
from the income of the productions. INIoney is not to be 
transferred from the other specified funds to the Choral 

The University Dramatic Fund is to contain the moneys 
derived from student dramatic productions and by direct 
appropriation by the committee, and such funds are to be 
conserved strictly for the purposes of student dramatic 

The Greek Theatre Fund is to contain all other moneys 
beyond those above specified. From this fund the committee 
will maintain the equipm.ent of the Greek Theatre, and con- 
duct the professional musical and dramatic productions that 
may be given therein. Money may be voted from this fund 
to the Libraiy and to the University Dramatic Fund. 

Alonzo E. Taylor, Chairman. 
William Dallam Armes, 
H. Morse Stephens, 
Chauncey W. Wells. 

Advisory Members: 

J. Fred. Wolle, 

Charles D. von Neumayer. 

Porter Garnett, Secretary. 

Approved : 

Ben J. I. Wheeler. 

January 31, 1908. 



Albert H. Allen. 


By election to the presidency of the Mechanics Institute of San 
Francisco, Mr. Rudolph J. Taussig has become once more a Eegent 
and took his seat at the March meeting of the Board, in the place 
of Mr. Lewis R. Mead, whose term as president of the Institute 
has expired. 

William Scott Ferguson, Associate Professor of Greek and 
Eoman History, has tendered his resignation, to take effect at the 
end of the current academic year. Professor Ferguson will go to 
Harvard University as Assistant Professor of Ancient History. 

To succeed Professor Ferguson, the Regents at the March meet- 
ing elected R. F. Scholz, now of the University of Wisconsin, as 
Assistant Professor of Ancient History. 

Captain John T.Nance, Professor of Military Science and Tactics 
for four years, has received orders to rejoin his regiment, the Ninth 
Cavalry, which is now at Manila. He will be succeeded by Captain 
Edward M. Lewis, 20th Infantry, on the expiration of Captain 
Nance's command, October 15. 

Professor M. L. Jaffa has been appointed Director of the State 
Food and Drug Laboratory recently created to assist the State 
Board of Health in testing the food and drug products of the State. 
Professor Jaffa will retain the title Associate Professor of Nutri- 
tion, although without salary from the University, until June 30. 

Astronomer R. H. Tucker of the Lick Observatory has been 
granted a leave of absence for three years from July 1, 1908, in 
order that he may accept the direction of the proposed southern 


observatory of the Carnegie Institution, which will be located at 
San Luis, Argentine Republic. 

Dr. Cleveland Abb§, Jr., who has recently become associated 
with Dr. A. G. McAdie in the San Francisco Meteorological Sta- 
tion, has been appointed Lecturer on Climatology. 

Dr. E. Werber, of the University of Vienna, has been appointed 
Assistant in Physiology from April 1, to succeed Dr. Erich von 
Knaffl-Lcnz, who has tendered his resignation. 

Dr. A. TV. Lee resigned as Assistant in Anatomy at the end of 

Mr. Erwin J. Lea has been appointed Instructor in Agricultural 
Chemistry to June 30. 

Leave of absence to January 1, 1909, has been granted to Mrs. 
Zelia Nuttall, Field Director of the Crocker-Eeid Researches in 

Wu Ting Fang, recently reappointed to the post of Chinese 
ambassador to the United States, was the guest of the University 
on March 2. Several members of the Faculty entertained the dis- 
tinguished visitor and members of his party at luncheon at the 
Faculty Club. 

Professor G. H. Roberts of the department of Political Science 
sailed for Manila on March 3. In Manila he will join other in- 
structors invited by the Federal government in giving a series of 
lectures for the Philippine teachers. 

Progress with the Dot: Library. 

At the end of the current academic year the Doe bequest will 
have yielded approximately $675,000. Of this amount, $575,000 
will be spent upon the new Library. 

The foundations are now complete, and the surface of the 
ground both within and without the walls has been graded. Work 
will be begun as soon as possible upon the construction of the 
building itself. Present plans contemplate the completion of the 
northern part of the building. This will amply allow for all 
Library needs for several years to come. The main floor will con- 
tain a main reading room with accommodations for four hundred 
readers, and two smaller reading rooms, each of about half the 
size of the main room, one of which will receive the Bancroft 


library, now in California Ilall, while the other will be a periodical 
room. Each of these branch reading rooms will have shelf capac- 
ity for about 80,000 volumes. 

Aside from the reading rooms, the cataloguing and delivery 
rooms and the offices of the administrative staff of the Library, the 
building in contemplation will contain twenty-nine seminar rooms, 
two class-rooms thirty feet square, a typewriter room, a rest room 
for the women of the library staff, storage and work room space 
for the library and for the University Press, and five floors of 
stacks with a capacity of 300,000 volumes. As additional room is 
required, and funds are available, the building will be completed 
part by part, the space at the south end of the completed building 
being intended for additional seminar rooms, rooms for special 
libraries or collections, etc., arranged around a continuation of the 
central stack. 

In construction the new library will be of the most modern 
fire-resistant type. The frame will be of steel and concrete, the 
interior partitions of metal studding, wire lath and fire-proof plas- 
ter. The roof will be of concrete, and covered with copper rather 
than with tiles. 

Other Nkw Construction. 

During the summer of 1908 will be constructed the new Fer- 
tilizer Control Laboratory, just north of the northwest corner of 
California Field. The cost of the building will be about $7500, 
and will be defrayed by the accumulated fees for tests of fertil- 

A laboratory building for the departments of Hygiene and 
Pathology, to cost $10,000 is to be erected south of the Physiolog- 
ical Laboratory, between Hearst Hall and California Field, and, 
as described further below, the temporary Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology will take the space north of California Field between the 
Physiological Laboratory and the projected Fertilizer Control 

The first of a series of permanent concrete bridges replacing 
the present wooden ones will shortly be begun at the second cross- 
ing of Strawberry Creek from the Center street entrance, west of 
the Football Statue. 

Three concrete and asphalt tennis courts, to cost about $4500, 
are to be built to the west of California Field and facing on Ban- 
croft Way. The cost of these much needed facilities will be met 
by the gymnasium fees paid by undergraduate students. 


To bring the President's House to completion, $10,000 will be 
spent from the Permanent Improvement Fund during the coming 
year, and from the same fund $5000 will be expended on new ce- 
ment walks and new roads on the University grounds. 

An addition to the Architectural Building has been made neces- 
sary by the rapid growth of that department, and will be con- 
structed this year at a cost of about $6000. 

Necessary extensions of the light, heat and power systems have 
been provided for by an appropriation of $5000 from the Permanent 
Improvement Fund for this work next year. 

Exclusive of the new library, buildings and other improvements 
to be undertaken during the coming year will call for about $59,- 

Buildings at the University Farm. 

Contracts have been let for the construction of a dairy barn and 
of a sewer system at the University Farm, and also of a seed house 
and workshop. The sewer system will cost about $16,000, the dairy 
barn $17,500, and the seed house and workshop about $2500 each, 
the cost to be met by the State appropriation for the University 
Farm. Bids have been asked for a dormitory with separate dining 
room and kitchen. 


The California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. 

Miss Annie M. Alexander of Oakland has agreed to give to the 
University the sum of $7000 yearly for seven years, to equip and 
maintain a California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Mr. Joseph 
Grinnell, now of the Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena, 
will be given the direction of this new work, and the collection of 
representative specimens of Californian vertebrate fauna will be 
immediately begun. As a nucleus of the collection. Miss Alexan- 
der and Mr. Grinnell will each contribute a number of specimens 
forming their personal collections. 

To house the new museum the Regents have set aside the sum 
of $7000 for the immediate construction of a galvanized iron tem- 
porary building. This building, plans for which are now being 
made, will be erected just north of California Field, and west of 
the Physiological Laboratory. 


Permanent Endowment Fund op the Class of 1907. 
The Class of 1907, through Julius Klein, the permanent Secre- 
tary of the Class, has made over to the Regents of the University 
the sum of $650 as a fund to be known as the Permanent Endow- 
ment Fund of the Class of 1907. The income from $500 of this 
sum is to be devoted annually to the purchase of works in the 
field of modern dramatics for the University Library. Such works 
are to be purchased through the committee on the expenditure of 
this income, which is to consist of the head of the department of 
English of the University and the permanent Secretary of the class. 
The income from the remaining $150 is to be turned over to the 
permanent secretary of the class annually, to be used by him for 
the permanent organization of the class. Whenever the class or- 
ganization shall become defunct, this surplus shall be added to the 
$500 and the income of the whole fund shall be used for the benefit 
of the Library as stated. 

Indian Collections Presented to the University. 

Mr. Jesse Peter of Santa Eosa has presented to the Museum of 
the Department of Anthropology a collection of several hundred 
pieces, including finished and half -completed mortars, spear points, 
knives, and ceremonial instruments from the vicinity of Santa 

Mrs. Hearst has very generously met a need of the astronomers 
on Mt. Hamilton by the gift of an automobile for the use of the 
Lick Observatory. 


President Tells of University Needs. 

The University of California celebrated its fortieth anniversary 
since its founding and the forty-eighth since the founding of the 
College of California in Oakland, on March 23 by ceremonies in 
the morning and afternoon. About four hundred members of the 
Freshman and Sophomore Classes gathered on Charter Hill in the 
morning to witness the ceremonies of transferring the care of the 
big "C" from the Sophomore to the Freshman Class. Speeches 
were made by President Wheeler and President Faunce of Brown 
University and by the Presidents of the two classes. The regular 


academic procession formed at half-past two and marched to the 
Greek Theatre headed hy tlie President of the university with the 
guest of honor, President W. H. P. Paunce of Providence, Rhode 
Island, who delivered a most notable address to a large assemblage 
of students and friends of the university. In speaking of the con- 
ditions and needs of the university President Wheeler took occasion 
to mention the progress made during the past year and said in part: 
"Gifts from ]irivate sources during the past year include articles 
of equipment, expenditures on the comj)lction of a building, and cash 
donations for a large number of specific purposes, amounting to some- 
what over $92,000; the total value of all the gifts within the year 
amounts to approximately $175,000. i shall report them in mass with- 
out reference to their place in the three above mentioned classes. 
Within the year the Hearst Memorial Mining Building has been com- 
pleted and occupied; its total cost is about $595,000. Lip to this time 
over $32,000 additional has been expended on its equipment, — all of 
this the gift of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. Other gifts of hers during 
the year are the following: Provision for the salary of the University 
Architect, maintenance of the Department of Anthropology for the 
study of the archaeology and linguistics of the Pacific Coast, $20,000. 
The results of these investigations have been published in a notable 
series, now amounting to nearly seven complete volumes. A second 
volume of the Tebtunis Papyri has also been published at Mrs. 
Hearst's expense. She has given $2,400 for the maintenance of the 
Hearst Scholarships, and $5,990 for the completion of the surveys 
and drawings making up the architectural plan, and incorporated now 
in a detailed map of the grounds, which will be of invaluable and 
determining service for all future builders here. Important gifts or 
books and other materials for the University Library have been made 
by ^Irs. Gertrude Atherton, Mrs. Martha Hallidie, Mrs. James H. 
Anderson of Cherokee, California, Professor William H. Brewer of 
New Haven, Mrs. Francis B. Sanborn, and Mr. F. B. Ginn. And the 
Library has received $1,000 for the purchase of books from a friend, 
$50 from Mr. Eobert Belcher of the Class of 1900, and $500 from the 
Class of 1907. For the purchase, of books, the Library has expended 
during the year somewhat over $15,000, of which $10,000 comes from 
the general funds and $5,000 from the income of private endowments 
and gifts; in all about 12,500 books have been added to the Library 
since March 23, 1907. For scholarships and prizes we have received 
from Mr. Charles Butters $100, from Mr. Louis Bartlett $150, from 
Mr. Adolph Knopf $250, from Miss Bertine and Mr. H. Wollenberg 
$125, from the San Jose High School $125, from Levi Strauss and 
Company $3,500 for the support of the Strauss Scholarships, and as 


already mentioned, from Mrs. Hearst $2,400. For the Lick Observa- 
tory we have received from Mr. William H. Crocker $4,500 for the 
expenses of an expedition to Flint Island for the purpose of observ- 
ing an eclipse of the sun, from the Carnegie Institute, for the pro- 
motion of research, $3,666.66, from D. O. Mills $6,000 for the main- 
tenance of an astronomical station in South America, and from Mr. 
William E. Hearst $1,200 for the purchase of seismographs. The 
Students' Infirmary, now established as one of the most useful de- 
partments of the University, has received the Veltin School Belief 
Fund through Miss Ethel Moore of Oakland, $800, and $150 for the 
furnishing of a room from Mr. Albert Bonnheim, and like amounts 
from Professor E. W. Hilgard and Professor R. H. Loughridge. 
Professor Hilgard writes: 'I have the honor of enclosing herewith 
my cheque for $150 for the furnishing of a room in the Students ' In- 
firmary, thereafter to bear my name and to express my sincere in- 
terest in and appreciation of the admirable work which has been and 
is being accomplished by this recent addition to our University ac- 
tivities.' Professor Loughridge writes: 'It gives me great pleasure 
to enclose my cheque for $150 for the furnishing of a room in the 
Students' Infirmary in memory of my wife, Bessie Webb Loughridge, 
to be known as the Loughridge Memorial Room.' We are indebted 
to Mr. James D. Phelan, Mr. William H. Crocker, Mr. John Parrott, 
Mr. J: D. Grant, and Professor E. W. Hilgard for a deed conveying 
to the Regents their rights as residuary legatees of the Kearney Es- 
tate. This is an outright gift, which in the case of their becoming 
legatees would mean a value of over $500,000. Miss Annie M. Alex- 
ander has provided $7,000 a year for seven years for the collection 
of materials for the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Dr. Morris 
Herzstein of San Francisco has given $600 for the maintenance of a 
lecture course in the Department of Medicine. Friends of the Uni- 
versity have provided for the equipment of the University Hospital 
in the city through gifts of money amounting to $15,095. The Class 
of 1905 has placed its class fund, amounting to $500, in the hands of 
the Regents, its use to be specified later. Loan funds held as an en- 
dowment, the income to be loaned to aid needy and deserving students, 
constitute, as experience has shown, one of the best ways of using 
smaller sums of money that the University can suggest. These are 
needs immediate, and stated within practical bounds. When we come 
to speak and think, however, in terms of the larger demand, which 
the inevitable future task of this University must shape, there are 
needs countless and great beyond the proportions herein employed." 



Lectures on Contemporary Political Questions. 

During the current half-year a series of public lectures on con- 
temporary political questions is being given by different members 
of the faculty. The following lectures have been given: 

January 21. — Professor Moses, The Philippine Assembly. 

January 28.— Professor Roberts, The House of Lords. 

February 11. — Professor Fryer, China in the Making. 

February 18.— Professor Boke, Organic Democracy. 

February 25. — Professor Stephens, The Modern Newspaper and 
Public Opinion. 

March 3. — Professor Noyes, Recent Political Conditions in 

March 10.— Professor Bacon, The Eastern Question since the 
Crimean "War. 

March 17. — Professor Hutchinson, Problems of the Pacific — 

March 24. — Professor Bowman, Problems of the Pacific— His- 

March 31.— Professor Lange, Recent Educational Legislation in 

The following are announced for April: 

April 7. — Dr. McCormac, Some Phases of the Negro Question. 

April 14. — Professor Popper, The Moroccan Question. 

April 21. — Professor Ferguson, The Colonial Conference. 

Department of Education Lectures. 

The Department of Education offers this half-year a series of 
public lectures on the practice of education among different peo- 
ples, given by different members of the Faculty, The following 
lectures have been given: 

January 23 and January 30.— Professor Fryer, The Old and 
New Education in China. 

February 6.— Dr. Ryder, Child Life and Education in Ancient 

February 13 and February 20.— Professor J. T. Allen, T)ie Edu- 
cation of the Greek Boy. 

February 27 and March 5.— Professor Richardson, The Educa- 
tion of the Roman Boy. 

March 12. — Professor Yoorsanger, Education of Jewish Chil- 
dren in Ancient Times. 


March 19.— Professor Popper, Education of the Mohammedan 

March 26.— Professor Schilling, Education of the German Bov 
in Mediaeval Times. 

The following are announced for April: 

April 2.— Professor Schilling, Education of the German Boy in 
the Modern Gymnasium. 

April 9.— Professor Noyes, The Education of a Russian Boy. 

April 23.— Professor Goddard, Child Education Among North 
American Indians, 

French Department Lectures. 

Professor Eobert Dupouey's lectures in French on the history 
of French society since 1801 have been continued this half-year as 

January 21. — The Revolution of 1848 and its consequences. 

January 28. — Napoleon-le-Petit. 

February 4.— Public life at the time of Napoleon III. 

February 11. — The transformation of Paris at the time of 
Haussmann, and the life of the streets. 

February 18.— A visit to the markets of Paris in 1867. 

February 25. — The Writers of the Second Empire. 

March 3.— The Artists of the Second Empire. 

March 10. — Bohemian Paris at the time of the Second Empire. 

March 17.— The Parisian Woman in 1867. 

March 24.— The day of a French Beau Brummel at the time "f 
the Second Empire. 

March 31.— The foreigners in Paris from 1851 to 1871. 

April 7. — The World of the Poor, in the years preceding the 
Franco-German War. 

April 14.— Provincial France at the time of the Second Empire. 

April 21. — Emile Zola as an historian of French Society at the 
time of the Second Empire. 

April 28. — France at the time of the Franco-German War. 

Lick Astronomical Lectures. 

In March and April members of Lick Observatory staff give the 
following course of lectures in Berkeley at the Students' Observa- 

March 24 and 26. — Two lectures by Professor Tucker, Meridian 
Circle Work. 

March 31.— Professor Aitken, The Eings of Saturn. 

April 2. — Professor Aitken, On Double Stars. 


April 14 and 16. — Two Icoturos by Professor Perrino. The Lick 
Observatory Crocker Eclipse Expedition to Flint Island to Observe 
the Solar Eclipse of January 3, 1908. 

Professor Wincenty Lutoslawski, late of the University of 
Cracow, in Austrian Poland, while a {i;uest of the University, has 
delivered several public addresses. While a man of wide general 
learning. Professor Lutoslawski is perhaps best known as a Platon- 
ist among philosophers. His lectures have been: 

March 9. — Poland in its relation to the problems of democracy 
in the United States. 

March 18. — Polish Eomantie poetry. 

March 18.— The Yoga System of self discipline. 

March 20.— The poetry of Julius Slowacki. 

March 20. — Social Conditions of Poland, past and present. 

March 25. — Personal experiences in Platonic investigation. 

Two lectures were delivered on March 14 and 16 by Professor 
Rudolf Leonhard, of the University of Breslau. Professor Leon- 
hard's subject was: Social Tendencies of German Legislation and 
their Significance for Civilization. 

Professor Leonhard is for this year the Kaiser Wilhelm Pro- 
fessor at Columbia University in New York. 

The Joseph LeConte Memorial Lecture under the auspices of the 
Harvey Club was delivered on the exening of February 27 by 
Professor W. E. Eitter. Professor Eitter's subject was Joseph 
LeConte as Man and as Man of Science. 

Under the auspices of the California Branch of the American 
Folk Lore Society, Professor John Frj^er delivered an illustrated 
lecture on February 25 on Chinese Popular Beliefs. 

University Meetings. 

January 31.— Mrs. Charles E. Park of Boston and Mr. Eudolph 
J. Taussig of San Francisco. Mrs. Park spoke of the woman suffrage 
movement, and Mr. Taussig of his recent travels in Europe. 

February 14.— Major General A. W. Greely, U.S.A., and Eev. 
Henry K. Booth, of the North Berkeley Congregational Church. 

February 27.— (Special Meeting) Dr. J. D. Long of the U.S. 
Marine Hospital Service. Dr. Long's subject was "A Clean City." 

February 28.— Director W. W. Campbell, of the Lick Observa- 
tory, who spoke on the recent eclipse expedition to Flint Island, 
and Dr. John Willis Baer, President of Occidental College. 

March 14. — Eev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones. 

March 28. — President W. H. P. Faunce, of Brown University. 



The Minetti Quartette. 

A recital by the Minetti String Quartette was given on the 
evening of January 24 in Hearst Hall. The programme follows: 
Quartette in D minor, Op. 75 Bazsini 

Allegro Apassionato. Andante con moto. Gavotte (Intermez- 
zo) Allegretto quasi Presto. 
Sonata for Piano and Violoncello in D major Rubinstein 

Allegro. Allegretto. Allegro con brio. 
Quartette in A major, Op. 41 Schumann 

Andante espressivo — Allegro molto Moderato assai Agitato. 
Adagio molto. Finale — Allegro molto Vivace. 

The attendance was disappointingly small, and evidenced a lack 
of interest, on account of which it was decided not to give the two 
remaining concerts announced for February 7 and 21. 

The Half-Hour of Music. 

The first Sunday afternoon concert for 1908 was given on Feb- 
ruary 16. Earlier dates were unavoidable owing to inclement weather. 
Concerts have been given as follows: 

February 16. — The choir of the First Congregational Church of 
Berkeley, under the direction of Mr. Robert Harnden. 

February 23. — No concert. 

March 1. — Mr. Ashley Pettis, pianist. 

March 8.— Mr. Eicardo Encarnaqao, basso. 

March 15. — Miss Louise Gude, soprano, assisted by Miss Eloise 
Edward, pianist. 

March 22. — Mr. George Favier, baritone, with Mrs. Romayne 
Hunkins, accompanist. 

March 29. — The Savannah Ensemble Club, Mr, Samuel Savannah, 

"Tkelawney of the Wells." 

The Mask and Dagger Society presented Pinero 's ' ' Trelawney 
of the Wells" at the Macdonough Theatre, Oakland, on February 
26, for the benefit of the Women 's dormitory fund of the Prytanean 



Elections to Pni Beta Kappa. 

At a meeting held March 2 the California Chapter of Phi Beta 
Kappa elected as honorary members from the Faculty, Professors 
W. S. Ferguson, E. W. Uilgard and W. E. Ritter. Thirteen seniors, 
of whom five are women, and five juniors, of whom four are women, 
were elected to active membership, as follows: Seniors, Anna Myr- 
tle Allen, SS; Adolph Edmund Anderson, SS; Robert Pierpont 
Blake, SS; Frank Fulton Bloomer, Mec; Harold Lawton Bruce, SS; 
James Mark Burke, SS; Edith Gamble, L; Elizabeth Kedrolivansky, 
SS; Eustace Maduro Peixotto, SS; Georgia Sidney Perry, NS; Fe- 
lix Teisseire Smith, L; Lewis King Underhill, L, and Carrie Minnie 
Winter, NS. Juniors, Clare Bradford Crossfield, SS; Almira Cath- 
erine Johnson, SS; Marguerite Nixon Keeler, SS; Esther Bernar- 
dine Phillips, L, and Mary Louise Phillips, L. 

Of the eighteen new members, nine are enrolled in the College 
of Social Sciences, and six in the College of Letters; two come 
from the College of Natural Sciences, and one from the College of 

Other members of the Senior Class who were elected to Phi 
Beta Kappa as Juniors last year are Arthur Carl Alvarez, CE; 
Annie Dale Biddle, L; Minnie Walker Culver, L; Sayre Macneil, L; 
and Harry Lincoln Wollenberg, Min. 

Elections to Tau Beta Pi. 

Tau Beta Pi, the honor society of the engineering colleges, has 
elected to membership from the faculty Professors Joseph Nisbet 
LeConte and Charles Gilman Hyde, and from the .Junior class Hugh 
Alexander Burk and Hermann Fischer, Mining; George James 
Calder, Harvey Lewis Davis and William Lincoln Oser, Civil En- 
gineering; and Harmon Francis Kscher, Frederick Charles Piatt, 
and Roland Wilbur Pinger, Mechanics. 

Students' Labor Day. 

For the third time in the history of the University, the students 
on March 7 took off their coats and went to work with pick, shovel 
and wheelbarrow to make needed improvements on the grounds. 
The event was postponed from February 29 on account of rain. 

February 29 has been set aside by student tradition as a day 
to be devoted to manual labor. In February 1896 the first work 
by students was done, in grading around North Hall and in making 


the present path through the oaks to the Center street entrance. 
Leap year did not come again until 1904, when the students again 
made paths. This year grading was done under the bleachers on 
California Field and other improvements were made about the field 
and also on the cinder track. 

The Carnot Debate. 

The Carnot medal for 1908 was won on Friday, February 7 by 
William C. Shelton, of Stanford, in a contest held in the Harmon 
Gymnasium. The subject debated was: Eesolved, that France 
should prepare to revert to the policy of Minister Delcasse in re- 
gard to Morocco, at the expiration of the Algeciras Convention. 
The University of California was represented by H. D. Hoover, '09 
and M. E. Harrison, '08, on the negative, and by Sayre Macneil, 
'08, on the affirmative. 

The Dah,t Califoenian. 

The Daihj Calif ornian was obliged to suspend publication during 
the last week of January, owing to lack of support from student 
subscribers. For a few days a small "dodger" took the place of 
the college daily. By February 5 new subscribers to the number 
of 500 were secured, and publication in the old form was resumed. 

Beginning in August, 1908, the Baihj Calif ornian will pass under 
the control of the Associated Students, if plans of the executive 
committee now under consideration are carried out. 

At a mass meeting of the students held on the evening of 
Thursday, March 12, Francis J. Heney, Assistant District Attorney 
of San Francisco, spoke under the auspices of the League of the 
Eepublic. Mr. Heney spoke of the work of the prosecution in San 
Francisco against public corruption. 

A decisive vote on January 22 defeated a proposed amendment 
to the constitution of the Associated Students, by which the women 
of the University would cease to be members of that body. 

Two hundred and forty students out of a total enrollment of 
2447 were disqualified at the examinations last December, through 
the rule requiring students to pass in at least 8 units of new work. 

J. Harry Jenkins of Berkeley has been elected president of the 
class of 1908 for the last Senior term. 




Edited by Gxjrden Edwards, 
Alumni Secretary. 


Walter B. Cope, '83, 
Leander Van Orden, D. '94. 
Mrs. G. B. Childs, '85, 
James K. Moffitt, '86, 
Gurden Edwards, '07, 

Alfred C. Skaife, '00. 

T. A. Perkins, '90. 

Charles S. Greene, '86. 

Edith Brownsill, '99. 

Frank Otis, '73. 



Second Vice-President 



George Edwards, '84. 

Scott Hendricks, '04. 

G. E. Lukens, '89. 

Howard Morrow, M. '96. 

Haydn M. Simmons, M. '01. 


The Alumni Association, Permanent 
Class Secretaries and Graduating Class 
are all working to make Commencement 
the great event of the year, and various 
plans are being developed with this end 
in view. The annual meeting of the Alumni Association, 
called for by the constitution, will be held probably on 
Commencement Day, and officers for the year 1908-09 will 
be elected at that time. Plans for the general alumni day 
have not been completed yet, but in addition to the business 
meeting of the Association, there will probably be a lunch- 
eon and addresses by prominent alumni. As usual, Com- 


mencement notices and invitations will be sent to all of the 
graduates individually, containing a definite announcement 
of events. 

The officers of the reunion classes are busy with num- 
erous plans, announcements of which will be found among 
the News of the Classes. An effort is being made this year 
to bring about the recognition of some systematic scheme of 
reunion among the classes ; the scheme adopted in most uni- 
versities, and embodied with considerable uniformity in the 
constitutions of most of our own permanent class organiza- 
tions, is that of a reunion three years after graduation, and 
then subsequent reunions every fifth year from the date of 
graduation, the idea being to hold especial celebrations in 
honor of the decennial and quarter century dates. 

In consonance with this plan, the graduating class has 
decided to send personal invitations to the members of the 
reunion classes, under the above scheme, to be their guests 
on Commencement Day. The idea has received the hearty 
approval of President Wheeler, and of the secretaries of the 
classes concerned, and at a recent meeting of the Council 
of the Alumni Association a resolution was passed in ap- 
preciation of the action of the graduating class inasmuch 
as it would materially promote the growth of alumni spirit. 

In order to promote the interests of 
the alumni classes as the larger units of 
ALUMNI CLASSES general alumni organization the General 
Secretary's office has proposed a definite 
scheme of cooperation to the permanent class secretaries. 
This plan has been adopted in full by the officers of 1905 
from whom the first suggestion came, as follows : First, 
since the general office is in a thoroughly fire-proof build- 
ing and has convenient and trustworthy auxiliary clerical 
help, all of the records of the class have been deposited 
therein, thus insuring their permanency and correctness. 


S(-condly, all class oomniunieatioiis will be sent out as here- 
tofore over the signature and at the discretion of the class 
secretaries, but the actual mechanical work will be done by 
the general office, as it has the facilities to handle the issue 
of extensive circular communications. Thirdly, the actual 
cost of the work done for the class shall be borne by the 
class ; in the case of 1905 and several of the other big class- 
es the income from the permanent class funds, set aside for 
this purpose, is sufficient to meet such expenses as they arise 
without the need of a special assessment. 

The advantages of this plan, aside from those mentioned 
above, while not so great in the case of the earlier and 
smaller classes with from two or three to a hundred mem- 
bers, are quite obvious from the point of view of the general 
office and of the larger classas with four or five hundred 
members. The work of collecting personal data, such as 
changed addresses, marriages, etc., will be greatly facili- 
tated, since the files can be corrected from two sources, 
namely, the class correspondence and that of the Alumni 
Association. Again, class secretaries, many of whom have 
become busy men of alfairs, will be relieved of the burden- 
some part of their duties, to which some of them have felt 
that they could no longer give proper attention; while the 
sum total of expense incurred in working up the alumni 
activities will be greatly reduced, since in many cases one 
envelope can be made to carry communications both from 
Class and Alumni Secretary. The whole plan is receiving 
a thorough test in connection with this year's reunion of 

The long felt need of an organization 
SAN DIEGO ^^ ^^® alumni in San Diego and vicinity 

ALUMNI is at last taking shape and another mem- 

ber will soon be added to the list of 
University of California clubs. The San Diego organiza- 
tion will be rather in the form of an association of alumni 


and friends of the University to get together several times 
a year to discuss the condition and needs of the University 
and means of promoting its welfare. There are above a 
score of graduates in San Diego and together with non-grad- 
uates and others who take a particular interest in the Uni- 
versity there will be enough to make a strong organization, 
influential for the good of the University. Mr. Julius 
Wangenheim, '87, the prominent banker of San Diego, has 
taken the initiative in forming the club, so that its success 
is assured. 

That time and space do not dampen 
alumni spirit and loyalty to the Univer- 
CHiCAGO ALUMNI ^-^^ -^ proved by the following corre- 
spondence from one of the Chicago 
Alumni, most of whom are graduates of the older classes. 
He says: 

* ' You might be interested in making an item of the fact 
that the University Club on January 24 last gave a Western 
College Night, which was gotten up with the idea of in- 
teresting men of the Western Colleges in joining the Club. 
Our little University of California Club here turned out 
ten strong and I was told afterward that we were the stars 
of the evening, probably on account of the vigorous way in 
which we gave the yell. Of the University of Illinois, which 
has about twenty-five alumni here to every one of ours, 
there were only eight men present sitting alongside of us. 
The Stanford boys expected to have six or eight men, but 
at the last moment were not able to get around on account 
of other engagements. The walls were lined with pennants 
of the different colleges, with the Blue and Gold of Cali- 
fornia showing up strongly. There were a number of live- 
ly talks from different men, among others one by Pro- 
fessor Salisbury of the University of Chicago, who made a 
very feeling reference to Professor Joe LeConte, to which 


we warmW responded. It was surprising how Avell our old- 
er as well as the younger men came out with the yell. This 
dinner was probably the first time in the East that at so 
large a mixed college gathering California was so well repre- 

'*In regard to President Wheeler's stop at Chicago, it 
was necessarily so short and his time was so occupied with 
his public engagements, that we could only arrange an im- 
promptu affair. A few of us had the pleasure of sitting 
down with him at breakfast at the Auditorium Annex on 
the morning of Sunday, February 23, and we had a veiy 
delightful two hours in his company, although we had only 
counted on a scant hour. On Washington's birthday, 
President Wheeler, as guest of the Union League Club, 
shared the honors with Governor Hughes of New York. 
The Union League Club of Chicago has conducted for many 
years public exercises on Washington's birthday at which 
one or two leading men of the country speak. Governor 
Hughes was the orator of the morning, while President 
Wheeler addressed the afternoon gathering, and both spoke 
at the club's banquet in the evening. President Wheeler 
spoke at the banquet on some of the problems arising on the 
Pacific Coast, and his speech made an excellent impression. 
The University of California I certainly feel is better known 
in Chicago today from the effective work of President 
Wheeler's one day here." 

Although persons who matriculated 
at the University but did not take de- 

NON-GRADUATES . , , e u j-v. 

grees are not taken cognizance or by the 
Constitution of the Alumni Association 
as alumni, they nevertheless form a valuable and extensive 
constituency of loyal supporters of the University and will, 
unofficially at least, be included as far as possible in the 
considerations of the general office, as they now are in both 


the class and local club organizations. This policy will 
be made possible for the general office since some of the 
classes are depositing their records there. Although the ex- 
graduates are not eligible to pay Alumni Association dues, 
and therefore, from practical considerations, they cannot 
be fully included in our plans, such as receiving the Chron- 
icle as alumni, nevertheless their subscriptions are solicited 
at the regular rate of $1 a year, since in lending their sup- 
port to what we are trying to work up into the effective 
organ of the Universitj^ and Association, they are indirectly 
assisting the alumni movement very materially. Alumni 
are urged to call this to the attention of their non-graduate 
friends. Wherever possible, personal notes of non-gradu- 
ates are printed as freely as those about the regular alumni. 

The Council of the Alumni Associa- 
FiNANCiAL ^^o^ ^^^ Undertaken for this year an 

SUPPORT extensive and active campaign for the 

interests of the University, — a campaign 
which to be done at all will strain the resources of the As- 
sociation, and to be done properly will demand an increased 
financial response from all of the alumni. Collection by 
mail or solicitors is expensive ; if you have not already done 
so, send in at once your payment for a Life Membership, 
and then urge your friends to do it. If you cannot afford 
this, send in $5 for six years dues or .^1 for the present year. 
Do it now and urge all of your friends to do it. Every cent 
collected in this way is a direct contribution to the welfare 
of the University. 


Los Angeles Club. 

The University of California Club of Los Angeles has perfected 
its reorganization and announces its plans for the year. 

The club was formed in 1892 by some graduates of the University 
living in Los Angeles. For a good many years only one meeting a 
year was held, on Charter Day, which was celebrated by a banquet 
and speeches. Two years ago the club was reorganized, a constitution 
was adopted and it was decided to hold lunches at the noon hour of 
the second Saturday of each month. There being no special object 
to fulfill the interest languished and attendance on these lunches 
dropped off considerably. So on February 11 a meeting was held 
at the University club-house on Hill street in Los Angeles, at which 
the constitution was amended. 

The result is that five meetings are to be held annually. These 
meetings are as follows: The first one in January before the under- 
graduates return to the University after their Christmas holidays ; next 
on the evening of March 23, Charter Day banquet, at which a member 
of the faculty of the University of California will be the speaker of 
the evening, in addition to other speakers from among the graduates. 
Election of oflfieers will also take place at this time. Then will come 
a meeting in June when the undergraduates come down from the Uni- 
versity for their summer vacation. Then in September there will be a 
dinner, and the last meeting is a smoker on the evening of the day of 
the Stanford-California football game. 

This year efforts were made to have Professor Henry Morse Steph- 
ens the speaker at the Charter Day banquet, but since he was unable 
to attend on this date it was decided by the committee in charge, un- 
der the chairmanship of Russ Avery, that rather than forego the 
pleasure of hearing Professor Stephens, the banquet be postponed 
until the middle of April when he may be able to attend. Due notice 
of this banquet will be sent all members. 

Until the amendment of the constitution the club had no regular 
dues or treasury, its income depending on special assessment. Now 
the initiation fee is $2.50 and dues $8.00 a year, payable quarterly, 
and the treasury so established will pay for all these entertainments 

Any persons who have attended the University of California or 
one of the afiiliated colleges is eligible for membership, but no person 
in Los Angeles can attend the entertainments unless he is an enrolled 


member of the club. Anyone wishing to enroll may send bis dues to 
J. P. Loeb, care of Custer & Loeb, I. W. Hellman building, Fourth 
and Main streets. 

The officers of the University of California club are: Leslie E. 
Hewitt, president; Max Lowenthal, vice-president; Marco E. New- 
mark, secretary, and Joseph P. Loeb, treasurer. 

Chicago Club. 

To the Alumni Secretary — Dear Sir: At the anniversary dinner 
of the University of California Club of Chicago held on Charter Day, 
W. B. Storey, Jr., '81, was elected chairman and C. H. Norwood, '96, 
was re-elected secretary. Fourteen members of the alumni were pres- 

Among several topics under discussion pertaining to the University, 
the men's dormitory scheme came up for discussion. It was the sense 
of the gathering that this was of great importance, and Mr. Storey 
was appointed a committee of one to keep in touch with the matter. 

It was also the opinion of the meeting that this club act as a 
general information bureau for the University of California, and 
otherwise legitimately advertise our Alma Mater in Chicago and 
vicinity. With this in view it was suggested that the secretary secure 
at least one-half dozen copies of such printed matter regarding courses 
of study offered by the University, to be given to interested parties. 

It is the opinion of the secretary that we should have one or two 
recent photographs of the campus on an enlarged scale — say twelve 
by eighteen inches. 

The University of Wisconsin at a "western college night" held 
here recently, had such a photograph and it was quite a vdnning card. 

If you will therefore secure for us one or two large photographs 
and send them to me, we will take pleasure in framing same and 
hanging them in some conspicuous place. Kindly send same by ex- 
press, C. O. D. 

To further the publicity idea it was the sense of our gathering 
last evening that the next dinner be given on the 18th of April, and 
be called San Francisco day, to which all loyal Californians in this 
vicinity would be invited to take part. 

There has been a committee appointed to further this project from 
which you will undoubtedly here later. 

C. H. Norwood, Secy. 


Alumni at Harvard. 

The following are pursuing higher studies at Harvard for the 
year 1907-08: 

Howard F. Adler, '05, 4th year Medical School, 1 Willow street, 

George K. Bartlett, '01, 2d year Law School, 58 Sacramento 
street, Cambridge. 

Golden W. Boll, '07, 3d year Law School, 27 Winthrop Hall, 

Barry II. Oerf, '02, 1st year Graduate School, Romance Languages, 
59 College House, Cambridge. 

Wm. H. Chamberlin, M.A., '06, 1st year Graduate School, Phil- 
osophy, 39 Cowperwaite street, Cambridge. 

Dan Hadsell, '06, Special Law, 42 Kirkland street, Cambridge. 

•L W. Hudson, '05, 2d year Graduate School, Philosophy As- 
sistant, 28 Conant Hall, Cambridge. 

Shin Y. L. Jee, '07, 1st year Graduate School, Economics, 51 
Oxford street, Cambridge. 

Bayard II. Jones, '07, 1st year Graduate School, English, Le- 
Conte Fellow, 139 Mt. Auburn street, Cambridge. 

Eugene S. Kilgore, '04, 3d year Medical School, Medical Schol- 
arship, 31 Fenwood road, Boston. 

Arleigh F. Lemberger, '02, 3d year Law School, 42 Kirkland 
street, Cambridge. 

Wm. J. Musgrove, '05, 3d year Graduate School, Philosophy 
Assistant, 42 Kirkland street, Cambridge. 

James A. Xutting, '07, 3d year Law School, 4 Walter Hastings 
Hall, Cambridge. 

Edmund H. Sawyer, '04, 4th year Medical School, Medical 
scholarship. South street, Brooklyn. 

John F. Shuman, '06, 2d year Law School, 42 Kirkland street, 

Dorsey G. Whitelaw, '07, 3d year Law School, 94 Prescott 
street, Cambridge. 

Evan Williams, '04, 3d year Law School, 35 Brewster street, 

The following California men received Harvard degrees in 1907: 

Calvin O. Esterly, '02, Ph.D., in Zoology. 

Edward Hohfeld, '98, LL.B. 

Duncan A. McLeod, '03, LL.B. as of '06. 

Parker S. Maddux, '02, LL.B. as of '05. 

Hjalmar J. Loken, '04, S. T. D. 

Wilder Wight, '04, LL.B. 


Chinese Alumni. 

In connection with Professor Fryer's article in another depart- 
ment it is interesting to note the following items that have recently 
appeared in regard to some of our Chinese alumni: 

"Professor Fryer has received gratifying information respect- 
ing the recent government examinations for the higher degrees 
held at Peking for Chinese educated in western learning in China, 
America, Europe and elsewhere. No less than four Chinese stu- 
dents from the University of California head the list against the 
whole world. The first name is Chang-tsung-yuan, who may thus 
be considered the senior wrangler for the year. The second on the 
list is T. C. Wang. The third is Fong-foo-sec, '05. The fourth is 
S. Sung Young, '04. The seventh on the list is H. S. Ki, who 
went from the University of California to carry on further studies 
at Stanford. All five of these have received the ' Chin-shih, ' or 
doctor's degree, of which they, as well as California, may well feel 
proud. On the same list are two other U. C. students who have 
obtained the * Chujen, ' or master 's degree, viz., Wukwei-Ung and 
T. C. Tan, '04. The former was eleventh on the whole list and the 
latter was sixteenth. The Chinese government has done wisely in 
establishing the new board of education, which examines and con- 
fers these higher degrees for successful study in western subjects. 
Nearly 200 students from China are now in the United States in 
different universities, all of whom look to obtain these coveted 
higher degrees, which have the same name and value as have all 
along obtained under the old system. The fact that four students 
from the University of California should head the entire list speaks 
well for the university and is a matter for much congratulation 
and encouragement." — Daily Calif orninn. 

' ' Chun Seen Chan, a graduate of the University, with the class of 
1907, has been appointed director of the agricultural station at 
Mukden, Manchuria. News of the appointment of Chan was re- 
ceived in a letter to Prof. E. J. Wickson, from whose college the 
young Chinese was given his degree. Chan, whose advancement 
to the high position he now holds in the Chinese imperial service, 
is due to the instruction he received at the University of Califor- 
nia, has written of the invasion of American ideas in the kingdom. 
The agricultural school of which he is the head is patterned after 
the experiment station on the campus directed by Professor Wick- 
son. Chan is engaged in a series of experiments to determine the 
suitability of California fruit trees in the Orient." — Daily Calif ornian. 


Class Eeunions. 

The coming Commencement Day ^ill mark the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of the class of 1883, the class of President Walter B. 
Cope of the Alumni Association, and plans are being made for a 
fitting celebration of the event. 

The secretary of '88, George A. Merrill, is actively at work and 
expects to celebrate the twentieth anniversary by an enthusiastic re- 
union. He plans that his class shall make a significant addition to 
the Alumni Hall Fund at this time. 


The tenth anniversary of the class of '98 will be celebrated by its 
members by a dinner on the evening of May 8. A bay excursion in 
the afternoon to visit the battleships, will probably be arranged for 
the following day. Members of the class will receive full information 
in due season. 

Members of the class of '98 are urged to send in their contribu- 
tions to the decennial anniversary fund of the class before May 1. 
This fund is intended as a gift to the University, the income to be 
used for the Library. Checks, etc., should be addressed to A. H. 
Allen, 202 California Hall, Berkeley. 

According to plans formulated at its graduation the Class of 1903 
will hold its first general reunion during the Commencement season of 
this year. Saturday, May 9th, is the date set. It is expected that the 
reunion's being on a Saturday, coupled with the further fact that it 
is just one day after the reception to the Fleet in San Francisco, will 
make it possible for many members of the class living at a distance 
to attend. The plans for this quinquennial reunion include a general 
reception at four in the afternoon in one of the University buildings 
ti be announced later, a pilgrimage to the different buildings on the 
campus, and in the evening a banquet and dance. It is expected that 
at least two hundred members of the class will be in attendance. All 
present or past members of the class of 1903 are urged to make their 
plans to attend. A circular in the form of a "Naughty Three Cali- 
fornian, " describing in more definite manner the plans for the re- 
union and also giving many other items of class interest, has been 
mailed to all present and past members of the class. If any members 
have failed to receive this publication they are invited to notify the 
secretary, John A. Brewer, 770 Summit avenue, Oakland, of such fact, 
sending their correct mailing addresses. 



The most extensive plans are being made by 1905 as outlined in 
the following circular sent to the members of the class: 

Berkeley, March 16th, 1908. 

My Dear Classmate: This letter is of the utmost importance to 
you and to the class of 1905. 

As you know the first big reunion of the class, after graduation 
is to occur during commencement week. May 12th to 13th, 1908. 

The officers of the class desire to have 1905 set the high water 
mark for successful reunions. There is no reason why we should 
not do so. Our class was the first to provide by its constitution 
that its membership should not only consist of those who graduated 
but should be extended to include all those who at any time during 
the undergraduate history of the class were affiliated with it. There 
are no distinctions made in '05. Now we want every member of 
the class to respond at once to this letter. Whether you can attend 
the reunion or not you can help make it a success by sitting down 
right now and letting us hear from you. We are going to publish 
a reunion book for distribution at the big banquet in May. We 
want you to write a letter to be published in that book. 

Write it just as though you were writing to one of your old col- 
lege chums. Tell us where you are now, what you have been doing 
since leaving college, and whatever class gossip you think of. As 
we shall publish the complete list of names, please let us hear from 
you so that "no response" will not appear opposite your name. 
Let your loyalty and pride in old '05 move you to do this right now. 

Mr. Emil Nathan, who has served the class so well as permanent 
secretary, has resigned on account of his business requiring him to 
spend a greater proportion of his time in New York City. The 
permanent president has appointed myself to fill the vacancy until 
the next reunion of the class. 

I hope that you will co-operate with me in making this first re- 
union a success. It is for the glory of the class of 1905 that this 
appeal is made and I know the '05 spirit swells the heart of every 
member, when there is a precedent to be established. 

Your officers have arranged with the alumni secretary, Mr. Gur- 
den Edwards, to deposit all of the class records in his office in 
California Hall in order that, no matter whatever may happen to 
individual members of the class, the records will be safe. It is 
absolutely necessary that we hear from you at once that we may 
have your correct address so that when the final plans are made for 
the reunion we can reach vou by mail without delay. 


Our tentative plans for the reunion week are as follows: The 
reception committee, consisting of the local members of the class, 
will meet all members who notify the secretary on what train they 
will arrive. The reception couiuiittoe will have a list of accom- 
modations for those who have not made other arrangements. In- 
cidentally it is understood that membership in the class includes 
the better or lesser halves of all regular members. The first formal 
gathering of the class will be Tuesday morning to view the Pil- 
grimage. Through the courtesy of the class of 1908 the members 
of the class of 1905 will be their guests at the Extravaganza to be 
held at the Greek theatre Tuesday evening. 

Wednesday afternoon the class will sit in a body at the com- 
mencement exercises. Wednesdav night the class will hold its bisT 
reunion banquet, which will be followed by a dance for the mem- 
bers of the class and their friends. 

Thursday, May 14, '08, will be Berkeley Day in honor of the 
officers and sailors of Admiral Evans' fleet. Athletic games will be 
held on California Field in the afternoon, a great open air supper 
at five o'clock on the Oval, and all class members should plan to stay 
over for Thursday. 

Now is the time to act. Send in your letter and make the class 
book a howling success. Thanking you for your interest in the 
past and trusting that you will always respond to the old class call, 
I am, very sincerely yours, N. N. EDDY. 

News of the Classes. 

Note. — Under each class there is a list of addresses wanted. 
The letter D indicates the College of Dentistry; M, Medicine; L, 
Hastings College of the Law; P, Pharmacy; the others are grad- 
uates of the Academic Colleges. Anyone having the desired in- 
formation is requested to send it to the Alumni Secretary, Uni- 
versity of California, immediately, so that the Directory of Grad- 
uates can be made as complete and correct as possible. 


Eev. Albert F. Lyle, Secretary, 203 South Sixth st. Newark, N. J. 

Addresses wanted: 
Ferdinand Damour, M. William P. Welch, M. 

John C. Handy, M. 


John E. Glascock, Secretary, 2720 Derby st., Berkeley. 

Address wanted: 
E. J. C. Drinkhouse, M. 


L. J. Hakdy, Jr., Secretary, 616 E. 24th st., Oakland. 
Addresses wanted: 
Charles A. Garter. Marin B. Lingo, M. 

Granville Heavitt, M. Clarence F. Townsend. 

Addresses wanted: 
John Cairns, M. Thomas W. Shelton, M. 

Thomas C. Hansen, M. John Steely, M. 

Luke Eobmson, M. 

Clinton Day, Secretary, 2747 Bancroft way, Berkeley. 
Address wanted: 
G. Walz, M. 


D. T. Fowler, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Los Angeles. 
Addresses wanted: 

J. J. Clark, M. Hiram P. Tuttle, M. 

W. A. Cochran, M. J. 8. Webber, M. 

EoBT. McKee, Secretary, 855 Broadway, Oakland. 
Addresses wanted: 
John H. Mackenzie, M. John J. Seawall, M. 


F. A. Whitworth, Secretary, 612 New York Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Address wanted: 
Charles B. Learned. 


Frank Otis, Secretary, 1609 Santa Clara ave., Alameda. 

Address wanted: 
William H. Mays, M. 

J. C. EowELL, Secretary, Library, University of California. 
John E. Farrell, who has been engaged in mining and explorations 
in Africa for many years, has returned to California. His address 


for the next year will be 3850 Sacramento st., San Francisco. He re- 
cently spoke before the Mining Association of the University on "A 
Mining Trip Through Central Africa." 

Addresses wanted: 
Leonard J. Lynch. L. Robinson, M. 

George E. Xottage, M. 


Frank P. Deeking, Secretary, Union Trust Bldg., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 

Chas. T. Boardman. Samuel E. Rhodes. 

John F. Colbreath, M. Edwin J. Schelhaus, M. 

Thomas W. Harris, M. William P. Smith, M. 

Isaac T. Hinton. Charles M. Swann, M. 
Robert C. Meyers, P. 

Dr. Arthur W. Scott, Secretary, Girls' High School, San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 

Charles M. Blake, M. Albert G. Quinlan, M. 

Victor A. Chaigneau, M. Frederick E. Ray, P. 

William H. Chamberlain. James Rorke, M. 

T. J. Fitspatrick. Thomas W. Seawell, M. 

J. W. Kirkwood, M. George W. Summers, M. 
James M. Powell, M. 


Peter T. Riley, Secretary, 2119 Bush st., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Gregory F. McCall, M. George A. Reich, M. 

James J. ilcDonald, M. S. P. Wharton, M. 


Mrs. A. F. Morrison, Secretary, 2022 California st., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Abrara C. Bradford. Edward S. Parker, P. 


E. G. Knapp, Secretary, Sacramento, California. 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry H. Howell, M. Louis P. Messing, P. 

Lewis J. Hughes, M. Agnes M. Sparks, M. 

Herman F. Jantzen. Edward A. Younger, M. 

James M. Mathewson, P. 




Dr. A. A. D'AxcoxA, Secretary, Affliated Colleges, San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
John P. Gray. William P. Morrison, P. 

Harry E. Havens. L. A. Sabey, M. 

Louis Heintzelman Long. 

George M. Gumming, Secretary, 3623 Sixteenth, st., San Francisco. 
Addresses wanted: 

Edward M. Beardsley, M. 
Ernest Brand, L. 
James M. Dewitt, P. 
George H. Filham, M. 
Eugene L. Grattan, M. 

John H. Lucas, L. 
William H. Olds, M. 
Joseph Eosenthal, L. 
Gustave Touchard, Jr., L. 
Ealph K. Wood, L. 


EuFtJs A. Berry, 

Addresses wanted: 
Herbert L. Adams, L. 
Marshall H. Arnold, L. 
Isaac G. Burnett, L. 
Eobert D. Jackson, P. 
Samuel M. Levy. 
George W. Marks, L. 
Frank de F. Miller, L. 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry J. Borda, M. 
Eugene Del Mar, L. 
Francis T. Hoburg, L. 
William W. Knott. L. 

Secretary, 2148 Center st., Berkeley. 

James O. Stanton, M. 
Farrand E. Stranahan, L. 
Samuel Tevis, L. 
James W. Tryon, P. 
Frank P. Wickersham, L. 
David Wight, P. 


Emile C. Meroy, M. 
Henry Miller, L. 
Thomas J. Shackleford, L. 
William S. Wagner, L. 

Chas. L. Huggins, Secretary, 2313 Channing way, Berkeley. 
Addresses wanted: 

Henry A. Ball, P. 
William A. Beatty, L. ' 
Henry W. Dodge, M. 
Charles M. Enright, M. 
Theodore E. Finley, L. 
Frank H. Gates, M. 

Archibald D. Gleaves, D. 
George W. Leohr, P. 
Edward D. McCabe, L. 
Isabella J. Miller. 
Henry F. Price, L. 
Frank E. Williams, L. 



Rev. AV. A. Brewer, Secretary, Burlingame, Calif. 
Addresses wanted : 

John L. Baker, L. 
George T. Beaisley, P. 
Henry S. Bettis, D. 
Daniel B. Cate, D. 
George W. Cool, D. 
William J. Davis, P. 
Ralph G. Dorrance, P. 
Prescott B. Glidden, L. 

George W. Hupers, L. 
William J. Patton, P. 
George Rothganger. 
Joseph Schneider, D. 
Harry H. Skilling, P. 
William Wenzlier, L. 
Josephine W. E. Woods, M. 


G. F. Clark, Secretary, Stanford University. 
Addresses wanted: 

William G. Brittan, L. 
Ernest S. Brown, M. 
Alice Chapman. 
Hector L. Couret, D. 
Nicholas A. Givovieh, D. 
Samuel P. Hughes, P. 

John G. Humphrey, D. 
Charles L. Morgan, P., M. '96. 
Lincoln E. Savage, L. 
Louis D. Schwitters, L. 
Jackson L. Shrader, L. 
William W. B. Stevens, L. 


Warrex Gregory, Secretary, Merchants' Exchange Building, San 

Addresses wanted: 
Frederick W. Driscoll, P. 
George H. Francoeur, L. 
Richard Gibson, L. 
George J. Glaze, M. 
Martin G. Loefler, L. 
Milburn H. Logan, P. 
Ella C. McNeeley. 

Theorilda L. Park, M. 
Lawrence E. Thompson, L. 
Nathan Vidaver, L. 
Tey Wantanabe, M. 
Joseph S. Warren, P. 
John F. Wilkinson. 


Geo. a. Merrill, Secretary, 16th and Utah sts., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Monroe E. Alexander, M. 
Alfred P. Brown, L. 
Adolph G. Bussenius, P. 
Horatio B. Emerson, P., M. 
Melvin B. Estes, M. 
George E. Flint, P. 
Euclid B. Frick, M. 

David L. Henderson, P. 
John L. Kelly, M. 
James H. McCarthy, P. 
'95. James J. Molony, P., M. 
Mayella G. Murphy. 
William C. Wallace, L. 
Thomas J. White, P. 





G. E. LuKENS, Secretary, Syndicate Building, Oakland. 

A son, Eoland Caryl, was born to Mrs. E. M. Warner (Emily 
Clark) in January. 

Addresses wanted: 
Robert E. Bunker, M. 
Christopher C. Gleaves, M. 
Frank B. Heider, P. 
Herbert S. Herrick, L. 
Edward E. Holmes, M. 
Masajasu Kawakani, M. 
Mary E. McLean. 

Frances E. Mart (Mrs. Green), M. 
Francis D. Murphy. 
Ambrose E. O'Neil, P. 
Edward W. Prat, D. 
Wilfred E. Proctor. 
Lawrence E. Williams, P. 

EOSKMARY Dobbins, Secretary, 2600 Warring st., Berkeley. 

Arthur Mack's address has been changed to 4211/4 North Hill st., 
Los Angeles. 

C. B. Lakeman has located in Ely, Nevada, where he holds a re- 
sponsible position as mine superintendent. He was one of the found- 
ers of the University Club recently formed there, which is composed 
chiefly of Stanford and California men. 

Addresses wanted: 
Louis S. Aitken, P. Edward Lagan, M. 

Eichard F. Dean. Charles S. Mann, M. 

Hubert P. Dyer. Ada H. Eamsdall. 

Paul C. Erhardt, D. Kirby B. Smith, P. 

Jabes A. Jenkins. Harry H. Timken, L. 

John J. Keefe, P. 

Albert L. Ehrman, Secretary, 212 California st., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Arthur F. Allen. 
Joseph L. Cerf, P. 
Cosmor B. Clark, L. 
George E. Coleman. 
Francis J. Collin, P. 
Adrian C. Ellis, Jr., L. 
Charles L. Griswald, D. 
Edward L. Grossman, P. 
Dowen F. Hance, P. 
Edwin C. Hyde, D. 
William T. Kirby, M. 

John M. McDonald, M. 
George L. Olds, P. 
Marie G. Olson, M. 
John W. Satterwhite, L. 
John M. Sims, M. 
Edwin D. Smith, L. 
Eobert L. Sutherland, M. 
Wallace L. Thompson, L. 
Paul Wecksler, P. 
Thomas Worth, P. 



Albert C. Aiken, Secretary, 34 Ellis st., Ban Francisco. 

T>. 'SI. Matteson has published (1) General Index to vols. I-X of 
the Anioriean Historical Eeview, (3) Analytic Index to the American 
Nation Scries, vol. 27, copies of each of which he has presented to the 
the University Library. 

Addresses wanted: 
Frederick Cogswell, P. 
Lafayette N. Des Marias, P. 
Robert H. Hawkes, P. 
Frederick L. Janeek, P. 
Ernest K. Johnston, M. 

Charles W. Jones, L. 
James F. McCone, M. 
George W. Ogden, M. 
Samuel S. Peck, P. 
Chester B. Pooler, P. 


Walter W. Henry, Secretary, 630 Vernon st., Oakland. 

The engagement has been announced of Milton S. Latham to Miss 
Edith K. Norris of San Francisco. The wedding has been set for 
September 1. 

Louis Bartlett, Ph.B., 1893, L.L.B., 1896, has offered a prize of 
$150 to be awarded during the year 1907-08 for the essay presenting 
the most practical solution of the problem of nominating the best and 
most efficient persons for public office, excluding from the question 
the nomination of President and United States Senators. The essays 
are to include a discussion of direct primaries, nominating conventions 
and purity of election laws. The competition is open to all students 
of the University, including the professional and graduate schools 
and closes April 1, 1908. 

Addresses wanted: 

John W. Aird, M. 
Hubert F. Bagley, P. 
Clarence A. Chapman, P. 
Paul S. Coke, D. 
Frederick C. G. Flesher, M. 
George A. Green, P. 
Walter M. Hedrick, P. 
Edward S. Horton, M. 

Edgar A. Kelley, L. 
William B. McKenny, P. 
Carl L. Mendel, P. 
Scollay Parker, P. 
Corydon B. Root, D., M. '94. 
Sidney H. Schrader, M. 
Mary E. Spooner. 
Matthew S. Wise, P. 



Benjamin Weed, Secretary, 

Addresses wanted: 
Edward F. Bandel, P. 
Abraham Berglund, L. 
Clarence F. Bickenson, M. 
Joseph H. Blum, P. 
John E. Booth, M. 
John E. Coffer, L. 
Francis J. Conlon, P. 
Frances A. Dean. 
John T. Handsaker. 
Walter S. Jewell, D. 

2nd and Folsom sts., San Francisco. 

William D. Jewett. 
Julian O. Kelton, P. 
Martin B. Macinnis, M. 
Frank L. Potter, P. 
Eichard F. Puck, P. 
Fenelon M. Eeith, M. 
Sheffield S. Sanborn. 
Neli A. Sime, M. 
Bertha I. Stone, P. 
Thomas C. Taylor. 


Mrs. ViDA Eedington Volkhardt, Secretary, 2827 Deakin st., 


William H. Gorrill was married on March 5 to Katharine Bunnell, 

Harry B. Torrey, who was forced to give up temporarily his courses 
at the University because of sickness, has returned from a six months 
trip to Tahiti greatly improved in health. He made some valuable 
zoological studies while in the island. 

Douglas Waterman has gone to take the position as assistant su- 
perintendent of the Poderossa Mines at Collehausi, Chile. 

Addresses wanted: 

John J. Grafton, M. 
William G. Hay, M. 

Harry L. Alexander. 
Mary G. Allen. 
Joseph C. i^adilla, M. 
Frank C. Becker, P. 
Louis L. Bernheim. 
Arthur Brand, L. 
Willard W. Butler, L. 
John F. Christopher, P. 
Ealph C. Coleman, D. 
Ella M. Cook. 
J. Wirt Cummins, P. 
Eugene M. Dodson, D. 
Frank W. Dudley, M. 
Walter Everett, L. 
Charles D. Fairbanks, P. 
Adelina M. Feder, M. 

Edward S. Holloway, D. 
Henry Horn. 
George E. Hyde, M. 
Frederick A. Lutz, M. 
Hammond J. McCallum, M. 
Thomas A. McCulloch, M. 
Tatsuniro Magario. 
Harold E. Monser. 
Margaret A. Quinton. 
William T. Ehea. 
Charles W. Smyth, L. 
Arthur C. Turner. 
Frederick G. Ullman, P. 


rxirEEsirY of California cheonicle. 


Mrs. Clara Henry Loudekback, Secretary, 2713 Derby st., Berkeley. 

Tracy R. Kelley has returned from China, where he was teach- 
ing in the Higher Normal School at Tsinan, Shantung, and is living 
at 1217 Sacramento st., San Francisco. He is teaching in the Low- 
ell High School. 

Addresses wanted : 
Daisy M. Bowen, P., L. '05. 
Herbert S. Bradford, L. 
Edgar Bridgewater, P. 
William D. Chace, M. 
Leonard H. Coe, M. 
Edwin E. Cox, Jr. 
Henry D. Danforth. 
Lewis A. Gibbons, L. 
Joseph T. Harrigan, M. 
George M. Harris, D. 
Lillie U. Kalman. 
Ichitaro Katsuki, M. 
Eugene A. Kiely, P. 
Christine B. Labarraque, '96, L. 

Arthur S. Lee, M. 
Naomi G. MacDonald (Mrs. 
N. G. Lane), D. 

Clarence L. Maloon, M. 
George W. Minstrell, P. 
George T. Moore, P. 
Brayton Museott, M. 
William H. I. O'Malley, M. 
Wallace E. Parkman, M. 
Helen G. Reynolds, Ph.G. 
Otto Scholl, P. 
John T. Stafford, M. 
Mary J. Stewart (Mrs. A. W. Mar- 
shall), M. 
Stephen L. Sullivan, L. 
Alberto Trevino, M. 
Howard T. Trumbo, L. 
Gilbert S. Walker. 
Newton B. Waller, M. 
William H. Ware, D. 


John D. Hatch, Secretary, 805 Arlington av., Berkeley, 

Percy G. McDonnell, ex- '97, recently visited the University, He 
went to the Philippines as reporter for the New York "Sun" dur- 
ing the Spanish War. After the war he entered the Government 
service and rose to membership on the municipal board which con- 
ducts the administration of the city of Manila. He returned to 
the United States with the Taft party and is now on his way back 
to Manila. 

Addresses wanted : 
Julian W. Ashley, D. 
John F. Baldwin. 
Benjamin A. Bosqui, D. 
William H. Butler, P. 
William E. Cole. 
Hoiton C. Curl, M. 

Daniel L. Donnelly, L. 
Edith J. Duffy (Mrs. E. J. D. 

Thomas A. Hickey, M. 
Erie G. Hockabout, P. 
Samuel D. Huntington, M. 



William I. Hupp. 
Melville E. Lubosch, P. 
William A. Lynn. 
Albert L. McKay, P. 
Frank A. McMahon, M. 
Julius I. Morris, D. 
Charles W. Morse. 
William Muller, P. 
Harry G. Eeynolds, D. 

Marie J. McKinley, 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry G. Allen, D. 
William W. Arkley. 
Emile C. Armand, P. 
John H. Atkins, D. 
Theodore H. Barnes. 
Cosam J. Bartlett, M. 
William L. Bell, M. 
Spencer Bishop. 
Allan C. Burdick. 
Herbert M. Butler. 
Marian Etta Bybee. 
Edwin Callaway, M. 
Joseph P. Chamberlain, 
Jacob C. Clausen. 
William L. Collier. 
Maurice L. Euphrat. 
Silas W. Geis. 
Edward D. Giroux, M. 
Fred W. Grimwood. 
Rinhei Hayakawa. 
Wildric F. Hynes. 
Andrew R. Jackson. 
William P. Jarvis. 
Edna Jones. 
Perley C. Jones, D. 
Grant A. Laughlin, L. 
Frank E. Lockwood, P. 
Ralph W. Lohman. 
Robert E. McGregor. 
Charles L. McPike, D. 

Frank O. Robinson, D. 
Peter Rock, P. 
Samuel R. Rodgers. 
Fannie E. Scott, D. 
Francis P. Taylor, L. 
Jessie G. Turner. 
Percival W. Willis. 
Martha Wood. 

Secretary, 161 Alpine st., San Francisco. 

Gertrude E. McVenn. 
Alfred H. Marchant, L. 
Frederick C. Miller, M. 
Walter H. Morgan. 
Bertha Newell. 
Harry C. Newman. 
Henry M, Newmark. 
William H. Ott, P. 
Harriet A. Parsons. 
Elinor D. Pratt, L. 
James G. Reed. 
Oscar C. Reeve. 
L. Julian F. Rosenberg. 

Theodore F. Rosenthal. 

Frederick W. Ruhser, P, 

Franklin T. Scott, D. 

Grace H. Sharp. 

Annie L. Sharkley. 

Clara M. Stark. 

George H. Stewart, D. 

Edward P. Tobin, L. 

William H. Wakefield. 

William A. Walden, D. 

Otto T. Wedemeyer. 

Mary E. Wellman. 

Cyril Wigmore. 

Jean I. Worthington, D. 

Una Y. Yanagisawa, '98, M. '01. 

J. Audley Young. 




Milton Newmark, Secretary, 250 Montgomery st., San Francisco. 
The engagement has been announced of Charlotte Hoffmann to 

Dr. Vernon L. Kellogg. 
Florence, Italy. 

Addresses wanted: 
William M. Beard, L. 
Belle Bowden (Mrs. F. K 
May Blossom, D. 
Mary E. Christal, P. 
Helena Cohen. 
James A. Craig, L. 
Anna B. P. Croall, D. 
Loxiis F. Eaton. 
Henry A. Geisendorfer. 
Frederick T. Grant, D. 
Walter J. Hennesey, M. 
Elbert Hiscrman. 
Burt E. Hooper. 
Raimondo Jadarola, P. 
William F. Kingsbury. 

The marriage is set for April 27th in 

Charles F. Kuster, D. 
Jenks). William J. Lawson, D. 
Harry C. Moore, P. 
Roy V. Nye. 
Francis C. Pache. 
Matthew A. Sammett. 
Albert P. Seymour, P. 
Katharine Stack. 
Aimee Stcinhart. 
Maud M. Taylor. 
Nellie Vance. 
John Jarvis Williams, D. 
Helen E. Youman. 
Edward L. Young. 

Frank W. Aitken, Secretary, 3663 W'ashington st., San Francisco. 
George O. Brehm was married on February 22 to May B. 
Graham, '01. They will live in Seattle, Washington. 

Addresses wanted: 
Edith M. Allen 
Frank W. Anderson, D. 
Ruth H. Armstrong (Mrs. H. L. 

Thomas M. Carmichael, D. 
Edward I. Clawiter, L. 
Annie D. Coulter (Mrs. A. P. 

Philip S. Cummings, D. 
Dora I. Horn, M. 
Ernestine Doychert, M. 
W'illiam T. S. Doyle, L. 
Robert H. Eveleth, P. 
Warren F. Geary, P. 
David Goodale. 
Walter Griffiths, L. 
W^illiam C. Haswell. 

John J. A. Hay. 
James B. Herreshoff, Jr. 
Cnarlotte M. Hoak. 
Walter E. Jackson, P. 
Margaret McCowan. 
Aloysius P. Mallon. 
Tadataro Miyabe, M. 
Fred L. Morris. 
James D. Mortimer. 
Peter Obsvig, M. 
Totaro H. Ohhara. 
Adel A. Parker. 
Henry J. Phillips, D. 
Wallace W. Reading, D. 
Samuel R. Rodgers, L. 
Grace A. Sullivan. 



Jesse Steinhart, Secretary, 827 Eddy st., San Francisco. 
Eichard Walton Tully has bought a ranch at Alma iu Santa 
Clara County, which he has named "El Eancho de las Eosas. " 

Frank F. Bunker, assistant superintendent of schools at Los An- 
geles, was recently selected by the school directors to direct the Berke- 
ley department, beginning July 8 next for four years, at a salary of 
$4000 a year. 

Eva Powell was recently elected President of the Ebell Club in 

Addresses wanted: 
Edward L. Betterton, D. 
Ella M. Bunnel. 
Ealph E. Burns, D. 
Ernest G. Callender. P. 
Charles S. Chandler, L. 
Philip S. Clapp, P. 
James S. Domeniconi, D. 
John W. Douglass, L. 
Guy W. Eddy. 
Martin Espinosa, D. 
Alfred E. Goldstein. 
Laurence L. Greene. 
Melvin S. Griffiths. 
Marcella Gunning. 
Anna L. Hudgens, D. 
John D. Illia, P. 

John L. A. Jaunet, L. 

Herman Kronenberg, P. 

John V. Leonard, M. 

Curtis B. Locklin. 

Hugh M. Love. 

Henry D. Morse. 

William J. Murphey, M. 

Oney M. Nicely. 

Eobert Pateck. 

Eobert C. Eamage, P. 

Eleanor M. Eussell. 

Taichi Tanabe. 

Lilian C. Versalovich (Mrs. J. 

Albert M. Walsh. 
Brooke M. Wright, L. 


Ben.t. Eeed, Secretary, care of Eanier Mill and Lumber Co., Foot of 

Oak St., Oakland. 

The engagement has been announced of Ben F. Kierulff to Miss 
Gerna Vandevoort. The wedding is set for May. 

Addresses wanted: 

William A. Barnhill, L. 
Harriet L. Blackburn, P. 
Bonfield Bowman. 
Augusta E. Breslauer. 
Will D. Carlisle, D. 
Harold M. Childs. 
William H. Cooper. 
Bryant S. Drake. 

John W. Foley, P. 
Walter D. Hambleton, D. 
Alma J. Heger. 
James S. Horovitz. 
Bessie Hutchins, P. 
Gus S. Levy, P. 
Percival J. Meyer, D. 
George H. Moore, L. 


Tokichi Murakami. Charles P. Eichmond. 

Chickara Nakano. Henry S. Eichmond. 

Guy Needham, P. Christopher H. Eowlands. 

Edward A. Nis. Harriette W. Smith. 

Kotaro Nishikawa. Seiichi M. Tamura. 

Mary L. Poage. William H. Thompson, D. 

Frank L. Putnam, M. Nancy L. Wilkins, D. 

Horace M. Eamsey. Henry E. Worley, L. 


John A. Brewer, Secretary, 770 Summit av., Oakland. 
Grace Barnett, Assistant Secretary, 2528 Eidge road, Berkeley. 

The attention of the women of the class is called to the appoint- 
ment of Grace Barnett as Assistant Secretary. It is hoped that 
through this appointment the class organization will be able to keep 
much more complete records of the women of the class than it has 
hitherto been able to do. 

Elsie Nutting is taking post-graduate work at Eadcliffe College. 

Arthur Markwart is a civil engineer associated with the firm of 
Howard and Galloway, architects and engineers, San Francisco. 

Dana Putnam is with the Butters Devisadero Mine, in Salvador, 
Central America. 

William H. Eeedy is assistant pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Oakland. 

Leslie W. Symmes is a consulting agricultural engineer with head- 
quarters in Berkeley. 

Mrs. A. F. Dannemeller, who was Miss Annie McCleave, is at Fort 
Harrison, Helena, Montana, where her husband is at present stationed. 

Myra Friedenrich is studying at Heidelberg University, Germany. 

Florence Gordon is teaching at Kobe College, Kobe, Japan. 

Bertha Janes, author of the 1903 Junior Farce, has been married 
to Mr. Aincetto Lopez, a rancher of Monterey county. 

Mary Edith McGrew is instructing at Eockford College, Eockford, 

Edwin M. Garrison is assistant cashier of the Bank of Willows. 

Thornton A. Mills, ex- '03, is pastor of a large church at Eockford, 

Allan P. Matthew has left the Harvard Law School temporarily 
to act as secretary to Mr. Franklin K. Lane of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. 


Otto Schultze aud T. A. Stoddard are internes at the Afl&liated 
Colleges and French hospitals respectively of San Francisco. 

Charles G. Bailey, ex- '03, is manager for the Century Electric 
Company of Oakland. 

Bryan Bell has left the business managership of the * ' Iron Age ' ' 
in New York to engage in the business of manufacturing cotton seed 
oU at Lake Providence, Louisiana. 

Miss Edna "Wemple was married in the month of March, in Oak- 
land, to James McDonald, who has lumber interests in Oregon. 

Drury Butler has gone to Collehausi, Chile, to take a position in 
the Poderosa Mines. 

Mrs. Charles Eogers (Rose Humann), has been granted the de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Syracuse, New 
York. She took work in German and English. 

The engagement of Dr. Lloyd M. Place, D., '05, to Miss Julia 
Boardman of Palo Alto, has been announced. 

Addresses wanted: 

Caroline Armstrong, P. George A. Hodges, D. 

Totaro Asahina, D. John B. Jones, D. 

William J. Balfred, P. Louis H. Kilpatrick, P. 

Louis I. Breitstein. Leonard T. Kitts. 

Adelina D. Cereghino, P. Kisatsuchi Koda. 

Carl L. Cook. Elsie B. Leale (Mrs. F. B. John- 
Bertram E. Corlett. stone). 

Edward F. Dunbar, D. Edward Leppien. 

John E. Dyer, L. Frank Lorin, L. 

Harry F. Eckhardt, P. James A. McBain, D. 

Lloyd E. Elwell. William G. McGuire, M. 

Perry F. Farrington, P. Ethelwyn Mills. 

Oscar H. Folkers, P. Thomas E. Morrissey. 

Jess T. Forsyth, P. Charles W. Petit. 

Henrietta Hagan, M. George A. Eaven. 

Fred B. Hart, '01, L. '03. Josephine Rosenberg. 

William S. Herreshoflf. Keijiro Tanaka. 


Albert Rosenshine, Secretary, 2425 Fillmore st., San Francisco. 

Seymour Phelan, ex- '04, was married on February 7 to Miss 
Effie Wade of Oakland. They will live at Bakersfield. 

The engagement has been announced of Carlton E. Rhodes, D. '04, 
to Miss Ethlyn Stone. He is practicing in Reno, Nevada. 

Ralph W. Weymouth, ex- '04, has been appointed by the Council 
of Stockton to draft a building code for the city. 



Addresses granted : 
Lerda E. Arhulioh. 
Clara G. Barstow. 
David W. Brown, M. 
Albert M. Dinsmore, D. 
Elexander M. Ehrlieh. 
Arnold M. Ehrlieh. 
Evelyn Gilmore (Mrs. J. I.. 

William P. Golden, L. 
Mary O. Gundry (Mrs. C. 

Edward J. Howard, D. 
Loren L. Hursh. 
Fred L. Johnston. 
Carrie W. Liddle (Mrs.). 
Theodore J. Ludlow. 

Walter W. Merriam. 
John E. Middleton, D. 
Richard R. Mitchell. 
Laura F. Mosher. 
Richard B. Nichols, P. 
Claire Rasor, P. 
Charles G. Rogers. 
Frank E. Rodolph, D. 
Sei K. Sanada. 
Poin-Edgar L. Scott, P. 
Tien C. Tan. 
Paul A. Trullinger, D. 
Fred D. Weber. 
Elizabeth S. Wetmore. 
Samuel S. loung. 


Nat X. Eddy, Secretary, care of Alumni Secretary, University of 


William C. Crittenden, ex- '05, who was operated upon for ap- 
pendicitis in February, has recovered his strength and is about 

James T. Shaw, ex- '05, was married on February 26 in Carson 
City, Nevada, to Miss Laura Thompson. He is treasurer and sec- 
retary of the Pittsburg, Liberty and Masonic Mining Companies 
with oflSces in Carson City. 

Alice M. Phillips, ex- '05, who was married to Hugh C. Toff of Los 
Angeles on February 5, died, after an operation for appendicitis on 
March 24. 

Dr. J. H. Mazza, D., '05, was married to Miss Elvira Filippini 
of Petaluma on February 25. 

The engagement has been announced of Jeannette Green to Wil- 
liam L. Warren of Honolulu. 

Addresses wanted: 
Ray K. Barows. 
Clarence S. Ballagh, P. 
Mary T. DeHaven, M. 
Ethel E. Eggleston. 
Adolph A. W. Foerster, D. 
Mary B. Grant. 

Shun T. Kong. 
J. Robert Lindsay, P. 
William E. Lindsay, P. 
Roy F. Morehead, D. 
James S. Mullen. 
John W. Peck, M. 



Harold Petterson. 
Charles H. Redmond, P. 
Jeromiah T. Eegan, P. 
Helen M. Sinsheimer. 
James G. Smith. 
Charles D. Snyder, P. 

Mary L. Somerville. 
Ernest J. Stanley. 
George C. Steinmiller, D. 
A. E. Syverson, D. 
Reuben V. Vaughan, P. 
Carl A. Wigholm. 

Mathew C. Lynch, Secretary, Cordelia. 
Mary H. Bush died March 28 in Colorado. 

The engagement has been announced of Hazel Skinner to Mr. 
Carl Schnabel, a prominent fruit grower of Newcastle, Placer 

Horace Case has been appointed general manager of the branch 
of the Western Electric Company in Seatle. 

Frank Hadley was recently married to Frederica Leach, ex- '10, 
in Yokohama, where he is a member of the American Legation. 

The engagement of Prentiss Gray to Miss Laura Sherman of 
Salt Lake City has been announced. The wedding has been set 
for August and will take place in Washington, D. C. 

William Griffith was married recently to Miss Emma A. Gaige 
in Lima, Peru. He is chemist for the Cerro de Paso Mining Com- 
pany at La Fundicion, Peru. 

Harry Cheney has been admitted to the Ecole des Beaux Arts 
in Paris. Irving Morrow is preparing to enter the same school and 
expects to leave for Paris in a few months. 

The engagement has been announced of Claude E. Gillis, ex- '06, 
to Ethel Louden, '07. 

Addresses wanted: 
Katharine C. Barrett. 
William L. Borthwick. 
Sidney R. Dannenbaum, M. 
Edward P. Genochio, P. 
Chester F. Hoyt. 
Louise M. Igo, M. 
Selmar W. Isaacson, D. 
Frederick C. Lewitt. 
Chee S. Lowe. 
Elwy H. MacGilvray, P. 

Ella W. Miller. 
Richard L. Ochsner, M. 
Thomas C. Oliver. 
Antonio M. dal Piaz, M, 
Frederick B. Reece. 
.Jessie T. Robertson. 
Vida M. Scott, L. 
Charles H. Strub, D. 
Robert T. Sutherland. 
/Alfred J. Warren. 


Julius ELlein, Secretary, Faculty Club, University of California. 

The engagement was announced on April 9 of Bay Gabbert to 
Miss Elizabeth Gordon of Caledonia, New York. 

The engagement has been announced of George H. Stoddard, ex- 
'07, to Miss Helen E. Bates. The marriage is set for the middle of 

Philip E. Bowles, Jr., ex- '07, has been appointed by Secretary 
of the Navy Metcalf as bis confidential secretary. 

Hans Lisser and Douglas Morse have lately passed the entrance 
examinations to Johns Hopkins Medical School. 

.7. L. Dobbins is engaged in construction work for the copper 
smelter at McGill, Nevada. 

Chester E. McKillican is with the Penryn Fruit Company at 
Penryn, California. 

Norman Zoph and Guy O. Eraser have gone to Collehausi, Chile, 
to take positions with the Poderosa Mines. 

Addresses wanted: 

Arthur G. Baker, L. Charles K. Morfoot, L. 

S. Thomas Donohoe, D. Frederick G. Nopel, P. 

Frederick C. Lang, P. Charles L. Preisker, L. 

Charles G. Loeb, L. Leslie A. Stern, D. 


The following list of deceased alumni contains all the deaths of 
■which the Alumni Association has any record; anyone who knows 
of deaths not recorded here or can supply the missing dates is re- 
quested to send such information immediately to the Alumni Sec- 


Adler, Alexander, '02, M. '06. Alexander, John F., P. '75. 

Aug., 1907. May 19, 1891. 

Agnew, Ellard A., P. '98. Allen, Edward 'Kara, M. '75. 

Ainsworth, George J., '73. Anderson, Jerome A., M. '73. 

Oct. 20, 1895. Anthony, Charles N., L. '88. 
Airaldi, August, P. '92. 1890. 

Alexander, Edith, '04. Argenti, Jerome J. B., P. '81. 

Dec. 24, 1904. 




Bacigalupi, Flora, '02. 

Jan. 13, 1905. 
Bailey, Eichard J., M. '95. 
Banning, Edward J., L. '95. 
Barcroft, David, '82. 

Aug. 2, 1894. 
Barry, Jennie (Mrs. W. G. 
Klee), '81. 

Dec. 1888. 
Baterman, Christopher S., '79. 

Oct. 7, 1901. 
Baxter, William J., '03. 

March 16, 1904. 
Beard, John L., '68. 

Nov. 19, 1903. 
Benedict, Con. W., M. '75. 
Bergson, Edith F., '02. 
Bernard, Herloert A., D. '94. 
Berry, Frederick T., '03. 

Dee. 21, 1906. 
Bettleheim, F. A., M. '80. 
Bias, Herbert J., '98. 

Jan. 28, 1902. 
Bice, John W., '75. 

June 8, 1883. 
Blake, James "W., M. '74. 
Blake, Eobert J., D. '99. 
Blaney, Edward W., '71. 
Blood, John N., D. '83. 
Boland, James I., L. '81. 
Bolton, John M., P. '73. 

Oct. 1890, 

Bonney, Franklin J., '79. 
Borden, Ehodes, L. '84. 
Botsford, George, D. '85. 
Bowles, John B., D. '94. 
Boyle, John C, L. '94. 
Bradbury, George F., M. '78. 

Dec, 1903. 
Bradford, William F., '84. 

Joseph E. Brand, P. '00. 

April 12, 1903. 
Martha A. Brier, '92. 

July 29, 1903. 
Brierly, Conant B., M. '66. 
Brown, Elmer M., '04. 

Sept. 7, 1907. 
Brown, Lewis W., P. '77. 
Brown, Winsor L., A. '76. 

Brunner, Albert J., L. '83. 

Bryant, Herman B., '85. 

Burch, Maria A., D. '83. 
Burchard, Leonidas S., P. '75, 
M. '82. 

April 23, 1905. 
Frank D. Burleson, D. '90. 
Donald Bush, L. '03. 

Feb., 1905. 
Mary H. Bush, '06. 

March 28, 1908. 


Cafferta, Albert, D. '96 . 
Caldwell, H. H., M. '80. 
Campbell, Mary H., '05. 

Oct. 31, 1905. 
Carnall, Armor, '83. 

Sept. 6, 1884. 
Chapman, William D., '92. 

Charleston, William S., P. '79. 

Sept. 19, 1896. 
Chase, John M., '84. 

Jan. 30, 1894. 
Churchill, Leonard, M. '71. 
Clarke, John B., P. '77. 



UNirEFSirr of California cheonicle. 

rlovr, James B., P. '77. 

Dec. 11, 1886. 
Cobb, George D., '71. 
Colley, Frederick E., '03. 

March 26, 1904. 
(,'olliiis, Addison C, M. '85. 
Conrad, Ada E. (Mrs. D. I 
Swett), '00. 

Nov. 8, 1904. 
Coon, Charles M., P. '81. 

Nov. 13, 1889. 

Dare, Edward R. L., P. '93. 
Dart. Edith P., '98. 

Feb. 20, 1903. 
Davis, Edward W, 

Feb. 7, 1903. 
Dean, Andrew, M. '81. 
Dean, Eiehard F., L. '93. 

April 20, 1902. 
Delieat, John F. A., P. '88. 
Dennis, Nathan P., M. '88. 
Denslow, Harmon, P. '77. 

Dickerson, Clarence M., '98. 

May 7, 1903. 

Earll, Arthur Eonian, L. '85. 

June 23, 1889. 
Eichbaum, Thomas E., '91. 

Corbett, S. J., M. '68. 
Cowles, Edwin W., '77. 

1885 or 1886. 
Cox, Thomas TI., M. '73. 
Cranz, Frank II., D. '96. 
Creighton, Charles, L. '83. 

Nov. 25, 1907. 
Crowell, Alvin R., L. '00. 
Currie, Arthur M., L. '99. 
Currier, Wallace O., '81. 


Dickson, Frederick W., L. '96. 
Dikeiiian, Simon G., '87. 
Dinkelspiel, Major Walter, '00. 

Feb. 2, 1906. 
Dudley, Charles H., '63. 

Dec. 11, 1873. 
Duncan, Samuel C, M. '77. 
Durst, John H., Ph.B., '80, L. '83. 
Dorn, Marcellus A., '79, L. '82. 

Oct. 18, 1900. 
Downs, George W., M. '79. 
Doyle, Joseph H., D. '00. 
Dwyer, James P., L. '84. 


Emde, George H., P. '94. 
Emerson, David L., '64. 



Parish, Linn M., '98. 

May 6, 1899. 
Fernald, Richard M., P. '00. 
Finnie, Walter F., '78, M. '85. 

April, 1907. 
Fisk, Kdward S., D. '97. 
Foerster, Constantine E. A., L. 

Fote, Gilbert, M. '79. 

May 29, 1894. 
i\julkes, J. F., Jr., M. '80. 

Fox, Dwight W., P. '80. 

Feb. 22, 1894. 
France, Louis N., P. '80. 

April 29, 1890. 
Freud, Isaac, P. '74. 

.Fan. 9, 1889. 
Freud, Jacob R., '76. 

Jan. 13, 1902. 
Furlong, Nicholas, L. '84. 




Garland, Louise M., '02. 

April 18, 1902. 
Garrison, Earl W., '99. 

Jan. 23, 1905. 
Gates, Emery P., P. '87. 
Gibbon, John A., D. '93. 
Gibbons, William, '67, M.A. 

Feb. 12, 1903. 
Gibbs, Ealph E., '98. 

April 1, 1903. 
Gillin, George B., L. '85. 
Goodyear, Everett F., '92. 

Sept. 13, 1902. 
Gove, David M., P. '81. 

Gove, Jabez H., L. '88. 
Graser, Anna G., P. '93. 

March 11, 1901. 
Gray, Robert F., D. '93, M. '95. 
Greany, John T., L. '85. 

'71. Greensfelder, Hart, '04. 

Feb. 27, 1905. 
Greive, Eobt. E., '03. 

March 18, 1906. 
Guillemard, Arthur J., M. '78. 
Gustafson, Johne E., '01. 

July 18, 1903. 

Hackett, John J., M. '67. 
Hahn, Edwin O., L. '95. 

Oct. 8, 1896. 
Haile, C. S., M. '69. 
Hamilton, Florence N., P. '95. 

Dec. 6, 1905. 
Hammand, Benton A., '01. 

Oct. 3, 1907. 
Hampton, James E., M. '71. 
Heger, Esther L., '05. 
Helm, Charles W., L. '84. 

May 5, 1887. 
Henley, Charlotte A. (Mrs. L. 
S. Ainsworth), '00. 

June 21, 1905. 
Henshaw, Oliver B., '94. 

July, 1898. 
Hicks, Young E., M. '74. 
Harker, Charles G., '90. 
Harmon, Roberdeau, P. '76, M. 

May 20, 1904. 
Harris, Henry E., P. '76. 
Harvis, Joseph E., '98. 

June 29, 1906. 
Harwood, William D., '66. 

April 13, 1883. 


Haskell, Eobert K., '98. 

March 15, 1904. 
Hastings, Eobert P., L. '81. 
Hastings, Warren I., L. '87 
Hawkins, Lester L., '73. 

Feb., 1906. 
Hayne, Arthur P., P. '89. 

April 2, 1907. 
Heaney, John P., P. '75. 
Hilton, William H., '00. 

May 27, 1901. 
Hirst, Harry H., '96. 

Dec. 23, 1899. 
Hixon, Arthur C, L. '94. 
Hidgdon, Walter H. A., M. ' 
Hoefer, Eugene, '84. 

May 16, 1899. 
Hollis, William H., '96. 

Hook, Walter E., M. '76. 
Hughes, Thomas H., P. '86. 
Humphreys, Alice, '00. 

Oct., 1905. 
Hutchinson, Eeno, '00. 
Hutton, Corinne, '01. 

Oct. 21, 1904. 
Hyde, Charles G., D. '91. 




Jones, Lewis M., P. '83. 
Jarvis. Joseph R., '98. 
June 29, 1906. 

Kidd. Albert J., M. '94. 
Kip, ^Villiam I., Jr., '88. 
Oct. 2, 1902. 

Laidlaw, Horace, M. '80. 
Lando, Joseph H., L. '87. 
Lann, William H., P. '92. 
LaEue, Donald D., P. '94. 
Lawton, William D., L. '82. 
Lazarus, Armand, '89. 

Feb., 1890. 
Lee, Anna C, '05. 

Aug., 1906. 
Lezinsky, David L., '84. 

July 4, 1895. 
Lillard, Walter F., D. '01. 
Lincoln, .Jerome B., '82, L. '87. 

July 4, 1898. 

Julian, George W., '99. 
Aug. 23, 1901. 


Kirkpatrick, C. A., M. '71, 
Koshland, Montefiore, '88. 
Sept., 1889. 


Lindenberger, William E., L. 
Lindenberger, Wiliam H., M. 
Linforth, Frank O., '74. 

Jan. 14, 1889. 
Lloyd, Lee W., '92. 

Sept. 4, 1903. 
Lord, Frank D., '05. 

Oct. 18, 1907. 
Lundborg, Gustaf W., M. '83. 
Lyford, Dexter L., M. '72. 
Lyser, Albert W., L. '95. 



McCloud, Wayne, '99. 

Aug. 25, 1903. 
MeCoy, Juan W., M. '84. 
McCulloch, Matilda L., '00. 

March 7, 1902. 
McGargar, Philaden, D. '88. 
McGillivray, James J., '81. 

May 22, 1887. 
McGillivray, John D., '79. 

Jan. 17, 1897. 
McGuire, Lucius, M. '68. 
McKeany, Margaret, '04. 

August, 1907. 
McKenny, Samuel M., P. '93. 
McLaughlin, William H., P. '78. 

McLean, F. P., P. '75. 
McNamara, John A., P. '93. 
McPherson, Thomas W., '99. 

July 29, 1903. 
McWade, David F., '97. 

Dec. 28, 1906. 
Maher, Frank W., '78. 

Marshall, Mabel E., D. '03. 
Marshall, Fayette C, '81. 
Martin, Aurelius F., '79. 

Jan. 17, 1897. 
Marx, David B., '77. 
Mathewson, James M., M. '82. 

Sept. 22, 1905. 



Meeks, William V., '85. 

April 18, 1886. 
Mervy, Emile C, P. '79. 
Meyer, Mark C, P. '80. 

May 13, 1882. 
Miller, Ida C, P. '86. 

Jan. 30, 1894. 
Minor, George W., P. '79. 

Newman, Walter, '99. 

Jan., 1900. 
Newmark, Valentine, M. '68. 

Oberdeener, George, P. '84. 
Oberdeener, Samuel, P. '80. 
O 'Callaghan, Jas., P. '79. 

May 26, 1880. 
O'Keeffe, Stephen E., L. '88. 

O'Neill, A. A., M. '67. 

Moore, Charles C, P. '78. 
Morden, Thomas S., D. '96. 
Moriarity, John A., '03. 
August 26, 1904. 
Muenter, Henry L., M. '82. 
Muller, Herman Emanual, M. 
Murphy, Kossuth M., P. '77. 
Murphy, Martin J., P. '82. 



Nicholson, Walter H., P. '79. 
Jan. 27, 1884. 


O'Neill, J. C, M. '73. 
Osborne, Charles K., '98. 

Oct. 17, 1898. 
Ostrander, Frank M., L. '81. 
Cury, Francis W., '87. 

Sept. 19, 1893. 
Oviedo, Louis P., M. '91. 

Patch, Mary L. (Mrs. C. Gunn) 

Pearsons, Hiram A., P. '81. 

July 7, 1889. 
Perry, Henry C, P. '80. 

Dec. 1, 1900. 
Plummer, Richard H., M. '66. 
Pold, Charles W., P. '92. 
Pollock, Alexauder, '82. 

Oct. 25, 1907. 
Pomeroy, Everett B., '71, M. A. 

Pope, Horace E., M. '76. 
Porter, David A., '94. 

April 17, 1903. 
Poston, Richard E., '68. 

April, 1868. 
Potter, Grace M., P. '92. 
Prevost, Renny J., M. '66. 
Pruett, John A., M. '78. • 

Jan. 25, 1893. 


Radelfinger, Frank C, '96. 

Aug. 29, 1904. 
Ralston, Frank W., P. '88. 
Ramsdell, Benjamin H., '96. 

June 1, 1903. 

Randall, Samuel B., '02. 

Feb. 20, 1904. 
Ratcliflf, Evelyn M. (Mrs. W. 
F. Bade), '01. 
Sept. 18, 1907. 


■Reardon. William E.. 'SI. '87. 
Eeddick, John B., '69. 

Sept. 16, 1895. 
Kedington, Samuel M., '69. 

Nov. 18, 1886. 
Reilly, Eugene C, P. '85. 

Oct. 6, 1902. 
Keith, William C, D. '86. 
Hideout, John D., '90. 

Aug. 29, 1892. 
Eigney, ISIary C, '05. 

Mar. 29, 1907. 

Roadhouse, James E., '04. 

Nov. 28, 1907. 
Robinson, Paul S., '97. 
Rogers, Arthur, '72. 

June 24, 1902. 
Roturier, Emile F., P. '83. 
Rucker, Hiram N., M. '70. 

Dec. 13, 1905. 
Rupe, Samuel H., M. '66. 
Russell, Edward W., D. '97. 

Sage, Charles P.. 'SL '70. 
Samuels, Edward P., '91. 
Sander, Peter F. C, P. '76. 

Nov. 21, 1883. 
Sander, Henry W., P. '79. 

Aug. 28, 1882. 
Savage, Henry M., P. '79. 
Sayre, Alfred M., P. '81. 
Sayre, Jesse P., P. '93. 

March 22, 1897. 
Sawyer, Bosworth D., '03. 

Jan., 1905. 
Schneider, Henry E., P. '91. 
Seligsohn, Michael, '80. 

Oct. 29, 1896. 
Sellon, Annie F., M. '81. 
Senter, Elizabeth G., M. '82. 
Shaw, Wm. R., P. '77. 

March 19, 1900. 
Sheffield, Charles M., P. '79, L. 

Sept. 12, 1884. 
Shellfield, Charles M., '79, L. 
Shepard, Edward H., P. '80. 

Tay, Charles F., P. '91. 
Feb. 8, 1901. 

Sherman, George E., '65. 

Sept. 20, 1881. 
Smith, Arthur H. H., P. '82. 
Solomans, Leon M., '93. 

Feb. 2, 1900. 
Somers, Burbank G., '92, L. '95. 

July 14, 1904. 
Stealey, Edwin M., D. '97. 
Stivers, Charles A., M. '64. 
Strain, Edward L., D. '94. 
Stuart, John M., M. '82. 
Stuart, William A., L. '87. 

Sullivan, Mabel W., '96. 

About June 1, 1897. 
Sutton, Frank S., P. '75. 

Sylvester, Julian, M. '73. 
Symmes, Stanley R., '04. 
'83.Sweet, Lucy F. (Mrs. W. R. Ba- 
con), '98. 
'83. Sept. 20, 1905. 


Tewsbury, Lucio M., '70. 
Oct. 26, 1885. 

Terpenning, Zana E. (Mrs. F. G.Thevenet, Ernest J., P. '88. 

H. Stevens), '02. 
Feb. 10, 1906. 

Thomas, Joseph T., D. '92. 



Thompson, Willard D., P. '95. 

April, 1905. 
Tindall, Anna L., '94. 
Tobin, Alfred, L. '81. 
Toland, Charles A., M. '69. 

Trusseau, Peter C, L. '83. 
Tucker, Rhoda L. (Mrs. G. 
Frick), P. '79. 
July 8, 1902. 
Turner, Frederick W., P. '96. 


Tracy, Charles T. K., '64, L. '72. Turner, J. T., M. '69. 


Van Pelt, William W., L. '95. Vassault, Theodora E., M. '00. 
Van Winkle, Lawrence E., P. 'gS.A^'oigh, William C, M. '79. 
Jan. 4, 1906. Vreeland, Frank L., P. '79. 


Wagener, Edward L., P. '96. 
Walcott, Mabel (Mrs. W. A. Beat 
ty), '84. 

April 20, 1901. 
Walcott, Maude (Mrs. F. A. Butts) 

Nov. 26, 1888. 
Wallace, William T.. Jr., L. '83. 
Walton, Frank J., '83. 

Ware, John H., P. '91. 
Washburn, Charles E., P. '76. 

Nov. 21, 1884. 
Waterman, Waldo S., '86. 

Feb. 24, 1903. 
Webster, Lauren D., D. '96. 
Weeks, Freeman L., M. '64. 
Wentworth, William H., M. '88. 

Sept. 11, 1901. 

Whitcomb, Alice H. (Mrs. W. C. 
Jones), P. '77. 

Dec. 10, 1882. 
White, Frederick H., D. '94. 
,Whittell, Alexander P., M. '73. 
Whitworth, .John M., A.B., '72. 

April 15, 1901. 
Wiggins, Marcus P., '67. 

Oct. 18, 1900. 
Williams, Eben B., L. '82. 

Wilson, Henry J., '90. 

.July 9, 1897. 
Wilson, John N. E., '76. 

May 27, 1901. 
Winans, Joseph W., Jr., '78, L. '81. 
Woodward, Millard F., L. '87. 

Wooster, David, M. '85. 

Yordi, Alfred H., L. '98. 

Young, George A., L. '81. 
Young, Wilfred M., P. '82. 

Zeile, Eugene J., '91. 
Nov. 7, 1907. 


Zobel, Handel H., L. '01. 
Jan. 2, 1902. 






Electrically -Welded Fabric for Floors, Roofs, 
Foundations, Sewers, Sidewalks 

Wire Lathing for Ceilings, Partitions, Cornices, 
Beam Covering, Column Covering 





Vol. X JULY, 1908 No. 3 


W. H. P. Faunce. 

It is a far cry from Narragansett Bay to the Golden 
Gate. To pass from the colonial mansions and meeting 
houses of old Providence, surrounded by stately elms and 
venerable traditions, to the lofty modern office buildings 
and charming suburbs of San Francisco is to change not 
only one's place, but one's psychological climate. It is to 
turn one 's face from Atlantic to Pacific, from the problems 
of Europe to those of the farther east, from caution and 
conservatism and well-poised deliberation to a swift and 
buoyant energy, which flinches at no obstacle, and an in- 
domitable faith which creates the future by believing in it. 

And these continental divergencies of temperament, tra- 
dition and inheritance must never be ignored or merged in 
a huge and colorless monotony. We need in this country, 
as one of our best teachers has told us, more genuine pro- 
vincialism. We need to cherish those local loyalties, those 
distinct flavors, which give to a great nation wholesome va- 
rieties of opinion, and give to human life its chief zest and 
charm. While we speak the same language, and march un- 
der the same flag and revere the same laws, we shall enrich 
our country most effectually when each section commemor- 
ates its own founders and heroes, cherishes its own customs 
and legends and remains in some sense a peculiar people. 

* Abstract, by President "W. H. P. Faunce, of the address delivered 
by him at the Charter Day Exercises, March 23, 1908. 


Little Ehode Island — that state of sturdy opinions, and 
stronirly developed back-bone, and a general temper which 
has been called "otherwise-niindedness" — ^your great State 
of California could swallow it at a single mouthful! But 
if you did, you would find it. as IMassachusetts once found 
it, a most indigestible morsel. California seems to many in 
New England to cherish impossible dreams and harbor radi- 
cal opinions. But California will, I trust, never surrender 
those dreams, and will remember that the radicalism of to- 
day is often the orthodoxy of tomorrow. When each sec- 
tion is true to its own inheritance and loyal to its own 
vision, then our forty-six states will be as one great or- 
chestra, each instrument giving forth its own voice, but all 
keeping time and tune in the vast symphony which shall out- 
last the oceans and the ages, whose swelling theme is the 
harmony of liberty and law in a great and enduring dem- 

I have chosen for my theme, on this your festal day, 
"Individualism and Social Progress." This country owed 
at the beginning its chief characteristics to the blending of 
the Anglo-Saxon temperament and the Puritan principle, 
and both the temperament and the principle produced men 
of strong initiative, daring enterprise and individualistic 
spirit. A strain of the Viking blood runs through English 
and American history. Men of the English race have never 
loved the chimney corner. They have never been content 
to stay at home when oceans were to be explored and con- 
tinents subdued. Great sailors, soldiers, travellers, mission- 
aries, often poor in purse but rich in hope, crossed the sea 
to find fortune or extend the faith in America, and our brief 
history is full of self-reliant energy and stirring adventure. 
The great explorers, like De Soto and Daniel Boone and 
Fremont and Major Powell and Marcus Whitman, the great 
founders of commonwealths, like William Penn and Roger 
Williams, the great American inventors, like Fulton and 
Whitney and Morse, were usually men destitute of all that 


Europe had counted essential to distinction or achievement. 
These path-breakers of the new world had usually had no 
access to kings and courts, no social prestige, no inherited 
wealth, no influence or organization behind them — they had 
simply ' ' heart within and God o 'er head. ' ' They had simp- 
ly a vision that would not surrender and a flint-like purpose 
which would not swerve until the thing was done. 

In the political theory of our fathers the same individ- 
ualism was dominant. The founders of the Republic 
dreaded centralization of power, and stood for local self- 
government. In adopting the constitution they delegated 
only specified powers to the government and reserved all 
unspecified powers to the sovereign people. They had suf- 
fered the loss of all things in resisting tyranny in church 
and state, and when they came to this country it was with 
the solemn vow to preserve the right of private judgment 
and the opportunity for personal action. Our Declaration 
of Independence founds the Revolution on the violated 
rights of the individual and blends the religious fervor of 
the Old Testament with the relentless radicalism of Rous- 
seau's Social Contract. 

Curiously, yet perhaps naturally, the extremes of politi- 
cal individualism have been found in our two states, Cali- 
fornia and Rhode Island. Both of these states are and for- 
ever must be on the frontier, facing dangers and problems 
which interior commonwealths like Illinois or Missouri 
cannot know. Your history and ours have been marked by 
notable leaders who flung off all restraint; and periods of 
eruption and revolution have been followed by periods of 
reaction into the dominance of some machine. 

In the development of American industries the same 
forces have been at work. Our commercial life has been 
marked by an unhampered competition, which has no pre- 
cedent, and w^hich would have been quite impossible, except 
in a land of primeval forests and virgin prairies and inex- 
haustible minerals. We have believed that laissez-faire is 


the law of success. We have merely asked the government 
to protect ns while w-e do as we please. We have thought 
that the best government was that which governed least, and 
the best executive to be one of whose existence we were un- 
conscious. We have required the State to keep its hands 
off, and have looked to the individual for transportation, for 
transmission of intelligence, for development of agriculture 
and manufactures and financial resources. Our heroes, held 
up for the admiration of our children, have frequently been 
men who began as bare-foot boys and ended by owning 
everything they could reach. The result has been a cease- 
less scramble for wealth, often crowned with shining suc- 
cess, but attended with the surrender of things that M^ealth 
cannot buy. 

In religion. America has been the home of an arch-in- 
dividualism, whose results are both tragic and comic. Sec- 
tarianism is a luxury in which older and richer communities 
may indulge, just as families of wealth may have many 
servants, while a family in moderate circumstances must 
be content with a maid-of -all-work. But our frontier towns, 
our remotest mountain villages, instead of having one 
church-of-all Christian work, have indulged in the luxury 
of highly specialized creeds until they have come to re- 
ligious bankruptcy. We have sixteen varieties of one sect, 
and denominations enough to stock a museum and amaze 
our descendants. Each of the religious bodies has gone its 
own way as blithely as if there were no other on the horizon. 

In literature our masterpieces have until recently been 
studies of individual development or experience, as in the 
"Scarlet Letter," or in "Leather Stocking." Our finest 
poetry, as in "Lowell's Commemoration Ode," has been in 
praise of the individual struggling with a hostile world; 
while Walt Whitman reached the pinnacle of sublimity 
— or the nadir of pathos, as you please — in his "Song of 
Myself. ' ' Bryant 's ' ' Thanatopsis ' ' finely expresses the pre- 
valent aspiration of its time when the writer looks forward 


not to any immortality of influence, not to any share in the 
uplifting of humanity, but to a solitary and complacent 
ending of "one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
around him and lies down to pleasant dreams." Founded 
by men of superb initiative and dauntless energy, our coun- 
try has been the chief exponent in the modern world of 
political, industrial, social, and religious individualism. 

But now a change, subtle, gradual, yet mighty and per- 
vasive, is passing over our civilization ; a new spirit is per- 
meating our philosophy and literature and education ; a new 
ideal is climbing in the national sky. It is not that we have 
discovered the old ideal to be false. On the contray, it is 
all true. But we have learned that the old ideal is in- 
adequate. It is a bridge that hangs half way across the 
stream. It is a truth deeply needed and nobly demonstra- 
ted by millions of pioneers subduing a virgin continent ; but 
a profounder truth, a higher synthesis, must be attained for 
the crowded life and complex questions of the present day. 
The supreme problem before the republic is how to preserve 
the magnificent personal daring and private initiative which 
founded these states, and yet achieve that corporate con- 
sciousness and that power of corporate action demanded 
by the titanic forces now confronting us. 

This problem is forced upon us by certain obvious 
changes of social structure : 

1. Our people have been drawn together by invention 
and discoveries which have given the world, as it were, a 
new nervous system. The words Whittier sang at the laying 
of the first Atlantic cable have acquired a deeper meaning 
with every year: 

"For lo, the fall of ocean's wall, 

Space mocked, and time outrun; 
And round the world the thought of all 

Is as the thought of one. ' ' 

General Washington was five days in traveling from 
Cambridge to New York. Under such circumstances the 


national eonscionsness was necessarih^ letharsric and the 
ideas of one section only verj^ slowly could reach another. 
But to-day by means of the wires, which are the nerves of 
the body politic, the whole nation can think the same thoug:ht 
and throb with the same emotion at the same instant. But 
nothing is more terrible than for people to come together 
physically without coming closer in social understanding 
and sympathy. Physical contiguity without oneness of 
purpose and ideal is fatal. 

2. The situation is also affected by the remarkable 
growth of vast societies, fraternities, labor unions, associa- 
tions private and public, binding men in united effort for 
specific ends. These associations at the same time diminish 
the freedom of the individual, and give him unprecedented 
opportunity. A convention of twenty thousand persons rep- 
resenting a million more, is today no unusual spectacle. The 
great aggregations bound by common interests, or by pledges 
and vows and oaths, present wholly novel problems. No man 
can say : "I ignore the party, I refuse to recognize the 
union, I deal only with the single man." We must recog- 
nize that which exi.sts ! We must recognize that in peace 
as in war the age of the guerilla is past, the age of mar- 
shalled hosts and close formation and commanding generals 
has come. 

3. In the same line is the growth of great industrial cor- 
porations. These are as necessary, as inevitable, as the de- 
velopment of machinery in production. They are a kind of 
animate mechanism ; to rail at them is to share the impotent 
folly of the laborers who in England once smashed the looms 
in order to better the conditions of employment. But the 
growth of the corporation has resulted in abstract forms 
of wealth, such as stocks and bonds, and created imper- 
sonal modes of action, so that employes and employed seldom 
meet face to face. Abstract and apparently irresponsible 
wealth, and impersonal relations among men, are the two 
new great dangers of our time. These dangers cannot be 


met with the phik)sophy of Bunyan and Franklin and Jeff- 
erson, but must reckon Avith the new "consciousness of 
kind" which is slowly spreading through our national life. 

In view of these changes in social structure what do we 
need to-day? 

We need first of all to study again the ethical and social 
ideals of the ancient Greeks and the Hebrews. Surely in 
Greece, in the age of Pericles, the human spirit attained 
emancipation from ignorance and fear. But how? By 
ignoring the State? By destruction of institutions? By 
exalting individualism into anarchy? Listen to the mem- 
orable oath of the Ephebi, taken by every Athenian youth 
at the age of adolescence: 

' ' I will not dishonor my sacred arms. I will not desert 
my fellow-soldier by whose side I may be set. I will rev- 
erently obey the laws which have been enacted and shall be 
enacted in time to come, and the judges who enforce them. 
I will leave my country greater and not less than when she 
is committed to me. I will not forsake the temples w^here 
my fathers worshiped." Do you call that paganism? 
Then we want more paganism in America. It is really the 
supreme union of patriotism and religion pouring itself in 
glad devotion upon the altar of one's native land. 

Among the ancient Hebrews the great leaders, Moses, 
Samuel, Isaiah, found themselves not by disentangling their 
own lives from those of the people, but in strengthening 
and guiding the national conscience. Neither Greek nor 
Hebrew could conceive a true man except as living and 
dying in the service of the state. 

We need also to study more deeply the method of nature 
as unfolded in the Cosmic process. We cannot permanent- 
ly live by a system of morals that is at war with nature. 
The "ferocious interpretation" of Darwinism has repre- 
sented the law of battle as the primal law of nature. Every- 
where, men have said, the law of the world is the elimina- 
tion of the weak by the strong. And the inference is easy. 


If that is the inevitable law of creation, why not the law of 
the bank, the mill, the factory, the office? Let us proceed 
to devour the weak as soon as possible ! 

But we have mis-read the story of creation. The man 
who says that the primal law is the triumph of the strong 
has surely never looked into a bird's nest, for there he would 
see strength surrendering itself for weakness. Any flock of 
sheep that will not stand together in the winter storm shall 
perish. Any flock of birds that will not fly together in the 
journey southward shall all lose the way. A selfish species 
would have died out long ago. The fittest shall indeed 
survive. But the fittest is not the strongest in beak or claw 
or hoof; it is the creature that most clearly lives in co-opera- 
tion with the flock, the herd, the family, to which it forever 
must belong. Through association and mutual helpfulness 
each living creature finds its highest life. 

This is the chief benefit of college athletics. The phys- 
ical benefit could be found in other ways. The actual en- 
joyment on the part of the players may not be great when 
the demands are as severe as now. But if there were no 
enjoyment for the participants, and no physical benefit, 
intercollegiate sports would be fully justified because as de- 
velopers of social consciousness and corporate responsibility 
they have no equal and no substitute. A group of men who 
have trained together, suffered common privation and hard- 
ship, sorrowed over a common defeat and rejoiced over 
common victory, and done this for the sake of an invisible 
ideal, called "Alma Mater," has had a training which en- 
ables every man in the group better to co-operate with the 
institutions and forces of modern life. 

Our universities must send forth not only men of bril- 
liant talents, but men who can co-operate with their fellows 
and lead them. Our task is not to dazzle the world but to 
help it. The man who uses a university education in order 
to enrich himself at the expense of othei-s, in order to cir- 
cumvent the law and outwit the government, is a disgrace 


to his university and an enemy of the people. To do under 
forms of law the deeds that once were done under the pirate 
flag, does not alter their moral quality one iota. To rob the 
poor man by stock-watering and manipulation and circula- 
tion of false reports is not so picturesque, not so courageous, 
and not so manly as to rob him with a sandbag on a dark 
night. These things can be stopped only by a larger measure 
of social control. Society must step in and assume a meas- 
ure of control which a hundred years ago would have been 
perilous to liberty, but which is now essential to the preser- 
vation of liberty. Society must have larger voice in educa- 
tion and in industry, not because the individual has failed, 
but because we want to praserve for the individual those 
powers and opportunities which are the guarantees of social 
progress. To save the world from socialism we must attain 
such mutual understanding and sympathy and social co- 
operation as shall preserve private initiative from the forces 
that would throttle it. The only escape from socialism, 
founded on despair of the indi\'idual, is in such social co- 
herency and co-operation as shall save the individual alive 
and give him free development. 

The men who clarify and elevate our ideals are doing 
more for us than all the men who increase our wealth. 
"When Tennyson wrote "Crossing the Bar" he did more for 
England than if he had built the finest harbor for shipping. 
When Millet seized his brush and painted the "Angelus" 
he did more for labor and the laboring man than if he had 
grasped a spade and worked for fifty years in the fields of 
France. It is not the men who pile marble to the twentieth 
story to whom the world is most indebted; but to the men 
who elevate character, and make life worth living we should 
give chief honor. Let Charter Day be a time of renewed 
vision of ideals, and renewed allegiance of the individual to 
the common good. 



A. C. Bartlett. 

My object in choosing this subject is two-fold : 

First: I wish if there be any necessity for so doing, to 
reassure the young men of the College of Commerce that in 
selecting a business career they do not demean themselves; 
and to impress upon their minds the fact that there is as 
ample opportunity for developing the higher mental facul- 
ties as can be found in a professional life. 

Second, and principally: I would convince them that 
the standards of ethics in the business world are as high as 
any which are set for man's adoption. I say "principally" 
because no man is really successful who does not adopt high 
ethical standards as his own ; and success is the ultimate for 
which you are all striving. Success of a business, as truly 
as of a professional life, means the formation and develop- 
ment of character, — not the mere piling up of dollars. The 
most unsuccessful, and hence the most unhappy man imag- 
inable, Ls the one who has accumulated great wealth, and 
while so doing, has compressed his mind into the narrow 
confines which mere money-getting prescribes, and has per- 
mitted his soul to wither and parch under the scorching rays 
of glistening gold. 

^Tany years ago (and when you hear the story, you will 
readily conclude that it must have been many years ago) 

* The second of the Barbara Weinstock Lectures on the Morals of 
Trade. Delivered in Hearst Hall, March 25, 1907. 


there lived, or rather existed, in Chicago a man whose en- 
tire life — his waking thoughts and his sleeping dreams — 
had been devoted to acquiring and hoarding money. In his 
old age, he became very ill, and at last the physician deemed 
it his duty to acquaint the patient with the fact that his ill- 
ness would prove fatal. The old man rose on his elbow 
and said, ' ' Doctor ! Why, Doctor, I can 't die ; this is going 
to be the best year for making money Chicago ever saw." 

There are misers in the world, but that fact presents no 
argument against the careful saving of a portion of one's 
income. There are spendtlxrifts in tha world, but that is 
no reason why you should not judiciously expend money for 
the comfort and happiness of yourselves and for the good 
of those about you. 

As I said in the outset, I wish, so far as in me lies, to 
buttress what must have been your conclusions when you 
deliberately determined to take a course of study in the 
College of Commerce, viz. : That a business career, per se, 
is not degrading to a man of intelligence and high aspira- 

If the life of the merchant or manufacturer must neces- 
sarily be confined to mere money-getting and hoarding, the 
less education wasted upon him and the fewer cultured 
minds sacrificed to mercantile life, the better for mankind. 
But if, on the other hand, an ability to buy and sell, export 
and import ; to solve the questions intervening between those 
of supply and demand, with profit to himself ; to appreciate, 
make use of, and enjoy a liberal education ; to cultivate the 
higher faculties of the mind ; to know something of philos- 
ophy, science and literature, are not incongruous attain- 
ments in the life of an individual, then intelligence and 
education do not demean themselves by an alliance with 
trade and commerce. 

We are all, perforce, money-makers. No prudent man 
determines his pursuit in life without considering, pri- 
marily, his ability through such pursuit to provide for the 


temporal wants of himself and those dependent upon him. 
The theoloaioal student has faith that he will receive for 
his sermons and his pastoral work enough money to support 
himself and any family the good Lord may send him. or he 
would not pursue a theological course. The law student 
confidently looks forward to the receipt of large and fre- 
quent retainers, followed by his presentation of large and 
frequent bills, or he would find Coke and Blackstone much 
less interesting authors than they now seem to him. The 
medical student dreams of the day when the efficacy of 
his pills and potions will be acknowledged by numerous 
promptly paying patients, insuring him a comfortable liv- 
ing during his years of strength and activity, and a com- 
petency for old age, or he would "throw physic to the 

Business means work. If. at any time, in any section 
of this country, there has been felt by any class of intelli- 
gent people a disdain for those who engaged in any kind of 
honorable w^ork, that time has been relegated to the past. 
The great demand is for something to do ; not for that some- 
thing, which, providing for present wants, will insure a 
condition of idleness or even leisure a little later on, but 
something which will prove a congenial, elevating, helpful 
life-work. The active, earnest men of today never retire. 
Diversity of thought and labor constitutes their recreation 
and pleasure. Torpid brain and flabby muscles never 
brought their possessor real pleasure. In the life of a 
business man, there is ample opportunity for exercising the 
faculties of the mind and the muscles of the body. Your 
abilities will not be shelved in the counting room to grow 
musty, or buried in the warehouse to decay. Business opens 
its doors widely to men who really desire to engage in effec- 
tive work. Trade and commerce can boast of no aristocratic 
blue-blood of idleness, but of an ancient and honorable 
record for usefulness. Nor do trade and commerce fix the 
boundaries for the activities of the minds and souls of busi- 


ness men. The earth, the universe itself, has no doors open 
to the lawyer which are hermetically sealed against the 
banker; no visions of glory for the minister which are 
denied to the manufacturer. 

The teacher, editor, literary man, doctor, lawyer, preach- 
er, — each fills his respective place in the world, performing 
his share of the world's tasks; developing, so far as his work 
goes, only those functions of the brain and body which 
are required in the performance of his prescribed duties. 
Whether the field of employment be that of a profession, of 
agriculture, trade, mechanics, or ordinary manual labor, it 
will assuredly be narrower unless the workman goes beyond 
the boundary of his chosen vocation. The "one-idea" men 
are not confined to any particular walk in life. Breadth 
and versatility can only be acquired outside the little work- 
shops of profession and business in which men are individ- 
ually employed. Study that is recreation, contact with in- 
telligence that is real society, thought that is distinct from 
vocation, are the influences which broaden. Does the busi- 
ness life of a tradesman necessarily circumscribe his intel- 
lectual life ? Does it inevitably make a ' ' one-idea ' ' man of 
him? Is there no salvation for him in education and cul- 
ture ? Have merchants or manufacturers no time to devote 
to literature, to a study of music and art, to a knowledge 
of history, to an acquaintance with public questions outside 
of those relating to business and politics ? Do the compar- 
ative analyses of the daily lives of professional and business 
men show any wide margin of leisure for general mental 
development and pleasure in favor of the professions ? Has 
not the merchant, the details of whose business may be dele- 
gated, a better and more certain command of his time than 
has the professional man of his? 

The mental growth depends upon the mind which is be- 
ing developed and upon the man who possesses it. The fact 
that you are in this University seeking to educate yourselves 
p.uitably for the places you are to occupy in the world, is 


evidence that yon appreciate the value of education and 
preparatory mental discipline for the business lives you are 
to follow. The measure of the education you deem requi- 
site depends upon your comprehension of what a business 
life really includes, upon your own definition of business 
itself. Let us undertake, in a few words, to make that 
definition a broad one. 

Business, real business, pertains to the exchange of the 
world's commodities in all of its ramifications. It is the 
living: principle of every lepfitimate transaction, from the 
making and sellincr of shoe-strings to the funding of a na- 
tion's indebtedness. It furnishes the motive power which 
moves the machinery of the world. It is indispensable to 
everj^ branch of industry in which man is engaged. From 
the very planting of seed in the soil to the distribution of 
the product in its ultimate form for consumption, business 
has dictated, and, for the most part, conducted every move- 
ment. From the opening of the mine the output follows 
the channels marked out and controlled by business, through 
the mill and the factory, the warehouse and the shop, until 
it fills the place for which it was destined, whether that 
place be a child's toy or a great railway system. Stone is 
quarried, bricks are burned, houses, factories, stores, church- 
es and universities are erected, all by the hand of business. 
By it, railroads are constructed to do carrying on land, and 
ships are built for commerce by sea and for the navies of 
the world. War cannot be waged or lasting peace declared 
without its advice, nay, without its consent. The question 
of tariff, levying of duties upon importations from foreign 
countries, whether for the protection of home industries or 
for governmental revenue only, is more a business than a 
political question. Business is one of the strong bulwarks 
of education. It is an aid to the acquisition of knowledge, 
and without its later assistance, the material results, at least, 
would never be achieved. It employs the time and talents 
of the laAvyer ; it gives increased value to the investigations 


of the scientist; it makes possible the world-wide distribu- 
tion of the gospel. 

The commerce between the North and the South of our 
own country since the War of the Rebellion has done more 
to encourage proper relations between the people of the two 
sections, to develop good will and good fellowship, and to 
establish lasting peace, than the enactments of Congress, 
the efforts of the executive, and the patriotism of politicians 
combined. The avenues of usefulness run parallel to the 
roads to success in the business world. There are no sha- 
dows upon the fair fame of Trade and Commerce except 
those cast by the misdirection, treachery, greed or dishon- 
esty of their representatives. The principles upon which 
they were founded are unassailable, and there is no indica- 
tion of inherent weakness which marks them as unworthy 
of adoption by the intelligence of the present day. You do 
not demean yourself by choosing a business career, nor do 
you retard your intellectual growth by such a choice. 

In discussing the ethics of business, this paper does not 
recognize any relationship between real business and ille- 
gitimate transactions which endeavor to class themselves 
under its good name. The blood and thunder tales of cheap 
story-papers and yellow-covered novels, which fire the imag- 
ination of youth, are not literature, but mental poison. The 
professed healing of disease by mysterious and hidden meth- 
ods is not the practice of medicine, but of quackery. The 
winning of criminal or civil suits at the bar of justice 
through technicalities, questionable evidence, or chicanery, 
is not the practice of law, but of knavery. Turning water 
into golden wine in Wall Street is not business, but fraud. 

If we accept the broad definition of business and concede 
its potentiality in the life and progress of the world, we 
must consider the ethics which attach to business and govern 
it upon a higher plane than that of common honesty, that 
plane which marks the foundation of all the virtues. We 
must look for the attributes of fair dealing, exact justice. 


and genuine altruism. The command. "Thou shalt not 
steal." Avith its variations, does not contain all of the nega- 
tive law and gospel applicable to modern business. In 
business dealings, "Thou shalt not attempt to deceive" is 
the Eleventh Commandment, and its place is up towards 
the head of the original Decalogue. The old adage, "Hav- 
ing bought the devil, the devil I must sell," is certainly one 
not at present contained in the Business Code of Morals. 
A merchant, for example, can no more consistently dispose 
of worthless goods under the brand or representation of 
first quality than he can pass counterfeit for genuine money. 
The farmer must market his small potatoes, but they should 
not be at the bottom of the bin. The fruit raiser must sell 
his inferior peaches, but they are not to be entirely hidden 
from the purchaser's sight by the luscious specimens at the 
top of the basket. The manufacturer must dispose of his 
culLs, but they are to bear the distinctive mark of their 
grade. The merchant must sell second and third qualities 
of goods to meet the requirements of his customers and the 
competition of other dealers, but those goods are to be sold 
upon their merits. 

The old theory, fathered by the unscrupulous and moral- 
Iv unsound, that governmental diplomacv and commercial 
business are best conducted through channels which are not 
subject to strict ethical rules, has been generally abandoned 
in favor of the one which stands for a "square deal" in 
every manner of transaction between men. Whatever may 
be the practice, the latter theory has been universally ac- 
cepted. The Machiavellian system has become so nearly 
obsolete that it would require more than ordinary bravery 
or assurance for one to argue in favor of expediency as 
against exact justice. 

Ethics as applied to business is, at once, more compre- 
hensive and more definite than that quality which the gen- 
eral public adopts for every day use. In business, a cor- 
poration organized under the laws of the State has the same 


property rights that are accorded to individual ownership. 
And those rights are to be as fully recognized and respected 
in the case of a corporation as in that of the individual. 
Herein business rules oft-times differ from the rules in 
practice by the general public. A business man, as such, 
would no sooner cheat or defraud a railroad company than 
he would a college professor. A citizen, as such, who is a 
model of uprightness has been known to ride down town on 
a street car, and, if overlooked by the conductor, fail, with- 
out apparent compunction of conscience, to cancel his in- 
debtedness for services rendered by the company. And 
yet, wilfully neglecting to pay a street car fare is as much 
a sin against good morals as to steal a nickel from a blind 
beggar; but is not so repulsive. 

A merchant who would knowingly undervalue his im- 
portations of merchandise, and thereby defraud the govern- 
ment of a portion of its revenue, should and would justly 
be considered a cheat and criminal; while occasionally, at 
least, an individual who would be shocked were his integrity 
called in question, will, upon returning from abroad, declare 
that he has not exceeded the one hundred dollar limit of 
purchases fixed by the government as free of duty, though 
his trunks contain new articles which he would not be will- 
ing to sell for many times that sum. The traveler quiets 
his conscience with the thought that the law was not made 
to cover cases like his own ; that Uncle Sam has no intention 
of depriving him of the privilege of making his personal at- 
tire a little smarter at the low prices prevailing in London ; 
or of bringing presents from Paris to the members of his 
immediate family and a few friends without paying tribute 
to an immoderately rich government. The traveler's diag- 
nosis of the case, so far as his dear Uncle Sam is concerned, 
may be quite correct, but he has evidently overlooked his 
signed declaration made before landing from the ship, and 
the further consideration that he is breaking the law of the 
land. I am not attempting to belittle or excuse either major 


or minor offenses against laAv and morals, bnt to emphasize 
the correctness of my statement regarding the comprehen- 
siveness of Business Rules and Ethics. 

Under these rules, accepting a trust conferred by others 
for the protection of their interests and using that trust for 
the personal gain of the trustee, is not only reprehensible, 
but dishonest. For example, were the stockholders of a 
railway corporation to elect any one of you gentlemen as a 
director, and were you, so elected, to permit the knowledge 
gained through such directorship to influence you in in- 
creasing your holdings of that company's stock, even 
through purchases in the open market, you would be guilty 
of a betraj-al of your trust. In other Avords, should you 
use a knowledge of conditions acquired while acting as trus- 
tee (by virtue of your election by the stockholders to the 
board of directors) in purchasing my stock below the price 
at which I should have sold it had I possessed the informa- 
tion you gained through acting as my representative, you 
would be guilty of wrong-doing — of dishonesty, even 
though the identity of the buyer or seller were never dis- 

I repeat in effect (because I want the young men pres- 
ent, some of whom will be directors of railroad and other 
corporations, to have this undoubted principle of right and 
wrong indelibly stamped upon their memories) that when a 
man has accepted a directorship in a corporation, he cannot 
justify any personal transactions in the stock of that cor- 
poration which are prompted by official information which 
has not been communicated to all the stockholders. His 
acceptance of the office constitutes an obligation, an implied 
promise, to work for the best interests of every man, woman, 
and child who owns a share of the stock. Nor is there 
greater justification to be found in a "tip" given a friend 
by an officer or director of a stock company. "Tips" 
from such a source belong as much to one stockholder as to 
another, and more to stockholders than to persons not in- 


terested in the business. And there are much finer lines 
than these of demarkation between unquestionable right and 
possible wrong, which require keen perception and sound 
judgment for their recognition. 

There has been no variation in, no adding to, or sub- 
tracting from, truth since the foundation of the world, 
while the application of right and justice depends upon ex- 
isting conditions. What was right forty years ago may be 
wrong today. What is justice in Illinois at the present 
time may be injustice in California. 

Let me illustrate the shifting of right to the column of 
wrong. During the earlier stages of development of the 
western portion of our country, the railroads made special 
rates of freight to individuals aiid to sections whenever and 
wherever the officials of the roads deemed it for the best in- 
terests of their respective transportation lines. If a com- 
munity of farmers in a certain locality required a lower rate 
of freight upon their product in order to compete success- 
fully with other communities more fortunately located, the 
lower rates were conceded, not because the railroad com- 
panies had a desire specially to aid the people to whom the 
concession was made, but because, for the good of the road, 
every section must be developed as fully as possible. Again, 
a coal mine was opened, but could not be profitably worked 
unless a market for a portion of the product be found or 
made along other lines of railroad. For the sake of develop- 
ing this industry, and thereby securing a large tonnage of 
freight for the road upon which the mine was located, the 
rates, so far as the initial haul was concerned, were some- 
times made exceedingly low. This was done not from love 
of the mine owner, but for the ultimate good of the trans- 
portation company. Or, if a town possessed natural advan- 
tages for manufacturing purposes, among the inducements 
offered to prospective mill or factory builders were land and, 
possibly, a money bonus by the citizens, freedom from taxes 
by the taxing authorities, and a contract for low rates of 


freicfht by the railroad company. The total value of the 
offers depended upon the magnitude and usefulness of the 
manufacturing: establishment which was being subjected to 
temptation. Upon the same general principle, if a shipper 
of merchandise controlled a large tonnage, he was made 
a lower freight rate than if he controlled a small tonnage, 
not only because of competition, but because railroads could 
handle the large shipments at less cost and to better advan- 
tage than they could the smaller shipments. The conces- 
sions in the foregoing cases were evidenced either upon the 
original bill of lading or by drawbacks in accordance with 
an agreement. In the less important transactions, notably 
the shipment of produce and cattle to their natural markets, 
passes were somotiTnes the consideration. 

There was nothing wrong about these special rates or the 
manner of their application, provided always that they were 
granted upon a quid pro quo business basis. With the 
growth of the country, and the extension and consolidation 
of the railroad lines until they have become great systems, 
it is impracticable and well nigh impossible, to discriminate 
justly in favor of sections, quantities, or conditions, and 
there is much less necessity for so doing than formerly ex- 
isted. There have been abuses of privilege, as there will be 
infractions of law, so long as mankind remains human ; but 
there is little foundation for the present outcry against the 
earlier dealings between transportation companies and ship- 
pers, except in those cases where undue advantage was taken 
of the shipper's competitors. Twenty years ago, any man 
who had a hundred pounds or a car load of produce or mer- 
chandise to ship, got the lowest possible freight rates, with- 
out reference to the printed schedule in the railroad com- 
pany's office. He bought his transportation just as he did 
the property he was shipping — at the lowest figures he could 
obtain. No traveller, not even a clergyman, hesitated to ac- 
cept a ticket at a less cost than the published price to be paid 
by the general public. 


Laws have since been enacted which render the srranting 
or accepting of special rates illegal and therefore wrong. 
It is, however, impossible to enact human laws which shall, 
in every instance, make what is called right, righteous, or 
justice, just ; for their bases must be arbitrary rather than 
exact. But a law once made, although its provisions be only 
approximately just, should and must be obeyed. As the 
laws are made by representatives of the people, the people 
are, primarily, their own lawmakers, and must abide by the 
letter and spirit of their own enactments. No individual, 
no corporation, can persistently over-ride the law without 
coming to grief. Nor will the keeping of the letter of the 
law, as interpreted by technical and wily lawyers, excuse 
even the most influential client from ultimately coming un- 
der the yoke of the spirit of that law. Business ethics de- 
mand that the laws of man shall be recognized and respec- 
ted, as well as that the fundamental and immutable law^s of 
God shall be obeyed. It teaches that when, for personal 
gain, any individual, or set of individuals, undertakes, by 
subterfuge or deceit, to subvert the declared will of the peo- 
ple, a just penalty shall certainly be exacted. It proclaims 
that the rights of any man cannot be ignored by the masses ; 
neither can the rights of the masses be ignored by any man. 

A great corporation, built up by unscrupulous and un- 
righteous methods, however powerful it may become, will 
finally reach the limit of its ability to control legislation or 
to influence the decisions of courts of justice ; and its end 
will be far worse than its beginning. A great corporation 
having a modicum of soul, possesses just the soul that its 
officers, directors, and stockholders infuse into it. The soul 
of a corporation is a composite reflection of the souls of its 
promoters and managers, with the final responsibility rest- 
ing upon the majority of the stockholders. Every man who 
understands and undertakes to practice the "Ethics of 
Business," — every honest man, — is morally bound to do 
everji;hing in his power to make and keep pure the business 


methods of any firm or corporation in whose dividends he 
sliares. When a corporation is justly summoned into court 
because of its "shady" secret transactions, there can be no 
hidins: of its officials behind the wall of ignorance or of in- 
attention, no shifting of responsibility to the shoulders of 
employes. Whatever may be the judgment of the court, the 
condemnation of the public is certain and deadly. The offi- 
cials are the servants of the stockholders, and were elected to 
office by those stockholders. No man, however great may be 
his wealth, or however high may have been his standing in 
the estimation of his fellow men, can command the full re- 
spect of the public after it becomes manifest that his own 
business ways, or the ways of corporations for which he is 
in any manner responsible, are in any wise devious. How- 
ever large may be his accumulation of money, a business 
man who does not command the respect of his fellow men 
is a pitiful failure. 

Earlier in this paper is the declaration, in effect, that 
the water wagons of Wall Street would not be recognized 
as forming any part of the complicated machinery of real 
business. The procuring of a charter for a railroad or steel 
company is only the inception of the enterprise, and is no 
more a part of the company's business than is the procuring 
of a charter for an university a part of the course of in- 
struction for which the institution is being founded. The 
distribution of certificates of stock is but the birth of the 
enterprise, and is no part of its business. The watering of 
the stock is simply a device for defrauding the public, and 
is no part of the business of the corporation. The business 
begins with construction and continues through operation 
and bona fide development; and it is the business side of the 
enterprise which you are seeing in perspective through the 
windows of the College of Commerce. 

Many of the so-called "Industrials," some of which were 
formed by combining small manufacturing plants at ficti- 
tious and highly inflated values, have become organizations 


for the transaction of legitimate business, but they will al- 
ways retain their birthmarks. The capital stock of a cor- 
poration which is subdivided and classified as First Pre- 
ferred, Second Preferred, and Common, covers, as a rule, 
the following respective values, viz: First Preferred — the 
real intrinsic value of the plant and other tangible assets, 
less the liabilities; Second Preferred — the difference be- 
tween the real intrinsic value and the valuation placed by 
the promoters or organizers upon tangible assets, good will, 
and the various accessories ; Common — pure, undiluted 
wind, for which it is hoped the public will be induced to pay 
a price, and upon which a possible dividend may some time 
be declared. This method is comparable to a corresponding 
subdivision of the results of a college course by a young man 
who is about to precipitate himself upon the world, and 
whose stock would classify about as follows, viz : First Pre- 
ferred — what the graduate actually knows; Second Pre- 
ferred — what the graduate thinks he knows; Common — 
what remains of knowledge in the world to which the grad- 
uate can lay no rightful claim. You can easily prophesy 
the outcome, should the young man attempt to secure a divi- 
dend upon all three classes of the stock. 

The measures which are being adopted by some of the 
state authorities, and especially those by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to prevent, in the future, the capitalization of rain- 
bow colors, may seem somewhat drastic to those who have 
financial interests in such capitalization ; but they will, ul- 
timately, greatly benefit the business interests of the coun- 
try, and will serve to protect the smaller investors, in par- 
ticular, from serious loss. 

A capitalist who is not satisfied with legitimate profits 
accruing to the investment of actual capital is greedy ; a man 
who attempts to capitalize what does not exist is dishonest. 

If it is the purpose of any young man present to seek 
employment with a great corporation in order to perfect 
himself in practical business and, by advancement, to reach 


the g:oal of his ambition, he need not undertake to investi- 
gate the phraseoloiry of the corporation's charter, or even 
the manner in which its stocks are, in these later days, man- 
ipuhited in the markets. What he must know, as nearly as 
possible, is that the corporation, at the time of his applica- 
tion, is on a sound and legal basis, and that its ofificials are 
employing honest methods in their business transactions. 
He will unquestionably find that business firms and cor- 
porations alike are, as a rule, employing honest business 
methods and that even a corporation possesses a somewhat 
immaterial element or principle quite closely resembling a 

It is very nnich the fashion in these later days to de- 
nounce unqualifiedly business enterprises bearing a corpor- 
ate name, more especially if "Trust" is used as the terminal 
word in its cognomen. It is as legitimate for individuals, 
or aggregations of individuals, to join in a corporation as 
it was for the several Colonies to join in forming the United 
States, provided the object sought is the advancement of the 
interests of the contracting parties Avithout doing injury to 
the interests of others, including the general public. A 
Trust is something which should, by the very import of its 
name, command confidence instead of provoking contempt. 

At the present time, the railroads are receiving their full 
complement of denunciation. The fact that the develop- 
ment of the western part of our vast country was largely 
due to the men who had courage to invest their money and 
their credit in pioneer railroad enterprises and who lost 
them both, is unknown to those who are deriving the benefit 
of the enterprises, or, if once known, it has faded from their 
memories. An old-time merchant of Denver will tell you 
of the days when he sold nails at forty cents per pound be- 
cause they were hauled across the plains from the Missouri 
River by ox-power at a cost for freight alone of twenty 
cents per pound ; and, in the next breath, he will complain 
of the rapacity of the railroads which are now charging him 


one cent per pound for transportation from Pittsburgh to 
Denver. There is nothing so easily forgotten as past bene- 
fits, and nothing so readily condemned as present conditions. 

The business world is constantly growing larger in its 
ideas, broader and more altruistic in its methods. Within 
the memory of men of my generation, bankers, merchants, 
and manufacturers looked upon their competitors as antag- 
onists, to be watched in secret and fought in the open. 
Now, each class holds its meetings and conventions, at which 
delegates freely discuss the more or less vital questions 
which constantly present themselves, and disclose to their 
fellows the results of their experiences and observations. 
These gatherings constitute schools of education in the de- 
partments of business to which their students belong. The 
thirst for knowledge is not monopolized by college students, 
nor is the fountain from which it can be slaked confined to 
university class-rooms. 

The business world has grown so broad that many men of 
the creditor class would willingly see all collection laws re- 
pealed ; believing, as they do, that these laws are a menace 
to the highest and best development of the credit system. 
These men argue that there are no collection laws which 
cannot be more or less successfully evaded, and that a temp- 
tation to such evasion is the first tendency toward a dis- 
regard of business ethics. To keep the letter of the law as 
that law is humanly enacted and administered, and to reap 
the momentary benefits which inure to breaking the spirit 
of the law, is widely removed from an observance of the 
ethics of business. These advocates contend that were there 
no compulsory collection laws upon the statute books of the 
state or the nation, the credit system would be established 
upon the basis of character and ability. A business man 
seeking credit would simply furnish acceptable credentials 
of an honorable record, a business capacity, and sufficient 
capital. The element of collection by force v/ould be elim- 
inated from the preliminary consideration; greater care 


would be exercised in grantins: credit favors; fewer debts 
would remain unpaid; and a less number of irresponsible 
people would be eucraired in business or contracting debts 
for articles to supply their own supposed personal wants. 
The i\lillennium in business will arrive when there is no 
seeming necessity for collection laws. 

The world — our American corner of it, at least — is cry- 
ing out against "graft" (and the cry is none too loud) 
which, it is said by some, has reached in these days its most 
aggravated form of virulence. Our old citizens have not 
forgotten the era which culminated in the career of Boss 
Tweed and the open and shameless declaration in political 
circles that "to the victor belong the spoils": that era in 
which the aldermanic councils of Chicago and other large 
cities were in the market at very reasonable figures ; the same 
era in which purchasing agents upon moderate salaries built 
fine houses, contractors' clerks suddenly became rich, and 
there seemed to be an organized "rake-off" in all manner 
of dealings. 

Young men, the world is growing better ! The ' ' graft ' ' 
of to-day appears so glaring and startling because it has a 
background of honesty and integrity, which is more nearly 
universal and all-pervading than ever before in the world's 
history. At the present time, we are tempted to classify 
under the head of "graft" everything from petty pecula- 
tions by public officials to the unjust acquisition of valuable 
properties with little regard to the intent of the laws enacted 
for the protection of rightful owners. Some of the latter 
transactions should be called by a severer name than that of 
"graft." Buying a railroad for fifty millions of dollars, 
either with the capitalist's own funds and those of his 
friends, or paying for it from the treasury of another rail- 
road company, and then so manipulating the securities as to 
permit the sale of the road to the public for a hundred mil- 
lion of dollars, with the expectation of the purchasers that 
the producers and consumers of the country will pay di\i- 


dends upon both the genuine and the bogus stock, is not 
mere "graft," but a combination of assurance, deceit, and 
crime ; and it is beginning to be recognized as such. 

The men of extreme wealth who have acquired their 
money through questionable transactions and by overreach- 
ing methods, are not models of success which young men of 
to-day are counseled to adopt for their own emulation. 
Those rich men are openly or secretly scorned by their fel- 
low men; and their money, combined with the owners' rep- 
utations and want of real happiness, is not coveted by the 
poorest of our honest citizens. 

There is no road leading to unqualified business success 
which has even the suggestion of a single curve in it. There 
is no guide-board to which you, young men, should give the 
least heed which is not upheld by a standard labeled ' ' Busi- 
ness Ethics." There is no genuine happiness at any stage 
of the journey unless the traveler is possessed of a clear 
conscience. There is no fortune worth the having at the 
other end of the line which does not bear the distinctive 
marks of an honest gathering. 

If I have succeeded in strengthening the faith of a single 
auditor in the incalculable value of uprightness in a business 
life, I am repaid for my trip to Berkeley. If but one young 
man leaves this audience with a livelier determination to 
be a thorough business man because he is convinced that the 
calling is an honorable one, you are all repaid for the time 
you have so patiently given me. 





Wm. Dallam Armes. 

In the Bodleian Library, at Oxford, is a manuscript 
volume entitled "Book of Plaies and Notes thereof" that 
is of great interest to all students of the history of the Eng- 
lish drama; for in it Dr. Simon Forman, who lived in the 
16th and 17th centuries, made record of whatever struck 
him as noteworthy in the plays that he saw. Over a couple 
of paragraphs that give the principal incidents in the plot 
of the drama is the heading, "the AVinter's Talle at the 
glob, 1611, the 15 of maye." 

Shaksperian scholars are agreed that "The Winter's 
Tale" is one of the latest of Shakspere's dramas, and dif- 
fer only as to whether it was first produced late in 1610 or 
early in 1611. Accepting the latter date with the most 
recent editor of his works. Professor W. A. Neilson, let us 
see what can be learned concerning the condition of matters 
theatrical in the spring of 1611 in the old city that, not- 
withstanding frequent disastrous fires and even more dis- 
astrous visitations of the plague, had prospered and grown 

* The first of a series of addresses, illustrated by lantern-slides, 
in California Hall, March 27, 1908, on the stage history of * ' The 
Winter's Tale"; designed to increase the interest in the production 
of that drama by the English Club of the University of California, 
in the Greek Theatre, April 3, 1908. 


till it sprawled out on all sides beyond its antiquated grey 

The industry of generations of scholars has extracted 
from contemporaneous books and manuscripts a surprising- 
ly large amount of information concerning the early history 
of the English theatre, so that such an undertaking as we 
have proposed necessitates only a patient sifting of mate- 
rials and a recombination for the definite purpose before 
us. Collier's Annals of the Stage is a mine ; but unfortunate- 
ly, owing to his inaccuracy in transcribing and his repre- 
hensible practice of falsifying, or even forging, documents 
to bolster up his theories, it is a mine in which the valuable 
ore is mixed with a great deal of worthless dross. Extreme 
caution is necessary in using the book; and, as many im- 
portant discoveries have been made since it was published, 
it is virtually superseded by Fleay's A Chronicle History of 
the English Stage, 1559-1642. On this my paper is mainly 
based, but some statements are given on the authority of 
Ordish's Shakespeare's London, Stephenson's Shakespeare's 
London, Ordish's The Early London Theatres, Ward's A 
History of English Dramatic Literature, Fleay's The Life 
and Work of Shakespeare, Lee's Life of Shakespeare, or 
Baker's The Development of Shakespeare as a Dramatist. 

The accession of James Stuart, King of Scotland, to the 
throne of England, made a great difference in the position 
of the five companies then performing in London. During 
the reign of Elizabeth the different companies that had ex- 
isted had put themselves under the protection of powerful 
noblemen and styled themselves their servants. Though 
those actors, frequently selected from different companies 
and formed into one for the nonce, who produced plays be- 
fore the Queen at Christmas tide, "for Her Grace's solace," 
were styled her servants, this was merely for the time being; 
and but one company, and that one only between 1583 and 
1592, was termed the Queen's in the sense in which others 
were called the Lord Admiral's or the Earl of Leicester's. 


But even before he became King of England James had 
shown his interest in dramatic performances by licensing a 
company of English comedians to perform in Edinburgh in 
1599. The ministers of the city by an Act of Sessions pro- 
hibited their flocks from attending the plays, but the King 
showed that his patronage of the actors was something 
more than nominal by summoning the pastors before the 
Council and forcing them reluctantly to annul their Act. 
Two years later, in 1601, when the Lord Chamberlain's men, 
the foremost London company, were in Scotland on tour, 
he gave them the right to style themselves "the King's 
servants"; and within a fortnight of his arrival in London 
in 1603 he by license confirmed to them that title, by which 
they were thereafter known. They ranked as grooms of 
the chamber, and when the King in INIarch. 1604, made the 
triumphal progress from the Tower to Westminster through 
the City, that had been postponed from the time of his cor- 
onation in the previous July, because the plague was then 
raging in London, each of the nine actors named in the li- 
cense received a grant of four and a half yards of scarlet 
cloth for a cloak, that, as a "King's man," he might walk 
fitly attired in his royal master's train. The first name on 
the list of those to whom the grant was made is William 

That James' action in taking this company under his 
patronage was part of a settled policy to control the drama 
is shown by the fact that before his coronation the other two 
companies of men actors were brought into relation to the 
royal family. As Gilbert Dugdale in his The Time Trium- 
phant, 1604, expressed it: "See the bounty of our all kind 
Sovereign ! Not only to the indifferent of worth, and the 
worthy of honour, did he freely deal about these causes ; but 
to the mean, gave grace : as taking to him, the late Lord 
Chamberlain's servants, now the King's Actors: the Queen 
taking to her the Earl of Worcester's servants, that are now 
her Actors; the Prince, their son Henry, Prince of Wales, 


full of hope, taking to him the Earl of Nottingham his ser- 
vants, who are now his Actors. So that of Lord's servants, 
they are now the servants of the King, Queen, and Prince. ' ' 

The other two companies acting in London at the time of 
James' accession were companies of boys, and ere long 
these also had come under royal patronage: "the children of 
the Queen 's Chapel, ' ' who acted in Blackf riars, in January, 
1604, became "the children of Her Majesty's Revels"; and 
"the Paul's boys", who acted in the singing school of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, seem to have become, in 1607, "the chil- 
dren of the King's Revels." 

In March, 1604, the King's purpose was made manifest 
when it was enacted by statute that noblemen should license 
none to go wandering abroad, thus taking from them the 
right to grant their protection to companies of strolling ac- 
tors that had been expressly given them by two statutes 
of Elizabeth. ' ' From 1604 onwards any such strollere were 
ranked as vagrants and sturdy beggars, along with gipsies, 
tinkers, minstrels, and pedlars." After the passage of a 
statute against profanity two years later, all plays were sub- 
jected to the personal inspection of the Master of the Revels 
or his deputy before being licensed ; and the royal control of 
the stage was practically complete. And from 1607 the 
Five Companies, as they were termed, had almost a monop- 
oly of the performance of plays. 

But that the royal control of the stage was no mere figure 
of speech the children of Her Majesty's Revels found ere 
long: in 1609 they produced a play in which the Scots were 
satirized — and they were promptly suppressed. Burbage se- 
cured the remainder of the lease of the Blackf riars theatre 
in which they had been acting, and thenceforward the 
King's company appeared there as well as at the Globe. 
From the remnants of the suppressed company a new one 
with the same name was organized under the management 
of Nat Field, then a young man of twenty-three; and a 
theatre, probably a private house reconstructed, was opened 


in January. 1610, in the liberty of "Whitefriars. This com- 
pany was actinsr in 1611, but its existence was terminated 
by a process of benevolent assimilation in 1613. 

In much the same way the children of His Majesty's 
Revels seem to have been supplanted in 1610. The Duke of 
York (the Prince of Wales after the death of his brother 
Henry in 1612 and King Charles I after the death of his 
father in 1625) had reached the mature age of nine, quite 
old enough, James seems to have thought, to pose as the 
patron of a company of actors; so on March 30th a patent 
was granted to John Garland and six others constituting 
them his "servants" — and we hear no more of the King's 
Revels children. 

These then were the five companies — four of men and 
one of boys, — all under the patronage of the royal family, 
that were playing in London in the spring of 1611. 

By far the most important was the King 's company, and 
during the year 1610-11 it was called upon to perform fif- 
teen times at court. Not only did this company have a 
monopoly of the plays of the greatest dramatist of the time ; 
in Richard Burbage it had the best actor of the day to in- 
terpret them. Two other members of the company rose so 
far above the average acting of the time that special notices 
of their performances have come down to us : John Lowin, 
who, tradition asserts, was the original Hamlet, seems to 
have been equally strong in tragedy and comedy ; and Rob- 
ert Arnim achieved fame by playing the fool. With an- 
other two Shakspere seems to have been on terms of par- 
ticular intimacy: to John Hemings and Henry Condell, as 
well as to Burbage, he left £1 6s 8d each by his will to pur- 
chase mourning rings; and in 1623 they did him and the 
world great service by printing the first collected edition of 
his works. 

Even had Shakspere not written a line for it, this com- 
pany would have been better supplied with dramas than any 
of its rivals, for among the plays it produced about 1611 


were Jonson's "Alchemist" and "Catiline," Webster's 
"Duchess of Malfi," Fletcher's "Woman's Prize," and 
Beaumont and Fletcher's "Philaster," "Maid's Tragedy," 
"A King and No King," and "The Captain." 

The next most important company was the Prince's, 
which in 1610-11 was summoned four times to play before 
members of the royal family. The principal plays pro- 
duced by the company about this time were, however, but 
comedies by Dekker ; and it seems to have included no actor 
of marked excellence. But when in 1603 the Earl of Not- 
tingham's servants passed under the Prince's patronage the 
first name on the list, Edward Alleyn, was that of an actor 
who challenged comparison with the great Burbage himself. 
He had won great fame in the title-roles of Marlowe's 
"Tamburlaine," "Jew of Malta," and "Dr. Faustus;" but 
having married a stepdaughter of Philip Henslowe, he 
formed a partnership with that enterprising manager and 
in 1597 ceased to act. By 1604, having acquired a fortune, 
he gave up all connection with the stage; and in 1611 was 
busy with plans for the endowment of the almshouses and 
the establishment of "the college of God's Gift" (Dulwich 
College), which still keep his memory green. 

Though they produced Webster's "White Devil" and 
comedias by Dekker and Heywood, the Queen 's players gen- 
erally appealed more to the popular love of buffoonery than 
to the tastes of the aristocracy ; and during 1610-11 they 
were summoned to court but three times. Thomas Greene, 
their principal actor, was even more popular than Arnim of 
the King's company in fools' parts; but he seems to have 
been the only member of the company who rose above 

The Duke of York 's players was another company with- 
out any eminent actor ; but they were comparatively popular 
at court, and were summoned thither four times in 1610-11. 
As nothing is known as to the plays they produced, it is 
probable that they scored no great success. 


The second Queen's Revels company, on the other hand, 
in Nathaniel Field had the one actor in the London of 1611 
that could be considered a rival to Burbage. The son of 
a Puritan clergyman who Avas bitterly opposed to the stage, 
he had become one of the Chapel children at the age of thir- 
teen, and before he was sixteen had won fame by his per- 
formance in Ben Jonson 's ' ' Cynthia 's Revels ; " to which he 
added by his presentation of Chapman's "Bussy d'Am- 
bois. " In the matter of plays too this company was better 
off than any of its competitors, except the King's players; 
and it produced such dramas as Chapman's "Widow's 
Tears" and "Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois," Marston's "In- 
satiate Countess," Jonson 's "Epicene" (in which Field 
scored another success), Beaumont and Fletcher's "Cox- 
comb," "Knight of the Burning Pestle," and "Cupid's Re- 
venge." and a comedy "Woman is a Weathercock," by 
Field himself. But the naughty children had made fun of 
the Scots, so they were in the Scotch King's black book, and 
during their brief existence as a separate company they 
weren't summoned to court at all! 

These five companies played in six theatres: the King's 
men occupied the Globe (which in 1509 had been construct- 
ed across the Thames, on the Bankside, out of the materials 
of the Theatre, the first playhouse built in England) and 
the Blackfriars, a smaller theatre that in 1598 had been 
made from one of the buildings of the former Dominican 
priory at the junction of the Fleet and the Thames; the 
Duke of York's company occupied the Curtain, a playhouse 
built in 1576 or 1577 near the Theatre, which was construc- 
ted a little earlier, in the fields to the northeast of the city, 
on a plot of ground on which had formerly stood the cur- 
tain, a fortification connected with London wall; the 
Prince 's servants played in the Fortune, a theatre that was 
built in 1600 by Henslowe and Alleyn in Golding Lane, out- 
side Cripplegate ; the Queen's players acted in the Red Bull, 
not an inn-yard, as the name suggests, but a theatre that was 


built some time after 1603 in Clerkenwell ; and the children 
of Her Majesty's Revels, as has been said, performed in a 
house, that was reconstructed about 1610, in Whitefriars, 
the liberty of the former Carmelite monastery. 

These theatres were classed as ' ' private ' ' and ' ' public, ' ' 
the distinction being drawn from the different modes of pre- 
senting plays before any places were built for that specific 
purpose. In the great halLs of the royal palaces, the man- 
sions of the noblemen, the houses of the guilds, and the Inns 
of Court, temporary stages were set up at Christmas time, 
on the occasion of weddings, or at other times of festivity, 
and plays presented for the entertainment of invited guests. 
The performances at the "private" theatres — "private" be- 
ing used in a sense that it is not necessary to define to an 
audience largely composed of those living in ' ' private board- 
ing-houses" — grew out of this custom. The theatres, which 
were dwelling-houses reconstructed, were comparatively 
small; the price of admission was decidedly higher than at 
the ' ' public ' ' theatres ; the scenic embellishments were su- 
perior; the performances were given in enclosed rooms by 
candlelight, and hence were not interfered with by the rains 
and the early darkness of a London winter ; the pit was pro- 
vided with fixed seats; for an extra payment stools on the 
stage could be had by gallants desirous of showing off their 
fine clothes or their expertne&s in the art of "taking" to- 
bacco, against which the pragmatical King shortly after 
coming to the English throne had vainly blown a "counter- 
blast;" and locked boxes, or "rooms," could be hired for 
the season by the lords, who showed that they were men of 
fashion by carrying their keys dangling from their waist- 
coats by ribbons. Of this class of "private" theatres were 
the only ones within the walls of London in 1611, — Black- 
friars and Whitefriars. 

But the people as well as the aristocracy were fond of 
plays, and before any theatres were built managers made 
provision for them. The typical old English inn was built 


around a great open court-yard, and this was found to be 
admirably adapted for performances in pleasant weather. 
A stage was simply set up in one end of the yard, and all 
was ready : the rooms behind it were the tiring-rooms ; the 
balcony above could be used for an upper stage if one were 
needed; and the balconies on the sides furnished accommo- 
dations for those who were willing to pay extra for seats 
from which they could see the performance in comfort and 
watch the "groundlings" standing in the "pit" push and 
fight for coigns of vantage. 

Such inn-yards furnished the model for the early "pub- 
lic" theatres; and the Curtain, the Globe, the Red Bull, and 
the Fortune, as well as several others on the Bankside — the 
Swan, the Rose, and Paris Garden, — that in IGll were used 
only for fencing and boxing-matches and bull and bear- 
baiting, differed only in their general shape. "Whether the 
theatre was square, like the Fortune, hexagonal, like the 
Swan, or circular, like the Globe, it consisted essentially of 
an open pit without permanent seats, around which were 
one or more covered galleries provided with fixed seats and 
boxes, or "rooms," and into which projected a partly cov- 
ered stage, backed by a house, that usually extended above 
the roof of the highest gallery. In this house were the 
dressing-rooms, property-rooms, a balcony, that could be 
used as an upper stage, and probably a loft for the painted 
cloths that seem sometimes to have been used as back scenes. 
There was, however, but little scenery used, and the prop- 
erties were few and crude ; though by 1611 the conditions of 
presentation of plays had probably improved greatly from 
those satirized by Sir Philip Sidney in his "Defence of 
Poesy" : "Ye shall have three ladies walk to gather flowers, 
and then we must believe the stage to be a garden. By and 
by we hear news of a shipwreck in the same place, and then 
we are to blame if we accept it not for a rock. Upon the 
back of that comes out a hideous monster with fire and 
smoke, and then the miserable beholders are bound to take 


it for a cave. While in the mean time two armies fly in, 
represented with four swords and bueklere, and then what 
hard heart will not receive it for a pitched field?" 

As there was no means of artificial illumination, the per- 
formances in these public theatres were given by daylight, 
beginning at two o'clock in the afternoon; and as neither 
the actors nor most of the spectators had any protection 
from the weather, they were frequently interrupted by rain. 

From what has been said it will be seen that in the con- 
ditions of presentation the performance of "The Winter's 
Tale" in the Greek Theatre on April 3rd will have many 
points in common with that by the King's players seen by 
Dr. Forman at the Globe well-nigh three hundred years ago. 
But in one respect we shall be much more fortunate than 
was he : as the theatrical companies in 1611 were exclusively 
masculine, he saw only young men and half-grov/n hobble- 
dehoy boys in the parts of Hermione, Perdita, Paulina, 
Emilia, Mopsa, and Dorcas; while we — but why continue a 
paper that every man present has already finished for him- 



Leon J. Kichardson. 

What glad release from care and crowded street, 

To bar thy city door and fare away 

Among the hills! And when the opal ray 
Of evening falls, to seek some fair retreat 
By spring-fed stream, where field and forest meet; 

To stretch amid the scent of pine thy bed; 

And, yellow orb'd Arcturus overhead, 
To sink at last in slumber, deep and sweet. 
Then at approaching dawn's uncertain beams 
To linger in the borderland of dreams, 

Till every elf that pipes and plays along 
The tender aspen boughs, is chang'd again 
To golden oriole or russet wren 

And morn bursts forth in blithe full-throated song! 


Laetus qui fugiens curam turbasque viarum, 

iam foribus clausis, collium amoena petit! 
ille etenim, ut serus croceo venit Hesperus igni, 

quaerit sepositum, rivulus unde salit, 
fontem; continuo medius nemora inter agrosque 

pinorum fruitur stratus odore vago, 
donee, ut Arcturi flavescens despicit orbis, 

solvantur placide membra sopore gravi. 
inde novi incerta cunctans sub luce diei 

numina semivigil Pana deasque videt, 
qui nunc populea ludunt in fronde recenti, 

nunc calamo complent dulce sonante nemus, 
cum subito in volucres varias mutantur et Eos 

erumpens hilari fundit ab ore melos! 

The sonnet appeared in the Sunset Magazine, Sept. 1904. 




It is almost unknown outside of Poland that the pecu- 
liar and apparently unique position of the United States 
of America among the nations of mankind is only a de- 
velopment of a similarly peculiar and really unique position 
kept by Poland for centuries before the American war for 

Of America dream all the oppressed of other countries 
as of a safe refuge of liberty, and when they cannot stand 
the iniquities of their governments they go to America, 
trusting to find there a perfect freedom, not only for their 
thoughts but also for their words and actions. But at a 
time when America was unknown, it was Poland, as the 
only great republican commonwealth of Europe, which re- 
ceived all refugees, alike from the Eastern States of Tartary 
and Muscovy, as also from the German principalities, gov- 
erned by tyrannic and ambitious princes, and even from 
Italy, France, and England. The English Unitarians 
published many books in Poland, at Rakow, which became 
famous among them, when their liberty of free expression 
of thought was curtailed by the Trinitarians of all other 
countries. The Jews, before they discovered America as 
their promised land, concentrated in greatest numbers in 
Poland, which became their chief home for many centuries, 
while they were persecuted everywhere else. 

* Address delivered at the University of California, March 9, 1908. 


Thoui^h now the republicans of all countries look to- 
wards the United States as the largest and most successful 
experiment in republican government, yet for centuries 
Poland was that successful example of the greatest republic 
known throughout the Christian world. If now in America 
we find more different nations than anywhere else, in past 
centuries Poland could boast of establishing personal and 
social links or political relations among twenty-two nations 
living around or within the great Republic. And this re- 
fers not to accidental or passing relations, but to permanent 
contact, lasting for centuries, between the Poles and these 
many nations. If now America is the great kettle of nations 
in which a new nation is evolved, Poland used all the con- 
trasts between the Poles and twenty-two nations to assert 
and intensify' the national character of the oldest settlers 
of the country and of the lords of the soil. If America is 
now the field for all kinds of daring social enterprise, for 
communities of different ty^pes and aims, so was Poland in 
the time of its independence, containing many peculiar 
states and products of self-government within one free 
commonwealth. If America is now famous for its demo- 
cratic spirit and enlargement of franchise, so was Poland, 
granting the right of citizenship to an extent never known 
before or elsewhere. 

These similarities between Poland and America might 
be extended even to strange details. The American Revo- 
lution began with the Boston Massacre of five victims; our 
last revolution of 1863 began with a similar unprovoked 
massacre of five citizens by the foreign troops. 

The more one studies the history of Poland and the 
present conditions of the United States, the more it becomes 
evident that the United States is carrying out on a wider 
scale, and with heretofore better success, an experiment 
started in Poland. That strange experiment began in Po- 
land in the fourteenth century by the election of Prince 
Jagiello of Lithuania to be a life-long President or King 


of the Polish-Lithuanian-Euthenian United States of Cen- 
tral Europe, called the Polish Republic. That experiment 
consists in the participation of increasing numbers of citi- 
zens in the political affairs of the state, and in the increas- 
ing limitation of the power and authority of the officials 
of the state. Once this identity of principle is recognized, 
the Americans must look upon the Poles, as well as upon 
the old citizens of democratic Attica, as being their political 
predecessors, and they will ask themselves: What lessons 
can be learned from the notorious failure of Attica and 
Poland? Will Warsaw be free again as Athens is now? 
What are the means of preventing a similar, and by no 
means impossible, failure of America in that great under- 
taking, to increase the freedom of individuals and to reduce 
to the utmost the power of the state, without losing its 
unity and independence? 

It is easy to study Attica and its old democracy, based, 
as was the American democracy before 1860, upon the 
slavery of a great majority of inhabitants. Whoever under- 
takes the comparison of democratic and aristocratic gov- 
ernments will find many useful lessons in the struggle 
between Athens and Sparta. But when we then proceed 
in our historical review of the past towards more recent 
times and want to know the truth about the greatest medi- 
aeval democratic commonwealth, the Polish Republic, it is 
much more difficult to ascertain the truth, though the 
number of witnesses and documents increases considerably. 
This difficulty is very little known, for falsehoods about 
Poland have been widely circulated everywhere, and often 
without the slightest contradiction, so that they have all the 
appearance of truth. There is certainly no other country, 
nor any other nation, so much slandered ; and there are very 
clear motives, which explain this inevitable falsification of 
history, going on for the last two hundred years. 

Never before in the history of mankind was a powerful 
and large state suddenly divided between three neighbors. 


Often a nation has conquered another nation's country, but 
never before has the conqueror been so radically different 
from the conquered as the dynastic, bureaucratic Prussian, 
Austrian, or ]\Iuseovite from the democratic and republican 

Thus it became for three great centralistic, dynastic 
bureaucratic governments an imperious necessity to conceal 
the truth about their victim in order to justify their aggres- 
sion, and to misrepresent their lawlessness as the real rule 
of law and justice, and Polish liberty as anarchy and dis- 
order. They used every available means for that purpose. 
The}^ found even good scholars, famous for their learning 
and trustworthiness in their studies on other subjects, who 
either for honors or for money, or to avoid persecution, or 
because they were blinded by the apparent greatness of 
their employers, used all the appearances of scholarship and 
historical research to misrepresent the past and present of 

From the works of German professors thase falsehoods 
have penetrated into seemingly impartial French and Eng- 
lish essays or encyclopaedias, so that I could count on a 
single page of the Encyclopaedia Britannica not less than 
forty mistakes of fact in the article on the great Pole Mic- 
kiewicz. This is quite natural, the article being written by 
Morfill, the Oxford profe&sor, who is an admirer of Mus- 
covite greatness. Even writers who were apparently inde- 
pendent, as for instance Voltaire, were won by some means 
for the cause of the oppressors against the victim. The 
chief French chair of Sla\ic literature in Paris, founded 
for Mickiewicz, is now held by Louis Leger, who is also 
prejudiced against Poland. 

Superficial minds judge historical events according to 
immediate success, and are liable therefore to admire the 
rapid mushroom growth of Brandenburg and INIuscovy, or 
as they are now called, Prussia and Russia. Even these 
names are a lie in themselves. Three hundred years ago 


there was no Prussia, nor Kussia, outside of Poland. Prus- 
sia had been a northwestern province of Poland since 1466, 
and Russia a southwestern province since 1386. Our next 
western neighbors were the princes of Brandenburg, and one 
of them, being a nephew of the Polish King, was entrusted 
in 1525 with the administration of Prussia, under the con- 
dition that all his successors should forever remain vassals 
of the Polish Republic. When, however, nearly two hun- 
dred years later, another prince of Brandenburg had the 
ambition to take the title of a king, he did not dare to use 
the name of Brandenburg, for Brandenburg belonged to the 
German Empire ; and the German Emperor, who then was 
not a Hohenzollern, might have objections. So he used the 
name of the Polish province, Prussia, recently wrested from 
Poland, more by intrigue and artifice than by the force of 
arms, and he called himself King of Prussia, extending the 
name of Prussia over his German territory, so that now the 
true meaning of this name is nearly forgotten and all the 
Northern Germans are called by the non-German name of 

A perfectly similar thing happened in the east of Po- 
land. We had there as our neighbors and hereditary foes 
the Tsars of Muscovy, vassals of the Khans of Tartary. 
When the Tsars had emancipated themselves from the 
Khans, and the power over ]\Iuscovy came into the hands of 
Peter, called the Great, w^ho had the advantage of a western 
education, he was ashamed to use the discredited and servile 
name of Muscovy and sought in Poland a title not spoiled 
by the bloodthirsty cruelty of Iwan the Terrible. He used 
the name of a province, part of which had been conquered 
from Poland, Russia, and extended that name over his 
Muscovite dominions, so that now all the Muscovites are 
called Russians. 

This lie is far worse than the Prussian lie, as the north- 
ern Germans or Germanized Slavs of Brandenburg were at 
least of Aryan race, like the Prussians, w^hose name they 


usurped; but the IMuscovites, M'ho were Turanians, of the 
same race as the Finns, Turks, and Tartars, pretend now 
to be Aryans, and even to belong to the oldest Aryans, called 
Slavs, only because they use an Aryan name, and have ac- 
cepted a Slavic languacje, manifesting thereby an un- Aryan 
neglect of tradition. They conceal and deny their Turanian 
past, their tradition of slavery, tyranny and cruelty, and 
they take, with the name of Russians, obtained by false 
pretence, and thanks to their acceptation of a Slavic lan- 
guage, a leading place among the Slavs, deceiving many 
smaller Slavic nations into the illusion of consanguinity. 

The Prussians and Russians, having in every respect 
been opposed to the Poles and in many points similar to 
each other, had a natural tendency to join their frontiers 
over a subjugated Poland, and after perpetrating the crime 
of partitioning Poland, attempted by all means to deceive 
all Aryan nations as to the real motives and consequences 
of their action. They are now inventing constantly new 
calumnies; and they find many Poles who believe them. 
For they teach a falsified history in their schools, which 
have become obligatory for Polish children ; they keep a 
large venal press, actively engaged in clever distortions of 
historical truth; they publish false official statistics; they 
hire the services of sophists in the guise of university pro- 
fessors at home or abroad, or in the guise of diplomatic 
agents of their own or other countries ; or they win some 
vain and gifted publicist like William Stead by flattering 
his vanity. They mix truth with falsehood as artfully as 
cotton is mixed with wool in cheaper tissues to give every 
appearance of wool to the mixture. This has been done 
generation after generation, and unanimously, by the three 
most centralistic and bureaucratic governments of Prussia, 
Russia and Austria. Falsehoods obstinately repeated dur- 
ing centuries and unopposed by the victims, even partly be- 
lieved by some of these deceived victims, because of the 
great difficulty of getting at the truth — such falsehoods 


attain all the authority of well-established historical truths. 

The Yictims have little leisure for historical research. 
They are forbidden the use of books, from which they might 
learn the truth ; they are reduced by spoliation to poverty 
or economic slavery ; they use most of their forces in actual 
struggles, and have no leisure to discuss history. Libraries 
are burnt, or carried away to St. Petersburg ; documents are 
stolen or falsified ; churches are transformed into Protestant 
temples or Greek orthodox tserkoffs; old names of places 
are changed and forbidden even in local use; thousands of 
children are torn from their parents to be perversely edu- 
cated as the most efficient persecutors of their own race and 
nation ; even the use of the language is forbidden in public 
gatherings and becomes restricted to the unsafe privacy of 
a constantly disturbed family life. 

Never before or since have such manifold means been 
used to conceal and transform the historical truth about a 
nation, because never before has there happened such a fact 
— an almost sudden and very unexpected partition of one 
of the largest states of Europe. Poland was larger or more 
populous than any single one of the partitioning powers, 
but she could not resist three simultaneous attacks in time 
of peace, when no war had been prepared or expected. 
From three sides, the small numbers of those who still dared 
to resist were surrounded by an enemy closing upon them. 

Besides the strong interests of Prussia, Russia and Aus- 
tria, and the unscrupulous means by which the partitioning 
powers served their interests, there are still other reasons 
for the great and exceptional difficulty of learning the truth 
about Poland and the Polish nation. 

Poland is in the centre of Europe : if you find on a map 
the old city of Krakow (Cracow), which has been and even 
now remains the most important centre of Poland's intel- 
lectual and artistic life, you will find that it is about equally 
distant from Perm in the northeast and Sevilla in the south- 
west, from Bergen in the north and Syracuse or Athens in 


the south, from Qiieenstown in the northAvest and Wladi- 
kawkaz and Astraehau in the southeast and Archangel in 
the northeast, — to take only the chief points which deter- 
mine the political outline of Europe. This central position 
of Poland has been obscured to the minds of the historians 
by the circumstance that they have heretofore devoted much 
more attention to the Germanic and Romanic nations than 
to the Slavs and Turanians, whose historical career among 
the nations of Europe began later. As long as we take into 
consideration only Germany, France, England, Spain, and 
Italy, of course Paris or Geneva, and not Cracow, will be 
the natural centre of Europe; and even to such a Europe 
the Poles would still belong by their character, tradition and 
religion. But since certain Turanians, like the Hungarians 
and Finns, have penetrated among the Aryan nations, and 
the Turanian jMuscovites have accepted a Slavic language 
and conquered many Slavic and Lithuanian peoples, our 
conception of Europe must be extended to its geographical 
limits, the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains. And in 
such a Europe Poland will be the center, not only geograph- 
ically, but also ethnographically. 

If we go north of Poland, we cross four different na- 
tionalities: Lithuanians, Finns, Swedes, Lapps. Equally 
south of Poland we find four chief nationalities : Hungar- 
ians, Roumanians, Bulgarians, and Greeks, without counting 
the Turks, who do not belong to Europe. East of Poland 
we have the Ruthenians, Muscovites, Tartars, Czeremis; 
while west of Poland we have either the Germans, French- 
men, Spaniards, and Portuguese in a southwestern direction, 
or the Germans, Dutch, English and Irish in a northwest- 
ern direction. Wherever we go from Poland towards the 
border of Europe, we meet three to five chief nationalities. 
Poland in its narrowest sense is the country .between the 
western Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic Sea, chiefly 
the basin of the rivers Vistula, Niemen and Warta, with 
Krakow (Cracow), Warszawa (Warsaw), Poznaii (Posen),. 


Gdansk (Danzig) as its chief towns. This country has been 
inhabited by one and the same nation since immemorial 
times, and there is no historical tradition of the Poles com- 
ing from elsewhere, or having been conquered or assimilated 
by a foreign nation. 

While every part of Europe has been invaded and con- 
quered by foreigners, the Poles have kept the country of 
their origin, materially less favored by natural resources 
than many other countries, but well fitted for agriculture. 
For it is neither so flat as the eastern plain of Russia, nor 
so mountainous as western Europe, and is irrigated by many 
small rivers, which slowly descend towards the Baltic Sea, 
and are very rarely threatened with inundations so long as 
they are protected by large forests. 

This central and intermediate position of Poland had its 
great drawbacks, besides obvious advantages. For centu- 
ries the Poles had to deal and to quarrel with not less than 
nineteen different neighbors. Only four of these neigh- 
bors were Slavs : the Czechs or Bohemians in the west, the 
Slowaks in the south, Ruthenians in the southeast and the 
"White Russians in the northeast. Thus the Poles were not 
only in the centre of Europe, but also in the centre of the 
Slavic population within which the Polish state had grown. 
Three of the neighbors were of the Letto-lithuanian branch 
of Aryans, and occupied the country north of the Poles: 
the Prussians, Lithuanians, and Letts. They are more 
closely related to the Slavs than other Aryans, but do not 
belong to the Slavic branch ; and they separated themselves 
in prehistoric times from the common Slavo-lettic stock 
before the differentiation of the Slavs had begun. Besides 
these seven, they had four other Aryan neighbors: the 
Germans, the Danes, the Swedes and the Roumanians. A 
twelfth Aryan nation, whose home is distant from Poland, 
immigrated in great numbers into our country ; the Armen- 
ians. They may therefore be considered also as neighbors 
of Poland. Besides these twelve Aryan nations, the Poles 


had constantly to deal, and often to fight, with five Turan- 
ian nations; the Esths, the Muscovites, the Tartars, the 
Turks and the Hungarians. And also as neighbors with- 
out a home, we must consider the Gypsies and the Jews, 
who came to Poland in great numbers, seeking a safe refuge 
from the persecution they suffered in other countries. Be- 
sides all these, Scotch, Italians, and Greeks were also found 
in great numbers in Poland in the pursuit of their various 
trades, so that no less than twenty-two different kinds of 
people were familiar to the Poles. 

These relations of the Poles with twenty-two different 
nations increased also the difificulty of reaching the truth 
about Poland. As usual in primitive conditions, most of 
the neighborly relations were not friendly and many mis- 
understandings, calumnies, and quarrels arose. These pro- 
duced a vast material of misinformation about Poland, 
which has permeated the general information available to 
the more distant civilized French and English nations. 

No small or great nation of Europe since the fall of the 
Roman Empire has had to deal and to fight with so many 
different people of different race and origin ; and in that re- 
spect only the United States of America have beaten every 
previous record, as they count among their citizens not only 
most of the twenty-two nations known in Poland, but also 
great numbers of other races : aborigines of America, Afri- 
ca, Eastern Asia and Western Europe. As a centre of con- 
flicting national tendencies, Poland was the greatest experi- 
ment in humanity before the United States started its sin- 
gular career; and all the difficulties of judging the contem- 
porary American exist in a similar way when we undertake 
to judge the Poles. Apart from the wilful transformation 
of history by three powerful states, there are to be taken 
into account the involuntary mistakes of twenty-two na- 
tionalities surrounding or penetrating Poland. 

Then there is a very great difference of opinion among 
the Poles themselves, due to their natural restlessness and 


their constant self-defence for a thousand years against so 
many invasions, and to their passionate character, recogniz- 
ing no authority, always inclined to doubt and to discuss 
everything. It would be difficult to find in the literature of 
other nations, except perhaps in that of modern England, so 
many passionate accusations of one 's own people as we have 
been accustomed to hear among the Poles for centuries. 
This is a result of their high ideas of perfection, to which 
no actual experience corresponds, in their strife to improve 
existing conditions. They have been and remain the most 
progressive nation in Europe, comparable in the whole 
world in that respect to the Americans only. Their peculiar 
Polish sin is disregard for the past, so frequently found also 
in America. 

For the last hundred years we have had an additional 
difficulty in learning the truth about Poland; and this is 
the secrecy of national life under oppression. The real 
leaders of the nation remain in the shade, to avoid too fre- 
quent imprisonment. Many witnesses of the most import- 
ant political events die in exile or in prison, or have not the 
leisure to put into writing their memories, or if they have 
done it, these manuscripts are destroyed by the agents of 
persecution. Many skirmishes in our last revolution are 
likely to remain unknown, as all the combatants have been 

The great material success of our enemies impresses even 
the most impartial witnesses, as for instance the late United 
States Ambassador to Berlin and St. Petersburg, Andrew 
D. White, who disbelieved in the possibility of Poland's in- 
dependence. Such men judge according to the visible re- 
sults and admire the material power of Russia and Prussia, 
believing there must be a corresponding moral power behind 
them. The Turanian origin of the Muscovites is totally for- 
gotten and they are considered as the chief Slavic nation, 
though every step of their diplomacy and politics betrays 
their un-Aryan origin, their contempt for tradition, their 


lawlessness, their cruelty, their greed of conquest at any 
price, their blind worship of material power. 

The Prussians again are considered as the foremost Ger- 
mans and organizers of the new German Empire, though 
their name announces their foreign origin and reminds us 
that most of them are simply the weaker elements from 
among the Slavs, living once between the rivers Elbe and 
Oder, the descendants of those who betrayed their country 
and their language and underwent therefore a superficial 
Germanization. All the nobler and better elements of these 
same "Western Slavs, when they saw their country hope- 
lessly desecrated by the foes, went east and became Poles. 
Modern Prussians, as renegades, or descendants from ren- 
egades, are thus the most fanatic persecutors of their own 
kin, fulfilling the usual fate of renegades, who hate most the 
cause which they have betrayed. How supei*ficial the Ger- 
manization of the Prussians is, can be seen in the thousands 
who are easily and voluntarily polonized again if they set- 
tle in Poland. Neither are the Prussians Germans, nor the 
Muscovites Russians; and their military victories are not 
yet a definitive measure of their real power. 

They have succeeded in implanting in the minds of 
European readers many calumnies of their victim, Poland ; 
and these calumnies are sufficient to conceal the real import- 
ance of the Polish nation and the necessity of its independ- 
ence for the welfare of mankind. As an example of these 
calumnies may be quoted the constantly recurring statement 
that Poland was in a state of anarchy and that it was for 
the sake of introducing order and justice that the partitions 
became necessary. This, as we shall see in a detailed ac- 
count of the partitions, is a great lie; for nowhere in Eu- 
rope was life and property safer than in Poland at the time 
of the second partition, and it is since the partitions that 
order and justice have disappeared from the country in- 
habited by the Poles. 


A second and even more impudent calumny is the com- 
mon assertion that the Poles were an aristocratic nation and 
oppressed the peasants. Quite the reverse is true : nowhere 
have the people enjoyed so many rights and liberties as in 
Poland ; no nation of Europe has extended in old times the 
franchise and full rights of citizenship to such great num- 
bers of its members as the Poles. Already in the eighteenth 
century the number of full citizens in Poland was about 
fourteen per cent of the inhabitants, while in England half 
a century later the electors formed less than two per cent of 
the population and had far fewer liberties and rights than 
the Polish citizens called Szlackta} Just before the second 
partition, the Poles had decided by their constitution of the 
3rd of May, 1791, that each diet should grant the full rights 
of citizenship to a certain number of inhabitants, until all 
were equals. Poland, like every other country of Europe, 
had not reached universal suffrage; but while in all other 
countries the citizen-rights depended on income or taxation, 
in general on economic conditions, in Poland alone the 
very poorest citizens became nobles, if they had done in- 
dividually or collectively something for their nation. To 
call Poland an aristocratic country is like calling Spain a 
heretic country because so many heretics have been burned 
in Spain. The Spanish inquisition was due not to the num- 
ber of heretics, but to the religious fanaticism and to the 
cruelty of the believers. The great number of nobles in 
Poland is not due to aristocratic prejudice, but simply to 
the endeavor to make all men as equal as possible. It was 
forbidden under the penance of infamy to accept or to use 
titles in Poland, and we owe the many Polish counts, whom 
you may now find everywhere, to the Prussian Kings and 
to the Austrian Emperors, who gave these titles to the most 
servile of their adherents, to the worst specimens of Poles, 
in order to attach them to the cause of spoliation and op- 

1 Pronounced like the German ScJilacht, meaning battle. 


But even those who know Poland best cannot easily tell 
all they know — first, because they cannot betray the secrets 
of national organization; and second, because the peculiari- 
ties of Polish character and life make it impossible to ex- 
press them in any lancruaire other than Polish. 

However, there is one way of study ingj and admiring the 
Polish genius, and this is through Polish art. The music 
of Chopin, which differs so much from every other music, 
is Polish, quite extremely Polish, as is equally the less 
known music of Moniuszko, and the musical expression of 
Paderewski, even if he plays German compositions. Who 
loiows anything of music will find that this Polish spirit, 
as revealed in Polish composers, is singularly variable and 
intensely emotional. The singing of Reszke and Sembrich- 
Kochanska, the acting of Helena Modjeska, are also Polish, 
and have manifested the same exquisite impressionability 
and emotivity that characterizes Chopin. The pictures of 
Matejko, Chelmoiiski, Grottger, Tetmajer, Stachiewicz, Sie- 
miradzki, Malczewski, Kossak, Wyspianski, are open to the 
eyes of all lovers of art, as are the sculptures of Godebski, 
or Laszczka: and they give more information about Polish 
life and Polish national spirit than any English spoken 
words could tell. Also the truly Polish lecturer will appear 
peculiar in the intensity of his sympathy with an audience, 
and those who listen to him will be able to feel the differ- 
ence which separates him from the lecturers of other na- 

In all such inferences from art as to the national spirit, 
you must beware of premature generalization. A name 
ending in "ski" even if it were the name of one of the 
Polish Kings, like Sobieski, Leszcynski and Poniatowski, 
may belong to a man of thoroughly un-Polish race and un- 
Polish spirit; while sometimes a foreign name belongs to a 
true Pole, as in the case of Chopin, Grottger, Linde, Es- 
treicher, Curie, and many others. Before you accept an 
artist as an exponent of Polish national spirit, inquire about 

TEE polish: nation. 297 

him from some reliable friend, who is familiar with Poland. 
As the works of art in music, painting, or architecture are 
accessible to all and need not to be translated, they are the 
safest means of forming an opinion as to the Polish national 
character. But Polish poetry, which of all art in Poland 
has flourished most and is most characteristic, remains be- 
yond the reach of foreigners. Its works are as difficult to 
translate as, for other reasons, Walt Whitman, Kipling or 
Browning. They are extremely peculiar to the race, and to 
the nation which is the ripest branch of this race. 

As to books in English on Poland, there are very few 
that can be recommended. One of the best was written 
about 1830 by Moltke, who later became the famous field- 
marshal, and this work is well translated into English.- It 
is an important testimony in our favour by an enemy of 
our nation and an advocate of our partitioning. We can- 
not imagine a more interesting account of Poland by an 
adverse witness, and certain passages from Moltke 's book 
deserve to be quoted here. Nobody has given a more vivid 
picture of the Polish constitution. Moltke, as a true Prus- 
sian, despised this constitution, and this gives greater weight 
to his involuntary concessions which will strike the impar- 
tial reader as quite extraordinary : * * Poland was a repub- 
lic, made up of about three hundred thousand petty suzer- 
ainties, each of which was immediately connected with the 
state and was subject to the whole body alone, acknowledg- 
ing no kind of feudal superiority or of feudal dependence. 
No Polish noble was the vassal of a superior lord — the mean- 
est of them appeared at the diet in the full enjoyment of 
that power, which belonged to all without distinction. It 
is here that we find the fundamental difference between the 
Polish constitution and the feudal states of the West and 
the despotism of the East" (p. 3). — "The mutual relations 
of the nobles were based upon perfect equality among all, 

2 Poland, An Historical Sketch, by Field-marshal Count von Moltke, 
authorized translation, with a biographical notice, London, 1885. 


aud as much independeuce for the individual as was com- 
patible therewith. Startino: from the principle, that a free 
man cannot be taxed or governed contrary to his own de- 
clared will, the unanimous consent of all was required for 
resolutions dealing with these matters, in other words, for 
all laws ; the dissent of a few or a single individual sufificed 
for the rejection of a measure" (p. 4). — "It was owing to 
this spirit of independence that the chief, who latterly bore 
the inappropriate title of King, was invested with the high- 
est dignity, but by no means with the highest power. The 
dignity of the crown brought him no privileges beyond the 
rights to appoint the state officials, to distribute the state 
domains and to administer justice. The election of the King 
depended upon the will of the assembled nobles. Whenever 
it happened that distinguished families were able for a time 
to make the crown hereditary among their members, the na- 
tion never failed, on the extinction of the race, to reassert 
its rights of election" (p. 6). 

This shows clearly the republican character of Poland 
even in the oldest times, when usually the nobles accepted 
as kings either a son or relative of the last king. On the 
influence of religion on the Poles, Moltke says : ' ' The King 
received the Primate (Archbishop of Gnesen) standing, and 
the latter had the right of remonstrating with him on his 
government, and of repeating his accusations in the senate 
or diet, if the King persisted in his course" (p. 9). 

The democratic character of the Polish Republic is 
shown by ^Moltke quite as clearly as the earlj^ republicanism 
of the Poles: "The general tendency of the constitution 
shows that the great offices and dignitaries of the state were 
elective like the throne, and the repeated efforts to make 
them hereditary were rendered futile by the jealousy of the 
entire body" (p. 9). — "Although it seems difficult, nay al- 
most impossible, under these circumstances, for a king to 
form a party in the state which .should endanger the priv- 
ileges of individuals, the nation thought it necessary to pro- 
vide against a possible abuse of power, and employed a 


method unknown in the annals of any other nation. This 
was the confederation" (p. 11).— "Contrary to the theory 
of other nations, who look on revolution as the greatest mis- 
fortune in the state, revolution was legally organized in 
Poland. If any question of interest received sufficient sup- 
port in the republic, but could not be carried because of the 
opposition of the existing government or the veto of indi- 
viduals, those concerned formed a confederation, bound 
themselves by solemn oaths, appointed a leader and took up 
arms, in order to battle for their opinions. The strength 
of the confederations constituted their right; whatever the 
result of their undertaking, none of the confederates could 
be punished or looked upon as rebels. The decisions of the 
majority were recognized in these confederations, which 
were in reality nothing else than the forcible carrying out 

of the will of the nation To prevent this 

violent remedy for tyranny from becoming a tyrant in its 
turn, the time of duration of these confederations was set- 
tled beforehand and all their resolutions became void at 
their dissolution. What was settled unanimously remained 
law, and every confederation ended with the summoning of 
a diet" (p. 15). — "Although king and senate exercised the 
highest power in the State, the real sovereignty rested in 
the united body of the nobles, who in spite of both could 
legally carry out their will; if unanimous, at the diet; if 
not, by means of a confederation" (p. 15). — "The king was 
bound to summon the diet every two years. If he neglected 
to call one, the nation had the right to do so" (p. 16). — 
"The affairs of individuals were settled by a majority and 
in a summary way. Lawyers were unknown. Those con- 
cerned stated their case themselves and the decision fol- 
lowed without delay and expense. It is characteristic that 
the same men deliberated in the senate, made laws in the 
diet, administered justice in the tribunals and wielded the 
sword in the battle" (p. 16).— "Poland is the only Euro- 
pean state which down to the XVIth century possessed 


no military force, except that of its armed and mounted 
nobles" (p. 17). — "An admirable peculiarity of this war- 
like nobility was the simplicity of their habits. They lived 
the gfreater part of the year on their estates ; there they 
spent their income, practised an extensive hospitality, and 
remained at a distance from and independent of the court. 
The wealth, which the noble obtained from his subjects, re- 
turned to them asrain. A few benches, tables and carpets 
formed the furniture of the richest palatine. The women 
did not care for luxury. . . . Good armour and excel- 
lent horses formed the sole splendor of the men" (p. 19.) 
— "The ancient Poles were verj' tolerant. They took no 
part in the religious Avars, which devastated p]urope in the 
XVIth and X\T;ith centuries. Calvinists, Lutherans, 
Greeks, Schismatics, INfohammedans long lived peacefully 
in their midst, and Poland for a time was justly called the 
"promised land" of the Jews. The Poles actually forced 
their kings to swear that they would tolerate all sects" (p. 
20). — "Still the Poles were very strict in observing the out- 
ward ceremonials of the Church. Christianity always 
seemed too mild to them. They imposed harder privations 
on themselves . . ." (p. 20). — "The intercourse of the 
nobles was cordial and liberal, and no excessive deference 
was shown to the rich and powerful. Owing to the few re- 
quirements, poverty was not allied to dependence in those 
days." (In Poland! Everywhere else wealth gave power.) 
"The dealings of the nobles with each other bore the stamp 
of their original equality. Their form of address, which 
still survives, was "Brother." (This remains even now, 
seventy-five years after Moltke's work was written.) The 
rapid development of other states and their increasing sub- 
ordination to the will of their rulers, allowed them to act 
with growing unity. The admirable qualities of Poland's 
citizens enabled it, however, to maintain its place in their 
midst, and to attain to a high degree of power and influence, 
in spite of the primitive simplicity of its laws, the unlimited 


respect paid to the privileges of the individual, and the 
necessarily slow development of the state" (p. 22). — "We 
may add that the Poland of the XVth century was one of 
the most civilized states of Europe. It is true that the vir- 
tues of the citizens had much to atone for in the badly or- 
ganized constitution of the republic, so that moral qualities 
had to supply the place of good laws" (p. 22). 

This testimony of a Prussian field-marshal to the virtues 
of the Poles ought to attract the attention of all the world 
to Polish history. Of course, as a Prussian, he had to call 
the laws of Poland bad laws, so thoroughly opposed are they 
to the centralistic constitution of his own state. For Moltke 
the ideal is a strong state, not a free nation. But this 
makes his testimony as to Poland so much more valuable. 
The chief features which struck his attention will deserve 
the attention of every foreigner, and could not be expressed 
more shortly or better than in the very words of the Prus- 
sian destroyer of France. If this honest barbarian admits 
that, from his point of view, only the exceptional virtues of 
the Poles could keep together a state with such simple 
("bad," as he calls them) laws, the English reader will 
more easily believe this surprising testimony of Moltke than 
any assertion of a Pole about his own country. Count von 
Moltke testifies further: "A superior and inferior nobility 
was never recognized in Poland. The title of count, borne 
by Poles of today, would have been despised by their an- 
cestors. Influence, honor, and wealth did not bring political 
privileges or rank and the poorest noble did not give up a 
single claim because of his poverty" (p. 27). — "It was for 
this reason that distinction of class, the arbitrary treatment 
of the inferior by his superior, did not develop in Poland 
as in other countries. In the humble, fawning courtesy of 
the poor noble, degraded perhaps to the position of servant, 
we to this day recognize the hidden consciousness of his 
equality, and in the dignified kindness of the great noble, a 
patriarchal protection extended to the lowest" (p. 28). 


This simple, clear aud truthful statement dismisses all 
the tales about oppression of peasants in Poland. Not only- 
had the Polish peasants more liberty than elsewhere, but 
thousands of peasants fled from Muscovy to find protection 
and liberty in Poland, as is now acknowledged even by Rus- 
sian historians. 

But the greatest difference between Prussia and Poland 
is shown by ]\Ioltke in a short but weighty sentence: "An 
offensive war was contrary to the constitution and rendered 
almost impossible by the organization of the state. It was 
illegal for the nobles to be kept under arms for more than 
three weeks, or for them to be led more than three hours 
march across the frontier" (p. 34). — "When the example 
of her neighbors forced Poland to establish a standing 
army, it was not placed under the immediate control of the 
king. He appointed a royal field-marshal for Poland and 
one for Lithuania, but he could not deprive them of office. 
A definite portion of the revenue was not set aside for the 
support of the army, but subsidies v^ere voted by each diet" 
(p. 35). — "Every time that a rupture (a breach of 
unanimity) occurred in the diet, it was looked upon as a 
national calamity. The curse of posterity was invoked on 
that deputy who had occasioned it, and on his family. In 
order to save themselves from popular fury, these deputies 
were accustomed to hand in their protest in writing, and 
then to wander about, unknown and without rest, cursed 
by the nation and the object of its aversion" (p. 45). This 
last is true, and answers the calumnies of those who, pre- 
tending there was no possibility of law-giving in Poland, 
count only the diets which have been interrupted by the 
veto of a deputy. But they forget to recognize that in 
many diets unanimity was reached, and that unanimity was 
always considered in Poland as the natural and expected 
attitude of the delegates, — the protest being considered as 
an exception and often as a crime. 

The fact that there was no such serfdom in Poland as 


existed in both neighbor states, east and west of Poland, in 
Germany and Muscovy, is plainly admitted by Moltke : 
"The peasant did not belong to the lord, he could not be 
sold. The estate might pass into other hands, but the peas- 
ant was not obliged to leave his farm. The fact that he 
could possess land prevented him from ever becoming a 
mere serf" (p. 49). — "The peasant was well off, he could 
raise money on his property and had regular tribunals. . 
. . He enjoyed the possession of home and land. . . . 
The Polish peasant enjoyed these privileges at a time when 
villeinage existed in all the rest of Europe" (p. 51). 

About the Jews in Poland Moltke says in conformity 
with historical truth: "In 1096 they fled to Poland, where 
at that time there was more religious tolerance than in the 
rest of Europe" (p. 66). What magnificent testimony of a 
Prussian general to the greatness of the Polish nation, if he 
admits that already in the Xlth century Poland was ahead 
of the whole of Europe in tolerance ! ' ' The Jews had their 
own diet, every province sent deputies to Warsaw, where 
they formed a great assembly and elected their own mar- 
shal, whose appointment was confirmed by the government. 
In short, next to the nobles, the Jews formed the most in- 
fluential and powerful class in the country" (p. 69). 

Moltke admits also that the state of Poland lost its pres- 
tige and power chiefly through the election of a German as 
king (Augustus of Saxony) ; and even under the rule of 
such a very despicable king, "there were always men in 
Poland who were ready to sacrifice themselves for their 
country" (p. 82). 

Count von Moltke, as an aristocrat, mentions with con- 
tempt what is really one of the best proofs of Poland's 
democratic spirit : ' ' The patent of Polish nobility, which 
was formerly sought by foreign princes (in order to be 
eligible to the presidency of the Republic), was given away 
indiscriminately. A Jew who left the faith of his fathers 
became a Polish noble by baptism" (p. 84). 


And compare now what the same impartial and honest 
witness IMoltke says about Russia: "At an early period 
the independence of the people was lost in serfdom, that of 
the nobles in the absolute power of the princes. The will of 
the individual was lost to sight more and more in the will 
of the state, or rather in that of the head of the state, who 
united in his person the highest civil and ecclesiastic power, 
in a manner unknown in any other part of Europe. Hence 
the unity and strength manifested in the enterprises of the 
state, and its quick development, for despotism is the best 
government for barbarians. The Polish annals are thus 
the histories of great men, the Russian annals the history 
of a great state. In the former we see the virtues of the in- 
dividual contending with the faults of the community, in 
the latter, a line of princes with hereditary power, who 
force a nation to assume a higher civilization" (p. 95). — 
"The conquest of Poland was the aim of the rulers of Rus- 
sia, and this republic, one of the oldest of European states, 
discovered with terror that it lay between the two newest 
monarchies of the continent, and that its geographical posi- 
tion was an obstacle to their further development" (p. 91). 
— "The position of Poland made it a stumbling block to two 
powerful neighbors, who had in the last centuries made 
immense progress, and whose rapid development was cer- 
tain either to bring about their own ruin or to annihilate 
all obstacles." 

This alternative, the ruin of Prussia and Russia or the 
independence of Poland, because of the incompatibility of 
Polish liberty with Prussian and Russian tyranny, Moltke 
saw clearly already in 1830, and he admitted that "the 
strong desire of all the Poles to preserve their nationality 
even amidst the dismemberment of their country, and to 
see herein the sole and last pledge of their future reunion, 
brought them into conflict with the natural tendencies of 
the administration" (p. 144). And Moltke, as a true Prus- 
sian and aggressive conqueror of France, proceeds to jus- 


tify in his own way the partition of Poland, because in his 
eyes the greatness of a state like Prussia is more important 
than the individual freedom of all the Poles or the inde- 
pendence of Poland. However, the above quotations from 
his own work give us a picture of the constitution of Poland 
that could not easily be improved by additions of our own. 

If we discount Moltke's inevitable partiality and his 
Prussian enthusiasm for the military power of a state, his 
book remains the very best German book on Poland and 
leads to conclusions totally different from his own. If such 
a state of freedom, democracy, republicanism and admit- 
tedly high civilization with exceptional civic virtues, existed 
for centuries in the centre of Europe and was finally con- 
quered by three ambitious, tyrannic, centralistic, military 
neighbors, then this conquest can be considered only as a 
temporary invasion; and the Polish nation deserves to be 
free again, when the cause of freedom is triumphant in 
Europe, whatever may be the fate of the dynasties which 
sought an increase of their power at the expense of the 
Polish Eepublic. This is also the view of the famous Jew- 
ish writer, George Brandes, in his book on Poland. He 
says, that "the cause of Poland is the cause of freedom" in 
Europe. Also an American, Louis E. Van Norman, has 
published recently a good book on Poland,^ in which he 
shows the great virtues of the Poles, though he does not 
forsee their emancipation from the Russian yoke. 

Whoever wishes to form an independent opinion of the 
Polish nation will not succeed without a knowledge of the 
Polish language and without a long residence in all the 
chief centres of Polish national life : Posen, Cracow, Lem- 
berg, Warsaw, Wilno, Kiev. But certain general truths can 
be tested by a careful comparative study of foreign books 
on Poland. The foremost of these truths is that the Polish 
nation is Aryan in race and language, differing in that 

3 Poland, the Knight among the Nations. New York. Fleming 
H. Eevell, 1907. 


from such nations as speak an Aryan lantmage, but are of 
Turanian race, like the INIuscovites or the Bulgarians. 
Anionc: all the races of mankind it is the privilege of the 
Aryans to have introduced into human life the rule of law 
and the respect for the rights of individuals, as opposed to 
the arbitrary despotism which prevailed among older races. 
For a long time, after Sanskrit became Icnown in Europe, it 
was generally supposed that the Aryans came from Asia. 
But Avithin the last generation the proofs of an European 
origin of the Aryans have been accumulating, and many 
scholars now admit as probable that the Aryans were 
autochthones of Europe. There is no historical testimony, 
nor even a mythical tradition, among the Poles of their 
immigration into Poland from a foreign land, similar to the 
immigration of the Romans into Gallia, or the Saxons into 
Britain, or the Germans into Italy. 

Whatever the origin of the Aryans, they have shown in 
all the branches of their race a certain intensity of religious 
and political life, which has generally prevented among them 
the possibility of a despotic rule for any length of time. 
The Aryan attitude of mind leads by mutual concessions 
towards a certain ideal of fairness; it subordinates present 
enjoyments to claims of either a distant future on earth, or 
of eternity beyond, for which the Aryan race has been work- 
ing since it began its glorious career. Greek philosophy 
and art, Roman law and religion, have been the oldest Euro- 
pean monuments of this Aryan life. The Poles are of the 
purest Aryan race, as they form that part of the Aryans 
which remained in their original home, while other Aryans, 
pushing west or south, met there older aborigines of Eu- 
rope, of which the Basques now seem to form a solitary rem- 
nant. All the characteristic peculiarities of the Ars^ans are 
therefore found in the Poles. 

Nothing has produced so many wrong judgments about 
the Poles as the compliment paid to them by Polish Jews, 
who ever;y'where like to call themselves Poles. The Jews, 


even after many centuries of life in Poland, remain un- 
assimilated, and preserve their Semitic peculiarities, which 
make them widely different from the Aryan Pole. Every 
true Aryan had even before Christianity a clear conscious- 
ness of the eternal existence of his soul, while the Semite 
lives only this life, without hope for the future, and makes 
the best of it, according to sense standards. The Polish 
Jew, even if he has been educated in the Polish language and 
has taken a Polish name, differs from us more than an old 
Greek would differ from a contemporary Pole. And the 
Polish Jew is very fond of calling himself a Pole abroad; 
he seems to consider it a great honor to disregard his an- 
cestors. Numberless Polish Jews, to avoid Muscovite per- 
secution, emigrate to America and are classed as Poles, ac- 
cording to their own testimony. The Poles have always 
granted to the Jews many rights and privileges, accepting 
them as citizens and even receiving them into the Polish no- 
bility. But the Semitic race has a very persistent charac- 
ter and is totally opposed to the Aryans. The Semites are 
superior to the Aryans in certain virtues, as for instance 
the family feelings or their activity in business. But they 
have not the creative genius of the Aryans, nor the intense 
love of individual liberty, nor the certainty of future life, 
nor the religious feelings resulting from such certainty. 
They are very vain and ambitious of worldly power and 
money and they do not understand the Aryan devotion to 
unseen powers. In all these things the Polish Jew is as 
different from the Pole as was the Phoenician from the 
Greek, or the Carthaginian from the Roman. And the most 
common mistake made in the appreciation of Poles is to 
count as Poles certain Jews, who boast of being Polish noble- 
men and speak with ridiculous vanity about their imaginary 
Polish ancestry. For instance, a true Pole of Polish feel- 
ings and of Polish race, if he believed himself to be a de- 
scendant from one of Poland's elective kings or presidents, 
would never print it as an advertisement on the title page 


of his autobiography, as has been done in America by a man 
who, boasting of his Polish descent, has spread many false- 
hoods about Poland. It often requires a good deal of 
patience and persistence to wring out from such a would- 
be Pole the admission that he had some Semitic ancestors. 
Happily the Semitic type of physiognomy is very persistent, 
and 3'Ou can easily recognize a Jew by his face. Let us 
esteem and admire the Jews as Jews, but do not judge Poles 
according to their Jewish fellow-sufferers. They may mean 
no harm, and call themselves Poles innocently because they 
ignore the true meaning of the term; they may be shrewd 
business men or very good fathers to their children, but you 
will not notice in them anything of the heroic tendencies 
that always characterize an ideal Pole. 

The Poles as Aryans have this in common with the other 
Western Aryans, that they are in many respects the heirs 
of Rome. Roman law, religion, civilization, have as deeply 
influenced the Polish nation as the other nations of Europe, 
though the Roman conquest never extended as far as Pol- 
and. The influence of Rome on Poland remained a moral 
and intellectual influence, not a material oppression and 
assimilation, and Poland was the eastern limit of this Ro- 
man influence, which did not permeate the Muscovites. The 
Russians are heirs of Byzance; the Poles, like the rest of 
western Europe, of Rome. 

It is a very common mistake in western Europe and 
America to consider the Poles as a kind of Russians, and to 
look upon the Russians as being of the same race as the 
Poles. The difference between Pole and Russian is quite 
as great as the difference between Pole and Polish Jew. 
The Russians, who ought always, as I have already said, 
to be called I\Iuscovites, are of a Turanian race; and the 
Turanians differ widely from the Aryans. Some of the 
Turanian nations, like the Finns and the Hungarians, have 
entered the family of Aryan nations and accepted many of 
their uses and laws. But the Muscovites are much more 


nearly related to the Turks and Tartars than to the Euro- 
pean Aryans. They had Russian princes who introduced 
among them the present Russian language in the Xllth and 
Xlllth centuries, and it is due to these princes that the 
whole passive body of the Muscovite Turanians became Rus- 
sian in language, while remaining thoroughly Turanian in 
feelings and traditions. Many facts of Russian history 
show us that under the varnish of a Slavic language they 
have preserved all the primitive savagery of the Turanians. 
As a French diplomatist said: " Grattez le Busse, vous 
trouverez le Tartare!" The Russian government has done 
everything in its power to represent Russia as an Aryan and 
Slavic country — it has invented the doctrine of Pan-slavism, 
in order to attract all the Slavs under its protection ; but it 
has shown all the time by its lawlessness and its cruelty 
that it has never been an Aryan government, and the Rus- 
sian press, even Russian lecturers abroad, as for instance 
Milyoukoff, have shown in their attitude towards the Slavs 
their conformity with that hated government which they 

Therefore, if you wish to understand a Pole, be careful 
to distinguish him from Orientals like the Jews and Rus- 
sians or Muscovites, and look at him as one of that great 
western family which gave to mankind the Greeks, the Ro- 
mans and the English. 

Among the Aryans the Slavs may be considered as the 
most settled and least aggressive of their kind, in great con- 
trast to their aggressive neighbors, the Germans. For 
thousands of years there was war between Germans and 
Slavs, comparable to the wars between the aggressive dynas- 
tic Persians and the republican Greeks in antiquity. The 
Germans have steadily extended their domain from the 
river Elbe to the Oder and Vistula, forming colonies among 
the Slavs and germanizing their territory until recent times, 
when a returning wave begins, and the Slavs are gaining 
ground on the Germans, chiefly by their greater fecundity. 


An old German writer, Widukind, said, in the Xth century, 
that the Germans made war for fame and conquest, the 
Slavs only to defend their liberty and to avoid extreme 
slaveiy. This old definition holds good even now and the 
contrast between Germans and Slavs has not been miti- 
gated by thousands of years of mutual relations. In these 
wai-s many Germans became Slavs, many Slavs were ger- 
manized; the racial difference has been attenuated, but the 
national types remain opposed and the differentiation is 
even progressing. It is difficult to define this difference, 
because it chiefly consists in peculiar, undefiuable feelings, 
best expressed in music, as in the contrast between Wagner 
and Chopin. 

The Slavs have always been and remain now an agri- 
cultural population, settled on land, and strongly attached 
to their soil. This explains their love of peace and perhaps 
accounts also for their exceptionally deep religiosity, which 
sometimes reaches the limits of superstition, but which 
manifests itself in their consciousness of personal immor- 
tality and in their faith, long before they became Christians, 
in the constant protection of Providence. The mysticism 
of the Slavs is not peculiar to them, as most other Aryan 
races have had their mystics, but among the Slavs the in- 
tensity and frequence of mystical experiences is exception- 
al. The Society for Psychic Research would very likely 
find more materials for its investigations among the Slavs 
than elsewhere. As further traits of the Slavic character 
we may mention a good deal of natural gaiety, including a 
great love of dance and song and of society. The Slavs 
are very sincere, simple and hospitable. And the one thing 
in which they differ most from both their neighbors, Ger- 
mans and Muscovites, is their great cult for their women. 
The influence and independence of women among the Slavs 
is evident from all their traditions. 

Among the Slavs the Poles occupied the central position. 
Poland was probably the original home of the Slavs and 


there is no evidence whatever that the Poles had come from 
elsewhere. While the eastern and western and southern 
Slavs have been conquered by other nations and have long 
ago lost their independence, the Poles alone have fonned 
an independent state for a thousand years, and have had an 
opportunity for carrying out the Slavic ideals of political 
organization, based on brotherhood and freedom. Those 
who believe that the time of the Slavic influence in the 
world will come, after the other branches of the Aryan race 
have contributed their share to the life of mankind, must 
look towards the Poles as the purest Slavs and not expect 
from the Eussians, who are not Slavs nor Aryans, the ful- 
fillment of the Slavic mission. Poland was conquered after 
the mature formation of its national character, and this na- 
tional character has even intensified itself under persecu- 
tion and oppression. 

If we keep in mind the Aryan and Slavic character of 
the Poles, there remains the question, what distinguishes 
the Poles among the Slavs? Such a nation, which had a 
long and glorious history, is likely to have developed its own 
peculiarities. All the general Slavic traits are intensified 
in the Poles, because of their central position, which exposed 
them less to exclusive foreign influence than their western, 
eastern or southern neighbors, and awakened their national 
consciousness more fully in the intercourse with so many 
foreign influences. The Poles are passionately attached to 
the cultivation of their soil and to its freehold property. 
They are intensely religious, gay, hospitable, like the other 
Slavs. Their cult of womanhood is extraordinary and 
manifests itself also in the religious cult of the Virgin 
Mary, which in Poland has more shrines and miraculous 
images than in any other country. The most famous of 
these shrines is at Cz^stochowa, and sometimes as many as 
half a million pilgrims have come there in one day, while 
the most famous of such pilgrimages in France, Lourdes, 
does not receive as many pilgrims in a whole year. Women 


as heroines were famous in Poland from the mythic times, 
when Queen Wanda sacrificed heraelf and suffered death 
rather than accept a forced marriage. Queen Jadwiga won 
Lithuania and Ruthenia by the sacrifice of her romantic 
love for an Austrian prince, and she fought at the head of 
the Polish army, like many women in our revolutions, 
among whom Emilia Plater became famous through a poem 
of ]\Iickiewicz. The Poles worship their women, and accept 
easily their advice in the most important affairs. The na- 
tional feeling and the struggles for independence are kept 
up greatly by the enthusiasm of women. This influence of 
their women proves the manliness of the Poles, and it would 
be a very wrong inference to see in it a mark of effeminacy. 
The more perfect a man is as a man, the more he appreciates 
perfect womanhood. 

A distinctive feature of the Pole, which separates him 
from the other Slavs, is the predominance of will over emo- 
tion, leading in its extremes to obstinacy and love of ad- 
venture, but on the other side explaining his originality and 
his creative genius in art. The greatest and latest literary 
revival experienced among mankind was the Polish literary 
period between 1832-1848, in which more masterpieces were 
produced than in centuries of past national life, and very 
likely more than in centuries to come. This literary activ- 
ity expressed the creative originality of the Polish mind at 
the same time that Chopin was composing his music, and a 
generation before Matejko started his great school in paint- 
ing. In that creative originality the Poles stand first among 
the Slavs, and their poetry is a poetry not so much describ- 
ing emotions as exhorting to action. 

The Poles, being more homogenous than other Slavs, as 
thej^ never have been conquered or dominated by other na- 
tions, have been able to develop in greater purity the orig- 
inal Slavic features, and their life and legislation will re- 
main a model of Slavic life, towards which the other Slavs 
will strive, as they emancipate themselves from foreign in- 


fluences and come to the full consciousness of their Slavic 
mission and character. 

The Polish love of liberty implies the liberty of others. 
In no other country had foreigners such privileges and 
liberties as in Poland. Jews, Gypsies, Tartars lived happy 
and free in the Polish Republic, and slavery was un- 
known in that sense in which it existed both in Russia and 
Prussia, as even Moltke acknowledges. We had never in 
Poland anything approaching the famous German wars of 
peasants (Bauern-Eriege). The Reformation found many 
adherents in Poland, but did not lead to religious wars, as 
in Germany, France, and other countries. In 1645 the 
Protestants and the Catholics arranged a public discussion 
in Thorn, called "colloquium charitativiim," but this did 
not lead to strife. The great individualism of the Poles 
does not prevent them from recognizing the laws of others. 
Anti-semitism has never been strong in Poland, and in 1862 
Jewish rabbis took part together with the Catholic bishops 
and Protestant pastors in the great national funerals and 

The Poles have shown in the past, and they show also 
at present, whenever they have an opportunity, their great 
political talents. A constant improvement of their consti- 
tution was going on from 1347 to 1791. A great part of the 
time of the diets was spent in such improvements. The last 
great national act of Polish life was a new constitution in 
]791, enlarging the circle of those who had a right to take 
part in national life. This Polish constitution is the oldest 
written constitution in Europe, and has preceded all the 
constitutions now used anywhere, except the English and 
the American. In one department of public life the Poles 
have been the first to give an example which has been fol- 
lowed by other nations : they inaugurated in 1773 the first 
ministry of public national education, which had under one 
administration all the schools of the country and trans- 
formed in one generation the state of public opinion, so 


that it prepared most efficiently that famous constitution 
of the 3rd of IMay, 1791. 

]\Iore than once Polish ministers, ■when they have been 
Sfiven power, have helped the prestige of Austria, and it was 
a Pole, Goluchowski, who decided the Austrian emperor, 
Franz Joseph, to carry out in 18G0 his promises of 1848, 
by crrantiufi: to his subjects a constitutional government 
formed under a Polish prime minister. It was likewise a 
Pole, Dunajewski, who in Austria produced the first parlia- 
mentary budget without a deficit, after a century of chronic 
financial disease. The great political talent of the Poles 
has been also shown in their extension of their Polish demo- 
cratic liberties to a territory six times as large as their orig- 
inal ethnographic limits, and in their fine discrimination, 
which made them grant different laws and liberties to the 
different nationalities inhabiting the great Republic. 

It must never be forgotten that Poland was the largest 
democratic Republic in Europe since the fall of the Roman 
Republic, and that it was in past centuries the refuge of all 
advanced reformers, persecuted in their own countries. 
The Hussites fled to Poland from Bohemia after their de- 
feat at the White Mountain and felt safe once they had 
crossed the unguarded frontier of the mighty free Repub- 
lic. The Armenians came from the Caucasus in large num- 
bers, when they could not bear the yoke of the Turks, and 
they were given their own bishops and archbishops, who 
continue even now under Austrian government their sep- 
arate jurisdiction. 

The Poles organized political liberty not only for them- 
selves, but for all who sought their protection on their soil. 
Their nobility was not a class, formed by conquest, like the 
nobility of other countries, but a semi-religious open broth- 
erhood, growing to the extent of more than three hundred 
thousand families, united for the defence of their country 
against the enemies of Poland, and for the protection of 
Europe against the enemies of Christ. Everybody who had 


shown proofs of valor and wanted to fight, could easily be 
received into this order, and those who proved themselves 
unworthy, were expelled, despised, and deprived of their 
privileges. A nobleman was forbidden to mix with lucra- 
tive business lest he should lose his integrity, and if he sold 
other things than the products of his soil, he ceased to be a 
nobleman. The ultimate and acknowledged ideal was to 
change into true noblemen all the inhabitants of the country, 
and to unite them in an ideal fraternity and equality. 
Foreign influence spoiled this primitive educational char- 
acter of the Polish szlachta. Now after one and a half cen- 
turies of common suffering for Poland under three oppres- 
sive governments, the ideal is fulfilled and all Poles, all the 
true Poles, who are ready to fight for their independence, 
are noblemen, recog-nized as true equals by the noblest and 
proudest families. This idea, that a higher rank implies 
first of all greater duties and not only privileges, permeates 
the whole Polish commonwealth, and one of the most splen- 
did monuments of Polish life and political art is the great 
"volumina legum," embracing the decisions of the Polish 
diets since 1347, published in eight volumes in 1732. This 
work being in Latin, is accessible to all scholars, and nobody 
has studied it without being struck with admiration for the 
Polish political genius. No other Slavic nation can show 
such a record. 

There is in the Polish mind a synthetic tendency, which 
makes of the Poles the natural and impartial judges of the 
achievements of the five great nations which have preceded 
them in scientific, literary and artistic activity : the French, 
English, Italians, Spaniards and Germans. While all these 
nations have had their development with little mutual in- 
fluence, the Poles are used to compare the work of other na- 
tions before they start to supplement it. A Polish scholar 
is usually much better acquainted with German, English, 
French, and Italian literature, than are, for instance, French 
or English scholars with German litei'ature. An educated 


Pole has traveled over all Europe and speaks the chief lan- 
guai^es. He compares many individual and national views 
before he elaborates his own. This synthetic spirit has been 
manifested more evidently in the latter part of the XlXth 
century; but the first great glimpse of a true Polish mind, 
rising above the prejudice and limitations of his time, was 
that of Copernicus, a disciple of the old Polish University 
of Cracow. It is peculiarly significant and characteristic 
that it was a Pole who rediscovered the old Greek truth 
about the subordinate position of our earth in our solar 
system. We owe to a Pole the knowledge that the source 
of light is more powerful than the soil on which grows our 
daily bread. The origin of species was taught in Poland 
before Darwin by Sniadecki at the University of Wilno, in 
the beginning of the XlXth century, and one of the disci- 
ples of this great naturalist was the famous poet and think- 
er, Slowacki, who proposed, about 1840, long before Spencer, 
a theory of evolution which is now wonderfully confirmed 
by the latest developments of biological science.* The dis- 
covery of the chemical identity between the green chloro- 
phyll of the plants and the red haemoglobin of the blood, 
was made by the Polish chemist Marchlewski. The most 
general problems of science are those which interest most 
the Polish mind. No wonder that in the discovery of ra- 
dium a Polish chemist took a prominent part, Madame 
Curie Sklodowska. 

This synthetic spirit of the Poles has been also shown 
on the field of historical research. They have had an im- 
portant part in the vindication of the European origin of 
the Aryan race.^ And if the total amount of Polish dis- 
coveries is much smaller than that of several other nations, 
this is due to the great difficulties created by their political 
situation, which makes the life of the Poles, the oldest set- 
tled nation of Europe, now so very unsettled and uncertain. 

* Vid., Henri Bergson, L 'Evolution creatrice, Paris, 1907. 
5 Vid., the works of Boguslawski. 


But doubtless the share of the Polish spirit in the prog- 
ress of human thought will grow with their independence, 
and always in the direction in which Copernicus started : al- 
ways enlarging the general horizons of thought beyond past 
limitations. It is well within this line of Polish activity 
that the Poles alone among the nations of Europe have 
created a religious and philosophical doctrine, according to 
which they have not only rights but also duties towards the 
other nations, a mission to fulfill for the welfare of man- 
kind. This doctrine, called messianism, has been often per- 
verted and ridiculed, as if the Poles considered themselves 
a privileged nation, deserving the first rank in mankind. 
But the true meaning of messianism is that every nation 
ought to have a mission and not be lost in national egoism. 
The Polish messianist sees in the future a cooperation of 
nations instead of the present competition of states. 

If the chief nations of western Europe, Frenchmen, Ger- 
mans, English, Italians, Poles, were perfectly organized as 
nations, so that they could always by their national organ- 
izations protect each of their members in his rights against 
every wrong, then the limits of states, the custom-houses and 
even the state governments might become superfluous. 

The conception of a nation is a spiritual conception. 
The nation is a society of souls of the same aspirations. 
The state is a material necessity, produced by the imperfec- 
tion of citizens and based on the limits of a territory. The 
state is aggressive ; the nation will not claim souls which do 
not belong to it by nature. 

The state ought to be the material expression or the body 
of a nation, as it is now in Norway, Sweden, England, 
France and Italy, but neither in Germany, nor in Austria, 
nor in Russia. Poland went further in this distinction be- 
tween nationality and state than any other country, because 
in the Polish Diet the representatives of the lost provinces 
had seat and voice. The national unity was independent 
of territorial limits. So it happens also now that in all 


Polish brotherhoods or associations the subjects of foreign 
states, if they are Poles, are always admitted ; and such a 
presence and participation of delegates from Prussian and 
Austrian Poland at a great meeting of the National School 
Association in Warsaw led the Russian Government to sup- 
press this association, which in one year had founded hun- 
dreds of schools. 

It could be shown, in numerous instances, that this feel- 
ing of national unity apart from boundaries, this national 
consciousness, similar, though in a certain way opposed, to 
what certain Americans call cosmic consciousness, is the particular and significant peculiarity of the Poles. It 
introduces into mankind something new, a spiritual relation 
superseding old territorial linl«. The national conscious- 
ness has awakened fully, since the partition of Poland, in 
many countries, as in Italy, Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria. 
It has led to the emancipation of Hungary from Austria, 
Norway from Sweden, Belgium from Holland. x\nd all 
these nationalities are much smaller and less important po- 
litically than the Polish nation, which occupies the very 
centre of Europe. And in Poland the national conscious- 
ness had been quite awake for centuries before the parti- 

If cosmic consciousness is not an illusion, it is the ne- 
gation of national limitations and therefore opposed to 
them. But to those who have no national consciousness, 
the craving for unity with the universe is the last limit of 
an ascending progress beyond individual narrowness. Na- 
tional consciousness is a reality for numberless Poles, while 
cosmic consciousness is the privilege of a few, and at inter- 
vals, for the}'' generally awake under certain conditions from 
this cosmic dream to their particular needs and inter&sts. 
But the Poles are known to live a national life in every 
moment of the life of certain individuals, and this trans- 
formation, this new state of consciousness, is the subject of 
one of the greatest works of our national poet Mickiewiez, 


'The Ghosts.' The intensity of the national feelings is 
the key to many facts of Polish life and Polish history, 
which can never be understood by those who know only 
the relation between people and state, citizen and govern- 

Many patriots in other countries are really patriots of 
their state and not of their nation. Such is the patriotism 
of those Kussians who dream of the greatness of Russia as 
a limitless expansion over territories conquered and ad- 
ministered by force under the direst oppression of their 
original inhabitants. English imperialists also call them- 
selves patriots and seem to be unaware of the danger of 
losing the most valuable acquisitions of their national life 
in contact with so many subjects of inferior race. The 
Poles have never undertaken conquests; never have seen 
the greatness of their nation in big territories; never have 
led wars except in self-defense. Their national life is lim- 
ited to themselves and to those w^ho voluntarily accept a 
participation in their mission, like the Lithuanians and those 
''Russians" and "Prussians" who were citizens of the 
Polish Republic. Provinces, and even kingdoms, asked the 
favor to be incorporated into the Polish Republic, and 
were not accepted. If in Poland political ambition had 
prevailed, Bohemia and Hungary, as well as the whole east 
of Russia would have belonged to Poland, together with Li- 
vonia and Roumania. Such an empire could not have been 
any longer the Polish Republic. Even now the Poles, if 
they gave up their national aspirations and accepted a share 
in the totally different ambitions of Russia, could easily ob- 
tain the control of the whole Russian empire and conquer 
Europe. But very few are found to serve the Tsar, while 
m.any have faithfully served Austria within the last genera- 
tions. It is because there is no possible conciliation between 
the national aims of Poland and Russia, while Austria has 
become a federation of nations, similar in certain respects 
to the old Polish Republic. 


The mission of Poland has been for centuries to protect 
Christian Europe against new invasions of Oriental bar- 
barians, and its mission in the future is to introduce Chris- 
tian feelings into the social and political relations, while the 
present international principle of "non-intervention" into 
the affairs of foreign states is a negation of the rights of 
nationalities and of the duties of Christians, who must de- 
fend their faith regardless of frontiers, wherever it is op- 

The Polish character can best be understood from the 
prominent features of Polish history. The oldest ruler 
whom tradition mentions, the ancestor of many kings of 
Poland, Piast, is said to have been elected unanimously by 
the people. It is true that his descendants ruled in Poland 
for several centuries, but again and again their rule was 
confirmed by the will of the people in large gatherings, and 
they had no power by the right of birth alone. It was sim- 
ply a prudent measure to elect kings among those who de- 
scended from kings. — The growth of liberties in every re- 
spect was due to voluntary concessions of the stronger party 
— the king to nobles, the nobles to peasants, the Catholics 
to Protestants, the Christians to Jews — not by violence and 
bloodshed. The Poles have served Europe and Christianity 
more than once, against their own national interests, at the 
request of Roman Popes. Thus King Wtadyslaw perished 
at Warna in 1444 in a war undertaken at the instigation of 
the Pope, when Poland had concluded an advantageous 
peace with Turkey and had no need to incur new risks. His 
death and defeat caused the greatest disadvantage to Po- 
land. Sobieski defended Vienna in 1683 against the Turks 
and concluded the long warfare by a definite victory, at a 
time Avhen Poland had nothing to fear from the Turks and 
everything to gain b}^ the defeat of its ambitious neighbor, 
the rising Austrian dynasty. Austria showed her grateful- 
ness a century later by participating in the partition of 
Poland. It was against the interest of Poland to grant to 


the younger line of Brandenburg a right to succession in 
Prussia, v/hich lawfully belonged to the Republic, and there 
was no necessity for such a generosity, nor had the prince 
of Brandenburg any power to obtain such a privilege by 
force, when in 1525 he publicly swore allegiance to his 
uncle the King of Poland. His successor two and a half 
centuries later invented the scheme of Poland's partition. 
In 1609 the Polish general Zolkiewski conquered Moscow, 
and the Muscovites, tired of their own tyrants, asked him to 
give them a Pole as king. This was contrary to the unsel- 
fish and religious policy of Poland; and the Poles, though 
quite superior in power to the Muscovites at that time, left 
them in fairness all liberty to elect one of themselves as 
their tsar. This decided the fate of both countries for cen- 
turies to come. The unaggressiveness of Poland has en- 
couraged the aggressiveness of its neighbors — and all the 
three states which partitioned Poland were once at the 
mercy of the Poles, and owed great debts of gratitude to 
the Polish nation, a "knight among nations," as Van Nor- 
man calls her. 

In all these facts we see the Polish character — no po- 
litical ambition, no greed of power, no pleasure in oppres- 
sing others; but love of liberty, of our own liberty and of 
the liberty of others, fairness and Christian dealings in 
politics, faithfulness to faith and fairness to the extreme of 
giving up a conquered empire, and tolerance towards all 
creeds and opinions within our own territory. 

In Poland we have seen the greatest complication of 
mutual relations among twenty-two nations and still the 
greatest intensity of national consciousness within the Po- 
lish souls. Poland, though under the influence of Roman 
law, religion and culture, was never conquered by the Ro- 
mans and could thus preserve older traditions than either 
Germany or France, the fields of so many conquests. The 
Polish language is of the older Aryan type, like Greek and 
Latin, not of the more simplified modern form like English, 


French. German or Italian. It has a wealth of vocabulary 
and grannnar greatly exceeding that of the Romanic or 
Germanic tongues, and has changed less in the last thou- 
sand years than other modern lanauages in half that time. 

Poland has prepared the democratization of Europe, 
which is now progressing from America. It has elaborated 
the unique political system that corresponds to the Slavic 
spirit, and that will prevail in the end with the necessary 
improvements, when English parliamentarism and impe- 
rialism will be worn out. 

No deep understanding of the general mission of the 
western Aryans is possible without a consideration of the 
historj^ and the present national life of the Poles, who are 
multiplying at a more rapid rate than any other nation of 
Europe and will soon outnumber all their conquerors. They 
can afford, besides increasing constantly the proportion of 
the Polish element in Russia, Austria, and Prussia, to send 
every year into America a working army of more than a 
hundred thousand souls, more than the total immigration 
of English, Germans, and French, taken together. 

No European novelist has been more read in America 
than Sienkiewicz ; no actress has had greater and nobler 
fame than IModjeska, no musician is better known than 
Paderewski — all of them fervid Polish patriots. 

It is interesting to know how this nation of creative and 
sjTithetic genius, which has no diplomatic representation, 
no territory on the maps, no voice in the concert of Europe, 
lives at home under three different governments and how 
it grows so rapidly under increasing oppression. The Po- 
lish capital, Warsaw, with its 800,000 inhabitants, is greater 
than most capitals of Europe and inferior on the continent 
only to Berlin, Paris, and Vienna, — without counting Mos- 
cow, St. Petersburg, or Constantinople, which are beyond 
the pale of civilization. Warsaw is a greater city than 
Madrid, Naples. Rome, Lisbon, Athens, Christiania, Stock- 
holm, Brussels, or Amsterdam, and commands the commerce 


between East and West. The twenty-two million Poles, 
situated in the center of Europe, are more numerous than 
most nations of Europe : their number exceeds that of the 
Spaniards, Greeks, Irish, Scotch, Dutch, Portuguese, 
Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Roumanians, Bulgarians, Serbs, 
Bohemians, or Hungarians; and they increase much more 
rapidly than Frenchmen, English, Germans, or Italians, 
who alone at present still exceed them in numbers in Cen- 
tral and Western Europe, outside Russia. 

As soon as the artificial competition between states is 
supplanted by a natural national cooperation, the material 
importance of the Poles will necessarily correspond to the 
intensity of their national life, which is unsurpassed. And 
the partitions of Poland, which were intended to destroy 
the Poles and to transform them into Prussians, Russians, 
and Austrians, have only increased this intensity to a de- 
gree unknown before, and enabled the Poles to prepare in 
the darkness of oppression for their redeeming mission of 
liberty and fraternity, for the solution of those social and 
political problems which were created long ago by the Ro- 
man conquests and can be resolved only by a nation that 
has never been conquered. 

Militarism, the increasing public debts, religious perse- 
cutions, political and economical tyranny, which are the 
diseases of Europe, were unknown in Poland. Happiness 
was provided for all classes and kinds of people to a greater 
extent than has ever been provided elsewhere. 

And it is easy to show that even now a greater amount 
of happiness and freedom can be found in Polish souls than 
anywhere else. The explanation lies in that intense spirit- 
ual unity of the nation, which makes every joy universal 
and destroys the grief of individuals by the exaltation of 
the most radiant common hopes. Our hopes refer not only 
to the future of Poland but to that of mankind, for there 
is no perfect happiness possible for the Poles, as long as 
any other nation, however distant, remains oppressed and 


hampered in its national life. We are now elaborating for 
all nations of all ages the means of reconquering lost lib- 
erty and independence, the guarantees of preserving them 
against invasion and conspiracy of invidious neighbors. 
As a free and independent state we shall feel it our duty 
to interfere wherever a nation may be oppressed by another 
nation or by an artificial state. The cause of Poland is and 
will remain the cause of liberty throughout the globe. And 
the history of how Poland lost its independence, and how 
it struggles to restore it, remains forever one of the most 
instructive lessons of human history. 



Simon Litman. 

A study of the past and present of San Francisco as a 
port for foreign shipping reveals certain facts and figures 
which are of more than passing significance and which merit 
our closest attention, our most serious consideration. 

It is easy to speak contemptuously, as some do, of the 
seventeen little sub-ports on Puget Sound and of their "un- 
warranted ambitions and pretensions ' ' ; but would it not be 
wiser, more practical, to examine into our policy of self- 
laudation, of self-satisfaction, and learn whether or not we 
are justified in assuming an attitude of superiority. 

Nature created our magnificent spacioiLs bay, capable of 
giving shelter to the combined fleets of the world; it has 
provided an entrance to it, which may be considered as one 
of the safest entrances known to navigators ; it gave us the 
depth of water, the exemption from rocks, the freedom from 
tidal waves and dangerous winds; it endowed us with a 
climate permitting, all the year round, an almost uninter- 
rupted activity on wharves and piers. But what have we, 
possessors and custodians of this matchless natural oppor- 
tunity, done to prove that we are conscious of its worth and 
capable of utilizing it to the best interests of ourselves and 
the world at large? First of all, what improvements have 
we made on our water front, what equipment have we pro- 
vided for the accommodation of steamers and for the rapid 


and efficient disposal of cargoes? If perchance the traffic 
which we expect with such confidence should come to our 
shores would we be able to receive it and to handle it ex- 
peditiously? The answer to these questions is, to say the 
least, very disappointing:. 

While we have been leading: a self-satisfied, individual- 
istic existence in our city of parks and squares, of magni- 
ficent hotels, restaurants and theatres, loudly admiring our 
peerless bay and asserting our geographic position and the 
empire back of us, other cities, the world over, have been 
busy planning and perfecting their shipping facilities, in- 
viting and accommodating not "the wonders yet to be," but 
the every-day briggs and schooners, passenger and freight 
steamers. Other cities have been constructing sea-walls, 
deepening channels, extending their piers, installing electric 
and hydraulic cranes, erecting elevators and warehouses, — 
all of which are necessary steps in a sea-port's commercial 
progress. A survey of what has been going on in Europe, 
in Asia and on the American continent during the last few 
decades, and a look at our own feeble attempts to improve 
the harbor of San Francisco almost leads one to regret that 
nature was so prodigal in bestowing her blessings. Perhaps 
greater difficulties to surmount would have stimulated us to 
greater achievements, would have compelled us to think 
more deeply, to act more energeticallj^, would have brought 
about a greater singleness of purpose and a better under- 
standing of what is needed for our advancement as a ship- 
ping center. And yet, natural advantages are not hind- 
rances in other eases and they ought not to be such in our 
own. Upon the harbor in the bay of Rio de Janeiro, a bay 
just as spacious, as well land-locked and as deep as our 
own, under a sky just as blue as the sky of California, mil- 
lions upon millions have been spent for permanent water- 
front improvements. 

Wherever one goes, whether to the islands of the Rising 
Sun or to the new Commonwealth of Australia, to the old 


countries of Europe or to the South American Eepublics 
just emerging- from their industrial indolence, one finds na- 
tions, municipalities, individuals, working intelligently to 
create and perfect outlets leading to the sea. Within a 
short period of time, judiciously applied expenditures have 
accomplished marvelous results, but in all cases the expen- 
ditures were commensurate to the importance of the object 
in view. There was no stinting in outlays, no desire to 
economize, where economy meant standstill and retrogres- 
sion. Thus, hundreds of millions of dollars have been dis- 
bursed, and projected improvements call for the expendi- 
ture of still vaster sums. Money is being cheerfully given 
because people realize that modern commerce needs modem 
facilities and appliances and that sea-traffic repays bounti- 
fully everj" outlay made to accommodate it. 

In Great Britain, Liverpool, Manchester, and Glasgow 
spent over $350,000,000 ; in Germany, Hamburg and Bremen 
spent about $80,000,000 ; the combined expenditures of Rot- 
terdam in Holland and of Antwerp in Belgium exceed $50,- 
000,000; in Japan, Kobe, Yokohama, Nagasaki and other 
ports have undertaken to carry on improvements which in 
our country would cost, considering the price of labor and 
material, hundreds of millions. The list could be continued 
and it would include almost every harbor of any significance 
from Newcastle and Havre in Europe to Buenos Ayres in 
South America and Brisbane in Australia. 

On the other hand, San Francisco during a period of 
forty-live years has spent on her waterfront for permanent 
improvements the insignificant sum of about $5,000,000. It 
is true that the improvements have not cost the people a 
single dollar; but what a pity that the main factor of San 
Francisco's prosperity and growth, nay, of her very exist- 
ence as a large industrial community, her waterfront, has 
been allowed to struggle along as best it could. 

We must admit that from the point of view of owner- 
ship and administration, the harbor of San Francisco leaves 


little to be desired, belonsjing, as it does, to the State and 
placed under the control of a Board of State Harbor Com- 
missioners. But from the very beginning the improvement 
work of the Commissioners has been hampered and restric- 
ted by the fact that they have nothing else to rely upon than 
the funds collected from the waterfront. The greater part 
of the revenue has been spent, and necessarily so, to satisfy 
the immediate needs of structures of a temporary character, 
repairs, paj'ment of salaries, and the like. The result is that 
at present, from the point of view of technical efficiency, 
San Francisco is lagging behind other harbors of much less 
commercial importance. Our Avaterfront with its inadequate 
terminal acconnnodations shows plainly that it has been 
self-sustaining ; that there has been a lack of interest on the 
part of business men and the community at large in the work 
of improving it. Recently a bond issue of $2,000,000 has 
been voted by the people in order to better conditions, an 
act of doubtful generosity, considering that both interest 
and principal must be met from the revenues of the Harbor 

Thus may be seen how little we have done in the matter 
of improving the harbor. Now, let us examine our record as 
promoters of commerce in general. What have we done in 
this respect to justify our position at the gateway of the 
greatest sea? 

In an address at Mechanics Pavilion about four and a 
half years ago. President Roosevelt said: "It behooves all 
men of lofty soul, fit and proud to belong to a mighty na- 
tion, to see to it that we keep our position in the world ; for 
our place is with the great expanding peoples, with the peo- 
ple that dare to be great All our people should 

take that position, but especially you of the Pacific slope, 
for much of our expansion must go through the Golden 

Involuntarily my mind reverts to a meeting held in 
January, 1900 by the various commercial bodies of San 


Francisco at which the first steps were tal^en towards the 
establishment of the Pacific Commercial Museum. President 
Wheeler, who spoke at this meeting, said in part : "It cer- 
tainly has become perfectly clear that upon San Francisco 
has been thrown great responsibility and great opportunity. 
With its magnificent harbor on the western shore of the na- 
tion, with its power and aggressiveness, California is forg- 
ing westward, where lie the great commercial opportunities 

in the newly discovered Orient The world has 

passed the stadium where matters of trade and commerce 
are left, to chance. Men are coming to learn that commerce 

means an understanding and grasp of conditions 

Shall the city of San Francisco cast off its traditions of the 
mere struggle for existence and take upon itself the idea 
of cooperation, merging its struggle towards the common 

good Shall we join hands in advancing a great 

community endeavor?" 

Notwithstanding these authoritative suggestions and ad- 
monitions our hands were not "joined together;" in our 
blind negligence we continued to leave matters of commerce 
to chance. An institution whose scope and purpose was the 
study of foreign trade and its systematic promotion did not 
receive either moral or financial support. The indifference 
of those who should have been its natural supporters and 
regulators caused it to live a feeble existence, then to die a 
premature death. The attitude towards the Pacific Com- 
mercial Museum is but one illustration of San Francisco's 
general apathy and neglect of opportunities in the matter 
of commercial development. 

The results of this apathy may be seen in official statis- 
tics showing the progress made recently by the United States 
in their foreign trade, and San Francisco's share of it. In 
the fiscal year of 1890 v/hen the annual value of the foreign 
trade of the United States amounted to : Exports, $857,828,- 
684; imports, $789,310,409, San Francisco's exports equaled 
$36,876,091, and her imports, $48,751,223. Fifteen years 


later the exports and imports of the entire country were: 
Exports, $1,518,501,666; imports, $1,117,513,071. San 
Francisco's share in the prand total M^as not lar<j:er than: 
Exports, $49,001,060; imports, $46,675,545. In 1906 while 
the value of merchandise shipped and received rose for the 
country to: Exports, $1,743,864,500; imports, $1,226,562,- 
446, San Francisco showed a decline both in exports and 
imports which equaled : Exports, $39,915,269 ; imports, 
$44,433,271. I will not give statistical data for the fiscal 
year 1907. They show that the great calamity did not af- 
fect materially San Francisco's commerce, but they are 
somewhat misleading. We notice a still farther shrinkage 
in the value of exports, partially due to disorganized condi- 
tions; also a sharp increase in imports which may be ex- 
plained by the necessity of replacing the burnt stock and 
rebuilding the city. 

From the figures just given it may be seen that while the 
value of the foreign trade of the nation rose from $1,647,- 
139,093 in 1890, to $2,970,426,946 in 1906, or increased by 
$1,323,287,853, San Francisco's trade declined from $85,- 
627,314 in 1890, to $84,348,540 in 1906, a decline of $1,278,- 

During the same period of time the Puget Sound har- 
bors increased their foreign exports from $3,326,145 in 1890, 
to $49,234,861 in 1906, and their imports from $305,289 in 
1890, to $13,614,438 in 1906. In 1907 their commerce with 
foreign countries amounted to: Exports, $43,659,308; im- 
ports, $25,353,373. 

From the j^oint of view of tonnage, the foreign trade of 
San Francisco shows also that the "Sentinel of the Pacific" 
has not been doing his work properly and that he is in need 
of an awakening. In 1890 the tonnage of vessels entered at 
and cleared from seaports of the United States amounted to : 
Entered, 15,365,604; cleared, 15,429,049. San Francisco's 
share in the total was : Entered, 1,030,538 ; cleared, 1,080,- 
974. In 1906 the tonnage of the country rose to : Entered, 


27,401,470; cleared, 26,969,850— a gain of 23,516,667 tons. 
San Francisco's tonnage fell to: Entered, 773,227, cleared, 
789,165— a loss of 549,117 tons. 

In the meantime the Puget Sound harbors increased 
their tonnage in foreign trade from: Entered, 802,478; 
cleared, 895,746, in 1890, to: Entered, 1,421,143; cleared, 
1,522,744, in 1906— a gain of 1,245,663 tons. 

There is no harbor in the United States that has not 
benefited by the rising tide of our national foreign com- 
merce ; and certainly there is no harbor of any significance 
whose showing has been as poor as that of San Francisco, 
and this notwithstanding San Francisco's unexcelled nat- 
ural advantages and her unprecedented opportunities. 

When speaking of advantages and opportunities, it is 
well to remember that San Francisco 's position is in certain 
respects inferior to that of the Puget Sound harbors. San 
Francisco is approximately three hundred and fifty miles 
farther away than Seattle and Tacoma from the leading 
harbors in Asia. To this we may add that for coaling pur- 
poses the Puget Sound ports are preferable, the coal there 
being less expensive, and that from the point of view of 
transcontinental shipments heavy freight seeks the northern 
cities because of smaller grades to overcome. If we con- 
sider these facts, we shall realize that without some thinking 
and acting the bulk of the Oriental trade with this country 
will not flow through the Golden Gate. Of course a com- 
paratively large amount of shipping will be done because of 
the vastness and richness of the territory directly tributory 
to San Francisco, but this shipping alone, however, large, 
will not make our city the great metropolis of the world's 
greatest ocean. 

We can find, without difficulty, explanations for the 
relative decline of San Francisco's foreign trade. A closer 
study of this harbor's commerce for the last two decades 
will show, for instance, that changed agricultural conditions 
in the State are partially responsible. The wheat crop of 


California fell from 21.095,4-40 centals, in 1890-91, to 6,537,- 
131 centals, in 1903-04, and to 3.396.216 centals, in 1904-05. 
At the same time the value of wheat and flour exported from 
San Francisco by sea declined from : 

Wheat. Flour. 

$17,277,604, $4,835,539 in 1890, 

to 5,923,347, 3,671,963 in 1905, 

and 558,387, 2,150,000 in 1906. 

In 1886 the total value of exports to foreign countries was 
$37,147,890, and the value of wheat and flour exported 
$25,816,300, forming 69 per cent, of the total; in 1906 
wheat and flour exports represented but seven per cent, of 
the total, only about two millions and a half larger than 
that of twenty years ago. 

A scrutiny of the statistics will show also that until 1900 
shipments from and to Hawaii were considered as foreign 
trade ; when in 1900 Hawaii became a non-contiguous terri- 
tory of the United States quite a large amount was suddenly 
withdrawn from the figures indicating foreign imports and 
exports of the harbor. The trade with the islands goes on 
and is increasing but as far as foreign trade data are con- 
cerned it disappeared entirely. In order to do away with a 
somewhat erroneous impression when comparisons between 
the year 1890 and 1905 and 1906 are being made, it is per- 
haps wise to add Hawaiian trade to the totals of the last 
two years. I have not done it however, because it would 
have necessitated my discussing the trading relations be- 
tween San Francisco and another non-contiguous territory 
of the United States, I mean Alaska. Such discussion would 
not have added anything new and would have only corrobo- 
rated w^hat I have said of the lack of foresight and co-opera- 
tion on the part of San Francisco's merchants and shippers. 
The bulk of the trade with Alaska is in the hands of the 
Puget Sound harbors. 

The effects of the disastrous tidal wave upon Galveston 
were a tremendous impetus to her shipping, which placed 


her in the fore-rank of America's exporting: centers. There 
is only one port in the United States which sends more ^oods 
to foreign countries than Galveston ; that port is New York. 
With a marvelous rapidity San Francisco rises from its 
ashes. Block after block is being covered with magnificent 
structures, one edifice more beautiful, more luxuriously ap- 
pointed, more commodious than the other. The buildings 
stand as monuments to the individualistic enterprise of our 
citizens who suffered calamity but were not conquered by 
it. All honor to those who are giving back to the city her 
tall office buildings, her theatres, her department stores, her 
hotels and appartment houses; they work as individuals, 
work with a brave heart, work untiringly and unremittingly. 
But let some of them unite and turn their eyes towards the 
sea. The sea made San Francisco. The markets beyond it 
are a guarantee that if due attention is paid to them a city 
second to none in the world may be built upon the slopes 
and hills by the Golden Gate. But these markets must be 
conquered and they must be cultivated. They will not be 
ours unless we go after them ; and the cargo laden ships will 
not come to us unless every modem facility is provided to 
accommodate them. 






In the early part of the year renewed activity on the 
part of the health authorities was directed towards the pre- 
vention of a threatened outbreak of the bubonic plague. 
The Sigma Xi Society, through a Committee, made an in- 
vestigation of the situation as it then stood, and the report 
of that Committee, made in March at a meeting of the 
Society, is here presented as a matter of record. 

Your Committee appointed February 19, 1908, to investigate the 
plague situation and the efficiency of the measures being used to 
prevent the spread of the disease in Berkeley, San Francisco, and 
Oakland, having carefully inspected the work of Drs. Blue and 
Rueker, of the United States Public Health and Marine Hospital 
Service, and their assistants, and of Dr. Long, of the United States 
Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and his assistants, beg 
to submit the following report: 


It is proved beyond doubt that the cause of plague in human 
beings is the specific plague bacillus which can easily be identified 
in three ways: staining, inoculation, and culture. By the use of a 
dye the bacilli are made distinctly recognizable when seen under 
the microscope. Inoculation is the injection of some of these 
bacilli under the skin of a healthy animal, causing it to have the 
plague. A culture is obtained by placing bacilli on suitable food 
where they multiply into masses of a characteristic form. 


The plague bacillus has been shown by the above methods to 
be present in human beings and in rats suffering from the plague 
in each epidemic of the plague since the discovery of the bacillus 
in 1894. 

The plague bacillus has also been shown by the above methods 
to be present in the fleas of plague rats and the disease has been 
given to healthy animals by the bite of these fleas. The bacillus 
keeps alive and active in the flea for at least six or eight days and 
probably much longer. 

There are three forms of the plague: bubonic, pneumonic, septi- 
caemic. Swollen lymph glands, called buboes, occur in the bubonic 
form. The symptoms of the pneumonic form are much like those 
of lobular pneumonia, and the symptoms of the septicaemic form 
are like those of blood poisoning from other causes. 

In the bubonic form of plague which occurs in about 80 per 
cent, of all human cases glands lying just underneath the skin are 
swollen. This suggests that the bacillus has entered the body 
through a break in the skin. It is almost certain that in these 
cases the bacillus has been injected by the bite of the flea. 

It has been proved by a number of experts that the flea called 
Ceratophyllus fasciatus, which is a common rat flea in this region, 
bites human beings. It is this flea in which plague bacilli are 
found in San Francisco and Oakland. 

It has also been proved that rat fleas, which are rarely found on 
men when plague is not present, are found in large numbers on men 
when plague is present. 

Of two hundred and forty-six fleas taken from human beings in 
Bombay when there was no plague only one was a rat flea. But of 
thirty fleas taken from people in a house where plague-infected rats 
had been found and where there had been two cases of human 
plague, fourteen were rat fleas. 

As long as the rats are alive fleas do not leave them for other 
animals, but when the rat dies and the body becomes cold, the 
fleas leave them for other warm-blooded animals, frequently men. 

Before this fact was known so many of the rat catchers in some 
of the plague districts of India took the plague that rat catching 
was temporarily abandoned. But now that the fleas are killed at 
the same time as the rat, rat catchers are no more liable to have 
the plague than other persons. 

In Agra, India, it was observed during four different outbreaks 
of the plague that soon after the fleas came, plague broke out, and 
that when the fleas disappeared, the plague also disappeared. This 
same relation between the appearance of the flea and the plague 


was also observed in Bombay, India, and in Sidney, New South 

These facts, together with others that have been proved beyond 
any doubt, give most satisfactory evidence that the plague bacillus 
is carried from rat to man by the flea, though this is not the only 
method of transmission. 

In the pneumonic form the sputum coughed up by the patient 
contains thousands of the plague bacilli. When the sputum has 
dried, the bacilli are free to float through the air like particles of 
dust and any one who breathes in some of these bacilli usually has 
the plague. This form of the plague, therefore, passes directly 
from man to man and is a most infectious and fatal form of the 

The climatic conditions in the Bay Cities, contrary to popular 
belief, are most favorable to the spread of the plague, as it thrives 
best in a temperature ranging from 56 degrees Farenheit to 75 de- 
grees Farenheit. 



The history of plague epidemic shows that the human cases are 
at first few in number, of a mild type, and with a low death-rate. 
After an interval of months or years, during which there may be no 
human cases, the disease again breaks out with an increased number 
of cases, greater severity of symptoms, and higher mortality. The 
disease seems to come and go in this way for a number of times, 
often ending in a severe epidemic, causing thousands of deaths. 

In England, where plague was present from 1348-1680, a striking 
example of this feature of the disease is found. Statistics show 
that in London in 1605 there were 444 deaths from the plague. The 
number increased each year till 1609, when there were 4,240 deaths 
from plague. During the next year there were only 1,803, and in 
the following year only 627 deaths. The number of deaths then fell 
to 64 and remained less than 100 a year for fourteen years, when in 
1625 the number increased to 35,417. For the next ten years there 
were comparatively few cases, but in 1635 ten thousand four hun- 
dred died of the plague in London. For thirty years after this the 
pestilence gradually abated until in 1864 out of a total of 18,297 
deaths in the city, only 6 were attributed to the plague. In 1665 
the plague broke out again with increased violence and carried oflf 
68,596 victims. After this, it rapidly disappeared and has not again 
visited that city. 


The first verified cases of plague in man in the State of Califor- 
nia came in 1900. During the next four years there were 125 cases. 
From 1904 to 1907, with the exception of three cases in Contra Costa 
County, there was no plague in California. Since May, 1907, there 
have been in the Bay Cities about 170 cases, with a death-rate of 
between 60 and 70 per cent. It is probable that unless a most ac- 
tive fight is kept up to get rid of the rats, there will be a large 
increase in the number of plague cases during the coming dry sea- 

Dr. Long states that since October 1, 1907, there have been 
twelve cases of plague in Oakland, and that there are now three 
cases under suspicion. Five of these were native Americans, seven 
foreign born; one French, one Swede, one Italian, one Portuguese, 
one Mexican, one Japanese, one Chinese. Nine of the cases were 
of the bubonic type, two of the septicaemic, and one of a mixed 
bubonic and pneumonic. All of the patients lived in fairly good 
surroundings and circumstances, one being the wife of a physician. 
Seven of them died, three Americans, one Japanese, one Chinese, 
one Mexican, one Italian. 

These were known to be plague cases because: 

1. All had the usual symptoms of the disease. 

2. The plague bacillus was found in the body in each case. 

3. In ten of the cases bacilli placed on culture media grew into 
such shaped masses as only this bacillus can form. 

4. In these ten cases, the injection, under the skin of healthy 
guinea pigs, of some of the bacilli found in the bodies, caused the 
animals to die of plague. 

The proof that these were plague cases was found by Dr. Long 
and by eight physicians assisting him, and was confirmed by the 
Oakland Board of Health and at the laboratory of the State Board 
of Health. 

Dr. Long states that 1.2 per cent, of all the rats caught and 
examined in Oakland since October 1, 1907, had the plague. The 
number of rats examined in the last ten days, February 22 to March 
3, in Oakland was 775. Of these 26 or 3.4 per cent, were infected 
with the plague. 

During the plague epidemic at Manila, when there were fifty to 
sixty human cases every month, only 1 per cent, of the rats were 
found to have the plague. The reason that there are no more cases 
of plague among the people of Oakland at the present time is at- 
tributed to the fact that at this season of the year the rats have so 
few fleas, on the average only one flea to six rats. During the flea 
season, which begins in June, the number of fleas found on a healthy 


rat increases to twenty-five or thirty, while as many as eighty-five 
are found on a sick rat. 

The following report from the office of the United States Public 
Health and Marine Hospital Service shows tliat the increase of fleas 
in San Francisco has already' begun. 

Pate Rats Number having Total number Average number 

1908 examined fleas of fleas of fleas per rat 

January 22 3 2 5 1.6 

January 24 10 6 8 .8 

January 27 15 8 15 1.0 

February 4 7 3 19 2.7 

February 6 5 4 17 3.5 

February 12 19 16 118 6.2 

February 14 20 12 152 7.5 

February 17 21 21 212 10.0 

February 6 to 17, dry weather. 

The human plague cases in Oakland were found in the places 
where infected rats were caught. It is proved, in this, as in other 
epidemics, that plague-infected rats are usually found in a district 
before human cases appear there. 

The rats caught are carefully examined by trained men to find 
whether or not they have the plague. The disease is proved to be 
present by finding the following conditions: 

1. Hemorrhage of skin and intestine. 

2. Swollen glands. 

3. Enlargement of the spleen and degeneration of the organ in 

4. Spots of degeneration in the liver. 

5. Pleural effusions. 

6. The finding of the plague bacillus in microscopic preparation 
from the liver and spleen. 

7. Cultures. 

8. Inoculation. 

In each case where these conditions are found two or more phy- 
sicians make separate examinations. 

In San Francisco on February 29, 1908, there were no cases of 
the plague in man and but one suspected case. Of the two thou- 
sand rats caught that day, fourteen had the plague. The methods 
of finding the disease in the rats are the same in San Francisco as 
in Oakland. The total number of cases of human plague in San 
Francisco since May 23, 1907, is 159; the number of deaths, 75. 
About 60 per cent, of these were native-born Californians, and only 
5 per cent, were Orientals. 





Dr. Blue has shown himself to be a man eminently fitted to han- 
dle the plague by his great success in stamping out the epidemic in 
Chinatown in San Francisco in 1904. 

Dr. Rueker demonstrated his ability to fight contagious and in- 
fectious diseases during the yellow fever epidemic at New Orleans. 

Dr. Long, who has charge of the work in Oakland, received the 
degree of M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. After special 
training in the Hygienic Laboratory of the United States Public 
Health and Marine Hospital Service at Washington and six months 
as quarantine officer at the Immigration Station at Ellis Island, New 
York, he went to the Philippine Islands in 1900, where in various 
official capacities he was active for five years in successful measures 
to suppress plague and cholera. In 1906 he was appointed Assist- 
ant Director of Health of the Philippine Islands in charge of the 
sanitation of Manila and chief of the medical inspectors in the field. 
During his work in the Orient he saw more than a thousand cases 
of plague. 

The ability of these officers of the United States Public Health 
and Marine Hospital Service has thus been demonstrated in other 
epidemics and they have won for themselves a high rank among the 
epidemologists of the United States. They are also men of high 
personal character and your Committee is confident that their state- 
ments should be accepted and trusted in every respect, and that 
their advice in regard to the extermination of rats in Berkeley and 
the improvement of its sanitary condition should be acted upon 
without further delay. 

The work that these men are doing is splendidly organized and 
most thoroughly and effectively carried out. The citizens of San 
Francisco may be assured that every possible effort is being made to 
stamp out the plague in their city and your Committee feels con- 
fident that the work will be successful. 

In Oakland, the quality of the work being done by Dr. Long and 
his assistants is of the same high grade, but lack of money seri- 
ously cripples the efficiency of his efforts. 

After a careful study of the problems and methods involved in 
an effectual fight against the plague, your Committee feels that it 
can be carried on successfully only by trained men, and that no 
police force is competent to do this work. 


England, which has fought the plague most successfully in its 
colonies, keeps a permanent staff of trained men in plague districts, 
even when no plague is present. These men carry on a continual 
warfare against rats and, if plague does break out, serious epidem- 
ics are prevented by their prompt and efficient work. 


From what has been said, it is clear that rats are a danger to 
the community and that Berkeley must be freed from them before 
the flea season begins. In order to do this the suggestions given by 
Dr. Long should be carried out at once. 

To free itself from rats and the plague San Francisco spent 
thirty-five thousand dollars a month for several months, until such 
large sums were no longer available. On account of the financial 
loss in San Francisco due to earthquake and fire the United States 
government has since given thirty-two thousand dollars each month, 
to which the city has added monthly about fifteen thousand dollars. 
Even this sum was found to be too small to carry on the work and 
the citizens are now raising half a million dollars by popular sub- 
scription. Oakland has already spent thirty-five thousand dollars 
and is still inadequately carrying on the work. Fruitvale has 
promised fifteen thousand dollars to fight rats in their neighbor- 
hood, and Emeryville is spending five hundred dollars a month. 
Every town in Contra Costa County, except Martinez, is engaged in 
the campaign against rats. It would be greatly to the credit of the 
enterprising citizens of Berkeley if they would follow the splendid 
example of San Francisco and provide at once enough money to 
make the same kind of a strenuous fight for the protection of life 
and the safeguarding of commercial interests. 


There have been two deaths from plague in Berkeley; one pa- 
tient was brought from Richmond, the other victim was a man who 
worked in San Francisco. Between 600 and 700 rats have been 
caught. Of these about 400 have been examined by Dr. Ward and 
his assistants. There have been some suspicious cases but no plague 
bacilli have been found. It is not possible for Dr. Ward, with so 
few assistants, to examine all of the rats caught before decomposi- 
tion sets in. For this reason over two hundred have had to be 
burned without inspection. The number of rats examined is too 
small to furnish sufficient evidence as to the presence or absence 
of plague-infected rats in Berkeley. 


This condition does not in the least justify continued inactivity 
on the part of Berkeley residents. The plague is close to us, in- 
fected rats having been found in the neighborhood of Fifty-first 
street, Oakland, and it is against reason to believe that Berkeley 
will escape. Eats do not recognize city or county lines and there 
is no good ground for the belief that Berkeley is free from plague- 
infected rats. 

Berkeley has done practically nothing to protect herself and only 
a short time remains before the flea season begins. Your Commit- 
tee is convinced that unless an organized fight to exterminate the 
rats and clean up the city is begun at once and effectively carried 
on, that Berkeley will lie in great danger of a visitation from the 

Your Committee wishes to emphasize the fact that the existence 
of plague in San Francisco, Oakland, or Berkeley does not of itself 
seriously threaten the commerce of these places. In 1900 plague 
was epidemic in Glasgow, a city of about one million inhabitants, 
and one of the chief sea-ports of the British Empire. A fund of 
one and one-half million dollars was immediately raised with which 
such an effective fight was made against the disease that only 
eighteen deaths occurred. This prompt and vigorous action con- 
vinced the world that the city was making every possible effort to 
control and stamp out the disease, and no quarantine was declared. 
On the other hand, when the plague broke out in San Francisco in 
1900, its existence was generally denied by the press and public 
officials. The truth, however, was known to the health officials in 
other states and, on account of this denial of the existence of the 
disease, and the fact that no measures were taken to prevent its 
spread, Texas and one or two other States actually declared quar- 
antine against the State of California. Other states threatened 
quarantine and were only prevented from declaring it by public 
acknowledgment by San Francisco of the existence of the disease 
and the adoption of most vigorous measures to suppress it and pre- 
vent its spread. 

To-day San Francisco, Oakland, and other adjoining communi- 
ties are making efforts to stamp out the disease and prevent its 
spread; while Berkeley remains apathetic and inactive. Foreign 
Consuls keep their countries informed as to the true conditions that 
exist and State Health Officers of other states keep in touch with 
the situation through official reports. A continuance of this atti- 
tude of indifference and inactivity in Berkeley will, in all proba- 
bility, result not only in a quarantine of Berkeley, but what is much 
more deplorable, a needless sacrifice of human life. 


It is the opinion of your Committee that the work of the United 
States Public Health and Marino Hospital Service and the support 
and cooperation received from the citizens of the Bay Cities is all 
that stands between the State of California and a serious outbreak 
of the plague with its disastrous consequences. 


Your Committee feels that too much time has already been lost 
and that immediate action is imperative. It recommends: 

1. That an emergency fund should be provided by the citizens 
of Berkeley large enough to begin and carry on, in accordance with 
the plan suggested by Dr. Long, a vigorous fight against rats and 
existing unsanitary conditions. 

2. That since $1,500 of this money is available the work should 
be started at once with a small force of men, additional men being 
added as fast as sufficient money can be secured. 

3. That this money be expended by the Citizens' Committee un- 
der the direction of Dr. Long, who has offered his aid. 

4. That the citizens of Berkeley hold, at the earliest possible 
date, a special election to authorize a special tax of at least forty 
thousand dollars for the carr\-ing on of this campaign. 

5. That no part of the money raised by this special tax should 
be used in making permanent improvements, such as the inciner- 
ating plant. 

6. That the United States government be requested to detail an 
officer of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service to take 
charge of the work in Berkeley. 

Eespectfully submitted. 
Signed by the special Sub-committee of Investigation: 
Jacques Loeb, M.D., Physiology, 
Charles Oilman Hyde, Sanitary Engineering, 
Charles A. Kofoid, Zoology, 
W. C. Morgan, Chemistry, 
A. E. Ward, Bacteriology, 
E. von Knaffl-Lenz, M.D., Pathology, 
Eobert O. Moody, M.D., Anatomy, Chairman. 

Approved by the Committee on the Plague Situation: Irving 
Stringham, A. C. Lawson, Jacques Loeb, M.D., G. F. Eeinhardt, 
M.D., A. R. Ward, J. C. Merriam, R. O. Moody, M.D., W. E. Ritter, 
Charles A. Kofoid, W. C. Morgan, Charles Oilman Hyde, Chairman. 

Adopted by the Society, Berkeley, March 4, 1908. 



Sayre Macneil. 

We college students form a unique class of debtors. Our 
notes are unsecured, our liabilities are manifold and often 
in excess of our tangible assets. At the same time our credit 
remains good. Our payments may be slow, but they are 
exceeding sure. 

The commencement stage may seem a queer place to 
speak about debts. It is the exceptional Senior who has 
not during the past week, in addition to his anxieties about 
his diploma, spent some hours worrying about his debts. 
Some of you may feel that upon this occasion at least you 
might be spared this topic, with its not altogether pleasant 

But most of us think too seldom, and all of us need 
reminding, of a debt which we have all incurred in the past 
four years, a debt heavier and more important than that 
of our tailor, our grocer, or even our friend. For value 
received, every graduate of the University of California 
owes and is in honor bound to pay a lifetime loyalty to the 
institution itself, and to the objects and aims for which it 

' ' We have eaten her bread and salt. 
We have drunk her water and vdne. " 

Some of us may have received more from her than 
others, but no man leaves her halls at the completion of 

* An address delivered at the Commencement Exercises, May 13, 


his course who has not received a better equipment tech- 
nically for the problems which will confront him ; and, 
more important, Avho has not had developed in himself pos- 
sibilities of enjo^Tuent and achievement which will make 
for a richer and fuller life in whatever station it may please 
God to put him. 

If any of us fail in our efforts to repaj^ this debt, surely 
it will be through ignorance or inability and never through 
want of intention. At any rate, some specific review of 
what our alma mater may justly expect of us will not be 

In the first place every university should look for the 
abiding interest and support of its alumni. This is a prac- 
tical matter for every one of us. While we are in the 
university, while we can feel its influence in a tangible way, 
it is easy enough to give our enthusiasm and support. But 
w^hen we are absorbed in our own interest, fighting our in- 
dividual battles, finding the twenty-four hours all too short 
for the problems which confront us, — 

"When at last we reach the topmost round, 
We then upon the ladder turn our backs 
And gaze upon the clouds scorning the base degrees 
By which we did ascend. ' ' 

Ours is a large State. As we go out from here we must 
be scattered far asunder, must enter into activities most 
diverse. Time and distance will inevitably weaken the ties 
which now bind us to the University of California, unless 
each and every one of us takes it upon himself to see that 
these ties are maintained. 

When a man is so occupied in his own affairs that he 
can no longer follow the development of his university's 
life, the time will inevitably come when he wdll think and 
speak of his alma mater as a childish thing which he has 
put away. When a man finds that he cannot spare some 
proportion of his time and money for her needs, when he 
"cannot see his way" to take an active part in his class 


and alumni organizations, when he no longer desires to visit 
the campus, or if he does so, does it in the spirit of a 
stranger and not as a man revisiting his old home, then 
there is something wrong with the heart of that man. He 
is a dangerous man to trust. 

The University of California has peculiar obstacles to 
face before the spirit of her alumni body becomes what it 
can be and ought to be. Distances alone are great. The 
University itself is growing. We must expect, we must be 
glad to see, changes which will necessitate the alteration 
or abolition of peculiar interests of vvhich we were partic- 
ularly fond. One form of athletics, let us say, is replaced 
by another. Just because our hearts were close to the old, 
can we loyally refuse our support and enthusiasm to the 
new? Again our alumni spirit is as yet undeveloped as 
compared with some other universities. Class reunions may 
not mean so much to us as they do to the alumnus of Prince- 
ton or of Yale. But are we going to leave this matter as 
we find it ? Or shall we use our efforts, individual and col- 
lective, to make our alumni organizations what we know 
they should be? Shall we not all firmly resolve to follow 
with loving interest the development of our university, to 
aid it with time and money, to take an active and intelligent 
part in our alumni organizations, thus guaranteeing the 
position of our alma mater among the people of this State ? 

All these things any university may justly expect from 
her alumni. The University of California asks more. What 
we have received here has not been the gift of certain altru- 
istic individuals who desired to shower benefits upon us. 
For four years we have been the guests of the people of 
the State of California. For what they have given us, the 
University even more directly than the State, looks to us 
for return. 

Her motto is "Let there be light!" Our alma mater 
stands as a beacon for the people of this State in every 
branch of learning. In our humbler sphere we too must 


hand on the torch. By our fruits shall they know her and 
judsre her. In so far as we, the alumni, use our influence 
for the betterment of the State — in politics, in business, on 
the farm, in the office — by steadfastly, quietly upholding 
the ideals of this University, in so far will the University 
be justified in the eyes of our people. Her ideals are broad 
and holy, practicable, fit to be applied in whatever vocation 
we may follow. We cannot follow them in a body. We 
must do so one by one. 

Our University lives not for herself. Her interests are 
those of the State and of the nation ; her welfare, her dan- 
gers are theirs. And in the light of such a broad ideal 
may every one of us write in his heart the words of one of 
her truest alumni : 

*'Thou shalt love thy alma mater with all thy heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with all thy mind; and thou shalt 
love her welfare as thyself. Upon these two commandments 
hang all thy duty to thy University. ' ' 



Albert H. Allen. 


By appointment from the Governor, Mr. Frank Spaulding John- 
son and Mr. William Henry Crocker have become Eegents, in the 
places of Dr. C. N. Ellinwood and Judge J. A. Waymire, whose 
terms expired in March of this year. 

At the April meeting of the Eegents, Professor Frank Soule 
was made Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering. Professor 
Soule has now completed thirty-nine years of service to the Uni- 
versity. During the past year he has been traveling in Europe on 
leave of absence. 

At the May meeting the following appointments were made by 
the Eegents: Earle Garfield Linsley, Instructor in Geography; J. 
H. Laughlin, Instructor in Chinese; Arthur Carl Alvarez, Instructor 
in Civil Engineering; Paul Boehncke, Assistant in German; Bessie 
Sprague, Librarian and Clerk of the Department of Architecture; 
J. P. Chamberlain, Lecturer in Law; Philip Eathjen, M.D., Instruc- 
tor in Bacteriology. 

Mr. Alvarez graduated from the University with the class of 
1908, and was awarded the University Medal. Mr. Boehncke is a 
Stanford graduate of 1905 ; Mr. Laughlin is a graduate of Princeton. 
Dr. Eathjen offers his services without pay to promote the study of 

The appointment of Dr. E. I. Werber, Assistant in Physiology, 
has been changed, to take effect July 1 instead of April 1. 

Mr. Michael Ongerth, for eight years Assistant in German, has 
resigned on account of failing eyesight. 


Mr. E. L. Stfngor has rleclined reappointment as Assistant in 
Geology and Mineralogy. 

At the June meeting of the Regents the following appointments 
were made, to take effect for the Academic year 1908-09: Herbert 
Andrew Hopper, to be Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry 
(from September 1, 1908); P. L. Hibbard, Assistant in Fertilizer 
Control; F. E. Johnson, Assistant in the Soil Laboratory; George 
Clark Gester and Eobert Wallace Pack, Assistants in Geology and 

Leave of absence was given Miss IMargaret French, Secretary 
of the Lick Observatory, to July 1, 1909, and Miss Jeanne Van 
Coover was appointed to fill her place. 

Resignations were accepted from Dr. Simon Litman as Instructor 
in Commercial Practice, from A. W. Burbank as Storekeeper and 
helper in the Mining Department, and from Julius Klein as Flood 
Fellow in Commerce. 

By a close vote of the Board of Regents at their June meeting, 
the office of Attorney of the Board was declared vacant, and to 
fill the vacancy thus created Mr. Fletcher A. Cutler was appointed 
as Attorney of the Board. 

Leaves of Absence. 

During the year 1908-09 the following members of the faculty 
will be absent on leave: Eobert Dupouey, Assistant Professor of 
French; Henry W. Prescott, Assistant Professor of Classical Phil- 
ology; Charles A. Kofoid, Associate Professor of Histology; Cor- 
nelius B. Bradley, Professor of Rhetoric; John Fryer, Professor of 
Oriental Languages; A. O. Leuschner, Professor of Astronomy; 
Frederick E. Farrington, Assistant Professor of Education (leave 
extended); A. E. Taylor, Professor of Pathology; W. C. Mitchell, 
Assistant Professor of Commerce; L. J. Demeter, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of German; A. R. Ward, Assistant Professor of Bacteriology; 
R. H. Tucker, Astronomer; T. B. Robertson, Assistant Professor of 
Physiology; F. G. Cottrell, Assistant Professor of Physical Chem- 
istry; F. W. Bancroft, Assistant Professor of Physiology; Elwood 
Mead, Professor of Irrigation (leave extended) ; A. S. Eakle, As- 
sociate Professor of Mineralogy. 

Regents Show Honor to Mrs. Hearst. 

A pleasant feature of the Commencement Exercises this year 
was the presentation to Mrs. Phoebe Hearst of a "loving cup" by 
her colleagues on the Board of Regents. The presentation was 


made by Eegent A. W. Foster, and was acknowledged on behalf of 
Mrs. Hearst by President Wheeler. 

The cup bears upon one side the inscription: 







Upon the other face is inscribed the following verse, from the 
pen of Professor Isaac Plagg: 

The wrinkled hills shall in her honor wear 

Their steel and granite diadem, firm-crowned, 
Far-shining. But men's grateful thoughts do bear 
Tribute whereto no ages set a bound. 
Such meed and emblem these — 

The woman's share 
Who with wide vision planned, 
Whose word inspired the hand 
Of master-builders through the centuries. 

The names of the Regents appear on a band around the upper 
part of the cup. 

The gift was intended to commemorate the completion this year 
of the Hearst Architectural Plan, based on the winning design of 
Emile Benard in the international competition of architects con- 
cluded in September, 1899. 

The Budget For 1908-09. 

The estimated income of the University for the coming fiscal 
year is $996,980. The total salary roll amounts to $528,534, while 
the total of the department budgets and other apportionments for 
the year is $526,480, making an estimated expenditure of $1,055,014. 
The University therefore expects a deficit of $58,034.47. 

At the suggestion of the Academic Council, the Regents have 
authorized a fee of $1.00 for each course added or substituted on 
students' study cards if not arranged within two weeks after reg- 
istration, and provided the changes are not made necessary by ac- 
tion of the Academic Council or of any instructor, or by other cir- 
cum.stances which the student cannot foresee. 


The Death of Professor Voorsanger. 

On the evening of Monday, April 27, Dr. Jacob Voorsanger, 
rabbi of Congregation Enianu-El of San Francisco, and Professor 
of Semitic Languages in the University of California, died sud- 
denly at the Hotel Del Monte. 

Dr. Voorsanger was born in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1852. He 
was educated in the University and Theological Seminary of that 
city, and came to the United States in 1873. He filled the pulpits 
of Jewish congregations in Philadelphia, Providence, and Houston 
before coming in 1886 to San Francisco, where he was soon after 
elected rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El in 1886. 

Professor Voorsanger held many positions of trust and honor 
and was regarded as one of the most eloquent pulpit orators in the 
country, an able lecturer, and writer, and a tireless worker for the 
welfare of his community. He leaves a widow, two daughters and 
four sons, of whom William Voorsanger graduated from the Uni- 
versity of California in 1896, and a daughter, now Mrs. E. A. 
Waxelbaum, of Macon, Georgia, in 1900. 

The services of Professor Voorsanger to the University of Cali- 
fornia consisted not only of the gifts of his broad scholarship and 
high standards, but also were shown in benefactions such as the 
creation through his efforts of the Semitic Library and the founda- 
tion, also through his efforts, of the Emanuel Fellowship. It was 
his purpose to make provision for the fellowship and also for the 
Semitic department of the Library, by securing permanent endow- 
ments for these ends. 

Professor W. C. Mitchell of the Department of Economics, has 
been appointed as representative of the United States Immigration 
Commission on the Pacific Coast. Under his direction a large staff 
of field assistants will conduct investigations of economic and social 
conditions on the coast, as affecting and affected by immigrants 
from foreign countries. 


Plans For Boalt Hall of Law. 
The architect 's plans for the Boalt Hall of Law, for which Mrs. 
Elizabeth Boalt has made a gift to the University amounting to 
about $100,000, contemplate a structure which will cost in the 
neighborhood of $150,000. To provide the additional $50,000 the 
plan has been formed of securing from the members of the 
legal profession in California a subscription fund for what it is 


proposed to call the Lawyers' Memorial Hall. This Memorial Hall, 
it is planned, will cover the entire upper floor of the building, and 
will house the law library, with studies, reading rooms, and other 
facilities for its use, surrounding it. 

This plan, which is being promoted by Professor George E. 
Boke, has in view something more than a building, and looks for- 
ward to the ultimate growth at this University of a center of legal 
education for the West. The work of this western school of law 
will concentrate itself around the Lawyers' Memorial Hall, for 
which several attorneys of San Francisco and Los Angeles have 
already made generous subscriptions. 

Contracts Authorized For Library. 

The Eegents in June authorized contracts for work on the new 
Library building as follows: 

American Bridge Company, structural steel, $54,311; C. A. Blume 
Construction Company, erecting steel frame, $10,990; Contra Costa 
Construction Company, concrete fireproofing and floors, $44,882; 
Couchot & Thurston, concrete wall backing, $23,987; Ra>Tnond 
Granite Company, cut stone, $194,000. 

The sum of $8,000 has been appropriated from the Permanent 
Improvement Fund for the construction of an annex to the Stu- 
dents' Infirmary. 

An addition of $5,000 has been made to the sum of $10,000 
originally appropriated for a building to house the departments of 
Pathology and Hygiene. 

From the General Fund the Eegents at the May meeting ap- 
propriated $4,000 for building a milk house, for the purchase of 
more cows, and for the further equipment of the University Dairy 
in Strawberry Canon. 

From the Permanent Improvement Fund about $580 has been 
appropriated for the purpose of buying several tracts of land, ag- 
gregating 125 acres, adjoining the lands of the Lick Observatory. 


Dr. Gustaf Eetzius of Stockholm, Sweden, has made a gift to 
the University of a collection of his published works. On account 
of the rare excellence of their handsome bindings and expensive plates, 
the volumes possess a great interest and value in addition to the im- 
portance of their scientific worth. The works received deal with 
anatomy, biology, and physical anthropology, and exclusive of un- 


bound pamphlets and the value of some 20 folio bindings, are worth 
about $3G5.00. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Company have given a four horse-power gaso- 
lene engine for use on the University Farm. 

Dr. D. W. Montgomery has contributed $500 to the fund for the 
University Hospital. 

The Class of '98, on the occasion of its tenth anniversary, gave 
the University the sum of $420 to be added to the Alumni Hall 

The Samson Iron Works of Stockton has made a gift of a four 
horse-power engine for use at the Tulare Sub-Station. 

The Mining Department has received a gift of a dozen pros- 
pecting picks and hammers from the Atha Tool Company, of 
Newark, New Jersey. 

Files Added to the Bancroft Collection. 

Mr. G. B. Daniels, President of the Oakland Enquirer Publish- 
ing Company, has deposited with the Academy of Pacific Coast 
History, by which name the Bancroft Library, purchased by the 
University of California in 1905, is now known, one hundred and 
seventeen bound volumes of newspapers and has presented to the 
same institution thirty-two other volumes of files, all of which are 
now on the shelves of the Academy library in California Hall. 
The deposited volumes consist of a complete set of the Oakland 
"Times" from 1878 to 1907 and twelve volumes of the Oakland 
"Enquirer" from 1886 to 1891, thus completing the Academy's 
file of that newspaper. 


The Commencement exercises of 1908 were held in the Greek 
Theatre on the afternoon of Wednesday, May 13. In the forenoon 
was held the annual meeting of the Alumni Association in Cali- 
fornia Hall, followed by the Alumni luncheon under the oaks in 
Strawberry Canon. 

The speakers at the Commencement exercises, with their sub- 
jects, were: The Little People of the Street, Alvin Powell (Medi- 
cine) ; The Duty of the New Alumni, Sayre Maeneil (Letters) ; The 
Laboratory and the University, Julius Klein, M.L. (Social Sciences). 

President Wheeler addressed the candidates for degrees, 
awarded the University medal, and conferred the degrees. 


Of all the degrees of the Academic year 1907-08, 427 were taken 
by students of the Colleges at Berkeley, and 62 by students of the 
professional departments of Pharmacy, Dentistry, Medicine and 
Law. Of the academic degrees 48 were conferred in December, 

The degrees of Juris Doctor and Doctor of Philosophy were con- 
ferred as follows: The Degree of Juris Doctor (College of Social 
Sciences) upon: Joseph Wheeler Dores Bingaman, B.L. 1904, Sole- 
dad (Thesis: The Doctrine of Prescription as Applied to Irrigation 
Waters in the Natural Streams of California) ; David Cecil Dutton, 
B.L. 1906, Ukiah (Thesis: The Nunc pro Tunc Judgment and De- 
cree); Matthew Christopher Lynch, B.L. 1906, Cordelia (Thesis: The 
Law Governing Banks in Eespect to Negotiable Paper Deposited for 
Collection) ; Motoyuki Negoro, B.L. 1901 and LL.B. 1903, Berkeley 
(Thesis: The Anti-Trust Legislation under the Constitution); Earl 
David White, B.L. 1905, Oakland (Thesis: Liability of Initial and 
Corresponding Banks to Depositors for Collection or Eemittance). 
The Degree of Juris Doctor (College of Letters) upon William Sam- 
uel Andrews, A.B. 1906, Berkeley (Thesis: The Laws Governing 
Banks in respect to Bills Deposited for Collection). The Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy (College of Natural Sciences) upon Samuel 
Alfred Barrett, B.S. 1905 and M.S. 1906, Anthropology, Phonetics, 
Ethno-Geography, Berkeley (Thesis: Pomo Indian Basketry); James 
Grant Davidson, A.B. (University of Toronto) 1900, Mathematics, 
Physics, Mechanics, Union, Ontario (Thesis: Function of the Elec- 
trodes in Conduction through Flames and Gases). The Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy (College of Letters) upon Wilhelm Eobert 
Eichard Pinger, Testimonium Maturitatis (Konig Wilhelms Gym- 
nasium, Stettin, Germany) 1892, M.A. 1906, German Literature, Old 
Saxon, Old English, Berkeley (Thesis: Goethe und das zeitgenos- 
sische Publikum) ; James Eood Eobertson, A.B. (Beloit College) 
1886, M.A. (University of Michigan) 1891, American History, 
European History, Political Science, Berkeley (Thesis: From Al- 
calde to Mayor: a History of the Change from the Mexican to the 
American Local Institutions in California). 

The various University prizes for 1907-08 have been awarded 
as follows: 

The Bonnheim Dissertation Prize, founded by Mr. Albert Bonn- 
heim, Charles Junius Booth, of the Class of 1908, College of Agri- 
culture. In addition to Mr. Booth, the following students, who 
presented dissertations, were chosen to participate in the Bonnheim 
Discussion held Saturday evening, April 25: Jesse Eobinson, of the 
Class of 1908, College of Social Sciences; James Edward Eogers, of 


the Class of 190S, College of Social Sciences; Earle Snell, of the 
Class of 1909, College of Social Sciences. 

The Bonnheim Discussion Prize, founded by Mr. Albert Bonn- 
heim, Charles Junius Booth, of the Class of 1908, College of Agri- 

The Bryce Historical Essay Prize, founded by Mr. Rudolph 
Julius Taussig, Louisiana Foster Scott, B.L. 1906; Cand. M.L. 1908. 

Honorable Mention, Bryce Essay Prize Contest, James Edward 
Eogers, of the Class of 1908, College of Social Sciences. 

The University Medal, founded by friends of the University, 
and awarded annually to the most distinguished graduate of the 
year, Arthur Carl Alvarez, of the College of Civil Engineering*. 

Honors in Greek, Eobert Pierpont Blake, of the College of Let- 

Honors in German, Clair Haydn Bell, of the College of Social 
Sciences; Harold Lawton Bruce, of the College of Social Sciences. 

The following graduate fellowships and scholarships have been 
awarded for 1908-09: 

The James M. Goewey Scholarship, founded by the family of the 
late James M. Goewey, Charles B. Lipman, B.S. (Rutgers College) 
1904 (Agriculture), Madison, Wisconsin. 

The Frank M. Pixley Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Amelia V. 
R. Pixley, James Mark Burke, Cand. B.L. 1908 (Jurisprudence), 

The LeConte Memorial Fellowship, founded by the Alumni As- 
sociation, in memory of Professors John and Joseph LeConte, Julius 
Klein, B.L. 1907, Cand. M.L. 1908 (Economics), San Jose. 

The Professor F. V. Paget Scholarship, founded by the will of 
Madame F. V. Paget, Katherine Mary Douglas, B.L. 1906 (French), 
San Miguel. 

The Flood Fellowship, founded by Miss Jennie L. Flood, Lucile 
Eaves, A.B. (Stanford University) 1894 (Economics), Berkeley. 

The John W. Maekay, Junior, Fellowships, founded by Mrs. 
John W. Maekay and Clarence W. Maekay in memory of John W. 
Maekay, Junior, Baldwin Munger Woods, Cand. E.E. (University 
of Texas) 1908 (Electrical Engineering), Fort W^orth, Texas; 
Charles Alexander Turner, Cand. E.E. (Western University of 
Pennsylvania) 1908 (Electrical Engineering), Washington, D. C. 

The Adolph Knopf Scholarship for 1908-09, given by Adolph 
Knopf, B.S. 1904, Nels Christian Nelson, B.L. 1907, Cand. M.L. 
1908 (Anthropology), San Francisco. 


The following table gives a summary of degrees conferred in 
the last three years: 

1905-06 1906-07 1907-08 

B.A. (Letters) 59 35 41 

B.L. (Social Sciences) 176 148 157 

Ph.B. (Social Sciences) 2 2 — 

B.S. (Natural Sciences) 36 26 43 

Commerce 24 16 16 

Agriculture 13 10 14 

Mechanics 21 34 39 

Mining 41 42 32 

Civil Engineering 33 29 23 

Chemistry 10 5 6 

415 347 371 

M.A. (Letters) 14 9 13 

M.L. (Social Sciences) 10 8 24 

M.S. (Natural Sciences) 5 5 7 

Agriculture 2 3 1 

Civil Engineering 12 

Chemistry 2 2 1 

34 29 46 

Ph.D. (Letters) 2 2 

Natural Sciences 4 5 2 

6 5 4 

J.D. (Letters) Oil 

Social Sciences 3 2 5 

3 3 6 

Total of Academic Degrees 458 344 427 


The Summer Session of 1908 offers instruction in Philosophy, 
Logic, Education, Law, History, Political Science, Economics, Music, 
Greek, Latin, English, German, French, Spanish, Mathematics, 
Physics, Astronomy, Geography, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Geol- 
ogy, Civil Engineering, Drawing, Manual Training, Agriculture, 
Forestry, Entomology, Domestic Science, and Physical Culture. 


Among those offering courses as members of the Summer Ses- 
sion faculty, who are not members of the faculty of the University, 
will be C. T. Burnett, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Bowdoin 
College; E. R. Drew, Assistant Professor of Physics, Stanford; B. 
O. Foster, Assistant Professor of Latin, Stanford; Robert Herrick, 
Professor of English, Chicago; A. C. McLaughlin, Professor of His- 
tory, Chicago; M. V. O'Shea, Professor of Education, Wisconsin; 
W. L. Phelps, Professor of English, Yale; Calvin Thomas, Pro- 
fessor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Columbia, and 
Presidents Black, Burk, Dailey, Millspaugh, and Van Liew of the 
California State Normal Schools. 

In addition to the regular lectures of the Summer Session ar- 
rangements have been made for a number of excursions to neigh- 
boring points of interest. The Third United States Artillery Band 
will give a series of six Saturday evening concerts at the Greek 
Theatre at popular prices. The registration on July 6 shows an at- 
tendance of 646 as compared with 534 in 1907 and 722 in 1906. 


The Winter's Tale. 

On the evening of Friday, April 3, the English Club of the 
University presented Shakespeare's "The Winter's Tale" in the 
Greek Theatre. 

As an introduction to the performance of "The Winter's Tale" 
in the Greek Theatre on the evening of Friday, April 3, Professor 
H. Morse Stephens and Professor W. D. Armes on March 27 spoke 
to students and others interested on the stage history of the play. 
Professor Amies spoke on the theatrical conditions in London in 
1611, when the play was first produced, and Professor Stephens fol- 
lowed with an account of the noted actresses who have played the 
parts of Perdita, Hermione, and Mamillius. Professor Armes illus- 
trated his address by means of lantern slides made from his ex- 
tensive collection of old prints, showing the principal buildings, in- 
cluding theatres, of London of four hundred years ago. 

The New York Symphony Orchestra. 

The New York Symphony Orchestra, with Mr. Walter Dam- 
rosch as conductor, gave two concerts in the Greek Theatre on the 
afternoon of Thursday, May 21, and on the evening of Saturday, May 
23. The programmes follow: 


Thursday, May 21. 

1. Overture: Academic Festival (introducing the Gaudeamus) Brahms 

2. Symphony No. 4, in D minor Schumann 

3. Hungarian Ehapsodie No. 1 (No. 14 in piano version) Liszt 

4. Concerto Grosse in F for strings and double wind choir Handel 

5. (a) Dance of the Blessed Spirits ■) 
(6) Dance of the Furies j 

6. (a) Eide of the Walkiire ) ^. ^ 

(6) Magic Fire Music | ^'^ ^^^^^'^ ^"^"''' 

Saturday, May 23. 

1. Overture Fantasie: Romeo and Juliet TschaikowsTcy 

2. Prize Song from Die Meistersinger Wagner 

3. Two Fragments from The Roland Songs MacDowell 

(a) The Beautiful Alda. 

(b) The Saracens. 

4. Aria from II Re Pastore Mozart 

5. Peer Gynt Suite Grieg 

6. Symphonic Poem: The Spinning- Wheel of Omphale Saint-Saens 

7. Polonaise for Strings Beethoven 

8. Waltz: Wine, Woman, and Song Strauss 

9. 'Cello Solo: Evening Song Schumann 

10. Marche Slave Tschaikowsky 

"Peer Gynt" Recital. 

On the evening of Saturday, April 18, an interpretative dram- 
atic recital from Ibsen's "Peer Gynt" was given in Hearst Hall 
by Mr. Ole Bang, a noted Norwegian author and dramatic reader. 
The recital was given in English, the scene of Ase's death being 
also rendered in the original Norwegian. Accompanying the recital 
the Peer Gynt Suite of Grieg was rendered by a trio consisting of 
Mr. Walter Manchester, violinist, Mr. Henry Holmes, 'cellist, and 
Mr. Uda Waldorp, pianist. 

Half-Hours of Music. 

April 5.— Treble Clef of the University of California, under the 
direction of Mr. Clinton R. Morse. 

April 12.— Programme under the direction of Mrs. Kathryn Day 

April 19.— The De Koven Club, under the direction of Mr. Clin- 
ton R. Morse. 


April 26.— Mr. Franklin Carter, violinist, Miss Haidee Seide- 
mann, accompanist. 

May 3.— Miss Jean Franvell Walshe, soprano, assisted by Miss 
Mabel Woodward, pianist. 

May 10.— Cancelled on account of rain. 

May 17.— Two-piano Recital, Mr. Warren D. Allan and Mr. Ben- 
jamin S. Moore. 

May 24.— Cecilia Choral Club, under the direction of Mr. Percy 
A. R. Dow. 

Address by Judge Lindsay. 

Judge Benjamin V. Lindsay, of Denver, Colorado, spoke in 
Hearst Hall Friday afternoon, April 3. Judge Lindsay has become 
an international figure through his work among the children of 
Denver. His plan of the juvenile court and its procedure has be- 
come world famous. On this occasion Judge Lindsay entitled his 
address, "The Adventures of Mickie, " telling of the life story of the 
street arab and of the ways to help him. Hearst Hall was crowded 
to its capacity by the audience. 

University Meetings. 

April 10.— President George A. Gates, of Pomona College. 

April 24.— Representatives of the graduating class of 1908, as 
follows: James M. Burke, President of the Associated Students; 
Annie Dale Biddle, President of the Associated Women Students; 
J. Harry Jenkins, President of the Senior Class; Samuel J. Hume, 
Maurice E. Harrison, Robert V. Jordan, Lewis A. McArthur, J. 
Warren McKibben, Sayre Macneil, Philip S. Thacher, and Paul K. 


New Honor Society Formed. 

With a membership that includes seven faculty men and eight 
students in the College of Agriculture, the Alpha Zeta, a national 
technical agricultural honorary fraternity, was installed in the Uni- 
versity of California, Saturday evening, April 4. The initiatory 
ceremonies were held at the St. Mark 's hotel in Oakland, and were 
followed by a formal banquet. 

The Alpha Zeta is the leading Greek letter society of the agri- 
cultural colleges of the country, corresponding in that department 
to the Tau Beta Pi in civil engineering. It was organized at the 


Ohio State University in 1897 as an honor society and has now a 
chapter roll that embraces eighteen universities. The aims and pur- 
poses of the fraternity are the promotion and raising of the stan- 
dard of agriculture. The work of this chapter will, for the pres- 
ent, be the establishment of a better equipped college of agricult- 
ure at California. Only faculty members and juniors and seniors 
are eligible for membership. 

The charter members are as follows: Faculty— E. W. Hilgard, 
M. E. Jaffa, E. M. Major, H. J. Quayle, W. A. Setchell, A. E. Ward, 
and E. J. Wickson; seniors— Carlos A. Newbery, Harry N. Ord, 
Russell D. Stephens, Jr.; juniors— M. T. Emmert, Jr., E. Waldo 
Killian, Howard M. Leggett, David N. Morgan, William B. Parker. 

Elections to Sigma Xi. 

At a meeting of the California Chapter of Sigma Xi held April 
8, the following were elected to membership in the Society: Grad- 
uate students, William Ferdinand Meyer, Drake, '07; Ellis Le Eoy 
Michael, Michigan, '04; Nels Christian Nelson, '07; Maurice Bar- 
stow Nichols, Wisconsin, '03; Waldemar Theodore Schaller, '03, and 
Edward Lewis Stenger, '07. Seniors, Edwin Learned Adams, C.E.; 
Arthur Carl Alvarez, C.E, ; Bennett Routh Bates, Min.; Frank Fulton 
Bloomer, Mec; Hiram Wheeler Edwards, NS.; Charles Noyes 
Forbes, Agr.; Frank Louis Kleeberger, NS (Pre-med); Walter C. 
Krenz, Min.; Harry Jonas Oser, CE.; Robert Wallace Pack, Min.; 
Carl Louis August Schmidt, Chem.; Felix Teisseire Smith, L.; 
Harry Lincoln Wollenberg, Min.; Wilber Kemble Watkins, Chem., 
and Carl Gotthelf Zschockelt, Mec. 

Spring Athletics. 

The Freshman intercollegiate field day on Saturday, March 28, 
was won by California by a score of 81 2-3 to 40 1-3. The 'Varsity 
field day on Saturday, April 15, was also won by California by 
the close score of 63 2-5 to 58 3-5. This was the fifteenth contest 
between California and Stanford on track and field. To complete 
the victories of the season, California won what was perhaps the 
most closely contested baseball series in the history of the Cali- 
fornia-Stanford games. Stanford won the first game, California 
the second and third. The score in each of the three games was 2 
to 1, and the third game was drawn out to twelve innings before 
it was decided. The tennis teams of California, both men and 
women, also won all of their contests with Stanford on the morning 
of the intercollegiate field day. 


Stanford Wins the Debate. 

The fifteenth annual debate between California and Stanford 
was decided by the judges unanimously in favor of Leslie Craven, 
Gilbert D. Ferrell, and J. E. Shelton, the Stanford debaters. The 
question was, "Eesolved, that labor unions are justified in insist- 
ing, through the use of all lawful means at their disposal, on the 
closed shop." Stanford took the negative. Maurice Harrison, 
Charles Kasch, and Sayre Macneil spoke on the affirmative for 

By the Associated Student elections in April, J. W. McKibben 
has been chosen President of the Associated Students, Dean Witter 
Vice-President, and Stuart O'Melveny Secretary. To succeed O. F. 
Snedigar as Graduate Manager, Kalph P. Merritt, '07, was elected. 




Edited by Gurden Edwards, 
Alumni Secretary. 


Edmond O 'Neill, '79 President 

George Edwards, '84 First Vice-President 

Mrs. May L. Cheney, '83 Second Vice-President 

James K. Moffitt, '86 Treasurer 

Gurden Edwards, '07 Secretary 

John A. Brewer, '03. Scott Hendricks, '04. 

T. A. Perkins, '96. A. J. Cloud, '00. 

Charles S. Greene, '86. Edith Brownsill, M. '04, Med. Eep. 

Frank Otis, '73. Haydn M. Simmons, P. '95, Phar. Rep. 

Leander Van Orden, D. '94. Guy S. Millberry, D. '01, Dent. Eep. 


The annual Commencement season 
meeting of the Alumni Association, pro- 
vided for in the constitution, was held 
Wednesday, May 13, at 11 o'clock in 
room 101 California Hall, President Cope calling the meet- 
ing to order. 

President Cope presented the follow- 
ing report of the year 's work to the meet- 
ing : "In closing my term as president 
of the Association I desire to present a 
brief report of the work of the Council during the past year, 



and at tlio same time to express a regret that the personal 
share of the president in this work has not been more con- 
siderable. The members of the Council have been earnest 
and attentive in their work on behalf of the Association. 
The result does not show so much in positive accomplish- 
ment as in substantial preparation. This having been the 
first year in which we have had the services of a secretary 
under salary, employed to give his whole time to the de- 
velopment of a general alumni office and to placing the work 
of the Alumni Association upon a business basis, the Asso- 
ciation will doubtless be interested to know that thus far the 
experiment has been found to be of great benefit. Mr. Gur- 
den Edwards, the present secretarj^ has certainly by his zeal 
and intelligent disposition of the business of the Association, 
justified his eraplo>Tiient. He will perhaps give you more 
in detail a statement of the character of the work that has 
fallen to his office. In brief, it may now be said that the 
Association really possesses a definite center for its organiza- 
tion from which the work of collecting the dues, the sub- 
scriptions to the Alumni Hall Fund, the keeping of an 
Alumni Directory containing up-to-date data of all the 
alumni, conducting a bureau for the purpose of securing 
employment for the alumni in engineering and business 
lines, and such other details as may properly come within 
the administrative functions of the Council, can be directed 
and executed. Mr. Edwards has also succeeded in financing 
an official organ for the Association, and has attended to the 
editorial side of the work. He has also been active in pro- 
moting class organizations and University Clubs, and in 
this direction we are pleased to note that a decided increase 
of interest has been developed. After its election in May, 
1907 the Council met on June 15th and decided to hold 
monthly meetings alternately in San Francisco and Oakland 
for the purpose of discussing and taking action on Univer- 
sity needs and conditions in so far as they could be served 
by the alumni. In pursuance of this plan ten meetings 


were held and the following things done : The University 
OF California Chronicle was adopted as the official organ 
of the Alumni Association under a scheme whereby it should 
be sent, without extra cost, to all of the alumni paying their 
dues. A number of matters have been undep discussion be- 
fore the Council, and among others, measures were discussed 
and plans formulated looking toward the securing for the 
University of a large permanent endowment ; the details of 
this plan are now in the hands of a committee who report 
favorably for the success of the project. The Council has 
been greatly impressed with the importance of creating 
throughout the State a public sentiment in favor of the 
University, and particularly of influencing the hold-over 
Senators and those who shall be elected to the coming session 
of the Legislature so that the needs of the University may 
receive liberal treatment. To assist in bringing about this 
result the Council has placed in the hands of a special com- 
mittee the work of organizing the alumni throughout every 
part of the State so that their influence may be felt in its 
effect upon public sentiment and in the election of members 
of the Legislature who will be well disposed toward the 
University and its needs. In particular this committee has 
in hand the work of securing the passage at the next session 
of the Legislature of an appropriation of $300,000 for the 
erection on the campus at Berkeley of an Agriculture Build- 
ing and also an appropriation to increase the salaries of the 
officers of instruction. ' ' 

The secretary presented the following 
^^REPORT^'^ financial report, covering the period from 
June 15, 1907 to May 1, 1908 : 

Eeeeipts : 

Balance in treasury $262.43 

Dues coUected 889.00 $1151.43 



Unpaid bills, June 15, 1907 185.71 

Secretary's salary 525.00 

Secretary's expenses 8.15 

Printing 72.00 

Stamps ...» 165.00 

Office supplies 21.15 

Sundries 13.25 


Balance May 1, 1908 $161.17 

Life Membership Fund. 

Previously deposited in fund $440.00 

Accrued interest to June 1907 30.93 

Deposited during 1907-08 1140.00 

Total in fund, May 1, 1908 $1610.93 

To be refunded (account of withdrawals 

for current expenses previous to 1907) 400.00 


University of California Chronicle. 

Due Eegents, U. C. (for half -rate sub- 
scriptions, payable by income from ad- 
vertising in the Chronicle or income 
from Life IMembership Fund) .$500.00 $500.00 

Probable income from advertising, 1908 .... 250.00 

Probable income from Life Membership 

Fund, 1908 80.00 330.00 

Deficit, payable by future income from Life Mem- 
bership Fund $170.00 

The secretary explained that the Chronicle has been sent 
to all of the alumni paying their dues. From the above 
figures this has been done at an apparent loss ; but it has so 
material]}' stimulated the payment of dues that it has really 
proved a profitable undertaking. With the improvement of 
general business conditions it can probably be made to pay 
for itself entirely by increased advertising. 


U. C. Alumni Hall Fund. 

Previously deposited with accrued interest $4494.55 

Current receipts: 

Balance $ 29.00 

Collections 1283.50 $1312.50 

Disbursements : 

Stamps 40.00 

Office supplies 15.15 

Printing 29.00 84.15 1228.35 

Total in fund $5722.90 

In presenting the report the secretary said that although 
the addition to a proposed fund of $100,000 of only $1228.35 
in the year, with actual total collections thus far of only 
$5722.90 out of some $15,000 pledged, were not very inspir- 
ing figures, yet they showed that despite many difficulties 
enough progress has been made to offer encouragement for 
continued efforts, and that with the fundamental strength- 
ening of the entire alumni body, for which the general funds 
are being effectively used, such larger matters as the Alumni 
Hall Fund can make more hopeful advances. 

Q,p.p QP The secretary read the following let- 

1898 ter to the meeting : 

May 13, 1908. 
Dr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President, 
University of California. 

Dear Sir: Eepresenting the members of the Class of 1898 of the 
University of California, I take great pleasure in handing to you the 
enclosed check for $380.00 as a gift from the class to the University, 
on the occasion of its tenth anniversary. 

The members of the class who have contributed to this gift have 
expressed the wish that the amount be considered a small addition to 
the Alumni Hall Fund. It is the hope of our class that other class 
organizations may take up the work of making Alumni Hall a reality. 

Very truly yours, 

A. H. Allen, 
Chairman, Class of '98 Anniversary Committee. 


Since the above letter was written the fund has been 
ausrmented by later subscriptions as shown by the following : 
My dear Mr. Allen, Berkeley, May 19, 1908. 

I am delighted to receive from you a further cheque for thirty dol- 
lars, representing the contribution of the Class of '98 toward the 
Alumni Hall Fund. This now makes your class fund four hundred 
and ten dollars — a splendid gift. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

This makes a total of $6132.90 in the Fund. 

The following were elected officers of 
THE NEW tlie Association for 1908-09 : Edmond 

OFFICERS O'Neill 79, President; George Edwards, 

'84, First Vice-President; Mrs. May L. 
Cheney, '83, Second Vice-President ; James K. Moffitt, '86, 
Treasurer; Gurden Edwards, '07, Secretary. The follow- 
ing were ratified as hold-over Councilors : T. A. Perkins, '96, 
Frank Otis, '73, Scott Hendricks, '04, Leander Van Orden, 
D. '94, terms expiring 1909. Elected Councilors, terms ex- 
piring 1910 : Charles S. Greene, '86, John A. Brewer, '03, 
A. J. Cloud, '00. Representatives of the Affiliated Colleges : 
Medicine, Edith Brownsill, M. '04 ; Pharmacy, Haydn Sim- 
mons, P. '95 ; Dentistry, Guy S. Millberry, D. '01. The fol- 
lowing were elected as the Board of Administration of the 
LeConte Memorial Fellowship, the President of the Associa- 
tion being ex-officio chairman : William E. Ritter, '88, term 
expiring 1912; P. E. Bowles, '82, term expiring 1911; 
Charles S. Greene, '86, term expiring 1910; J. N. LeConte, 
'91, Secretary, term expiring 1909. 

The Board of Administration of the 

LECONTE FELLOW LcContc Fellowship, after considering 

FOR 1908-9 the applications of seven candidates, 

elected Julius Klein, '07, as Fellow for 

1908-09. He will pursue work under the direction of the 

Department of History. The Fund at present is a little 

over $10,000 and the income for the year will be $500. 


After the business meeting the annual 
THE ANNUAL luncheou was held in Strawberry Cafion ; 
LUNCHEON about two hundred were present and 

President O'Neill called upon Regents 
F. W. Dohrmann and W. H. Crocker, Messrs. J. H. Pond, 
'84, A. H. Allen, '98, Frank Otis, '73, Harry Jenkins, '08, 
and several others for informal speeches. After the lunch- 
eon the alumni joined the Commencement procession and 
attended the exercises in a body. 

The class of 1908 has left the Univer- 
THE NEW sity with thoroughly well organized 

ALUMNI alumni spirit. Their first act was to 

issue to all of the reunion classes per- 
sonal invitations to attend the Commencement exercises, an 
inovation greatly appreciated by the alumni and one which 
it is hoped will become a custom with future graduating 
classes. Sayre Macneil, Commencement speaker for the 
Academic colleges, delivered an address on ''The Duty of 
the New Alumni Toward the University," which is printed 
in full in this issue of the Chronicle. As a definite start 
for their permanent class organization, the Senior Record 
was published, containing, besides the college history of 
the class, a list of the permanent addresses of the members, 
a locality directory, and the constitution of the permanent 
organization. This constitution provides for the permanent 
class officers, a class reunion during Commencement week 
three years from graduation, five years after graduation, 
and every five years thereafter, and a banquet each year for 
the men of the class on the evening before the intercollegiate 
football game. No regular dues were established, but a 
permanent fund was set aside from the surplus in the treas- 
ury which will produce enough income to meet the current 
expenses of the secretary. 


Inasmuch as a very considerable num- 
ALUMNi OF ber of the graduates of the Affiliated 

THE AFFILIATED ,^ ,, " . . ,, , £ ^x, 

COLLEGES Collec;es, recognizing the plan oi the 

Constitution of the Alumni Association 
of the University of California, to unite all those who hold 
degrees either from the professional or academic colleges 
into one big organization, have paid their dues to the gen- 
eral Association, and are therefore receiving the Chronicle, 
arrangements have been made to increase materially the 
amount of matter of particular interest to them. With this 
end in view. Miss C. M. Roehr, P. '04, has been asked to 
act as assistant editor for the College of Pharmacy, Dr. 
Guy S. Millberry, D. '01, for the College of Dentistry, and 
other similar arrangements will be made if possible for 
Hastings and the College of Medicine. The Alumni As- 
sociations of these colleges have been advised that the 
Alumni Department of the Chronicle is always at their 



Dental Alumni Banquet. 

The annual banquet of the Alumni Association of the dental de- 
partment of the University of California was held at the Fairmont 
on the evening of May 12. Dr. Harold L. Seager, president of the As- 
sociation, was toastmaster. Dr. J. G. Sharp spoke on "The College 
and its Alumni." Dr. Guy S. Millberry chose for his topic, "The 
Alumni Association," and Dr. J. D. Hodgen paid a tribute to the 
women, and Dr. Edwin G. Smyth responded in behalf of the senior 
class. The singing of Miss Marion Gumming and Perry W. Gorham 
was a feature of the entertainment. 

Seattle Club. 

Steps were taken at the meeting of the University of California 
club of Seattle, held on April 18, to induce the State of California 
to put the money that she will appropriate for the Alaska- Yukon- 
Pacific exposition into a permanent building that can be used after 
the exposition by the university of the State of Washington. F. H. 
Darling of Edmunds, president of the club, is now in communication 
with Chairman Filcher of the California commission to the exposition 
in regard to the proposed permanent building. W. H. Pillsbury, one 
of the debaters of the University of California at the debate with 
Washington was the guest of honor at the club dinner on the above 
date. Twenty-five graduates were present. 

Class Eeunions. 

On the evening of Monday, May 11, the class of '79 gathered for 
its twenty-ninth anniversary at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. J. L. 
Scotchler, 2214 Atherton street, Berkeley. Messages were received 
from far across the continent bearing greetings of absent members 
and tidings of good cheer and hopes for future reunions. There were 
present: Judge and Mrs. Charles W. Slack, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. B. 
Willcutt, Professor and Mrs. Edmond O'Neill, Mr. and Mrs. T. A. 
McMahon, Mr. and Mrs. E. V. Cowell, Mr. and Mrs. J. Carl Everett, 
Mr. and Mrs. John McHenry, Miss Anna Head, Mrs. William Keith, 
E. A. Poppe, Mr. and Mrs. George A. Stanley, Mr. and Mrs. Leon 
Sloss, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Chapman, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Irving, 


Mr. and Mrs. Signmnd Stern, Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Smith, Miss Milli- 
cent W. Sliinn, Charles Butters, George Kelsey and daughter, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. H. Tinning, J. H. Henderson, Miss H. E. Whirlow, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. E. Zander, Miss Sarah Bolton, John H. Wheeler, E. G. 
Knapp, Adair Welcker, James A. Morrow, Charles F. Gompertz, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. L. Scotchler and familv. 


The twenly-fifth anniversary of the graduation of the class of 1883 
was celebrated by a well attended and pleasant reunion and banquet 
at the Hotel Victoria, in San Francisco, on Saturday evening. May 
16. Appropriate toasts were proposed and responded to by Mrs. May 
L. Cheney, and by Messrs. Burk, Conner, Deamer, Earl, Fife, Grady, 
Thorne and Walcott. John H. Hansen was re-elected class President, 
and "William "W. Deamer was elected Secretary. 


The Class of '98 held its tenth annual dinner at the California 
Club on the evening of May 9. President Philip Thayer introduced 
A. H. Allen as toastmaster. Professor 'Neill of the chemistry de- 
partment of the university, former Yell Leader Edward Eainey and 
District Attorney Everett Brown of Alameda county made the after- 
dinner speeches. A letter was read from James Hopper, the writer, 
and P. M. NewhaU, and J. E. McGuire sent their congratulations from 
the diamond fields of South Africa. A fund of several hundred dol- 
lars for the erection of Alumni Hall at Berkeley was raised. 


The class of 1902 held a reunion on the evening of May 13, at 
Town and Gown Hall, Berkeley. This reunion was intended to take 
the place of the quinquennial reunion which was not held last 
year. Some thirty members of the class attended. A business meet- 
ing of the class was held for the purpose of electing a President to 
succeed Winfield Dorn, whose term expired, and a Secretary to suc- 
ceed Alex. Adler, who died some time ago. Mr. Dorn was elected to 
succeed himself and T. J. Bacigalupi was elected Secretary. The 
meeting then adjourned, and was followed by a banquet. The rest of 
the evening was spent in dancing. There were no formal speeches 
or any toastmaster, but just a pleasant gathering. It is the intention 
of the class to hold these meetings every year, as well as a large gath- 
ering at the football dinner for the men of the class. 



Seventy-five members of the class of 1903 attended the first quin- 
quennial reunion of that class held on the afternoon and evening of 
May 9. A brief class meeting was held in Eoora 101, California 
Hall at four o'clock, at which reports of class oflSeers were received, 
and plans made for the class acti\'ities during the coming five years. 
A pilgrimage about the university campus followed the class meet- 
ing. The members visited in turn the new Mining Building, the Greek 
Theatre and North Hall steps, at which last place a number of the old 
songs were sung. In the evening the class assembled at a banquet at 
the Hotel Carlton, Berkeley. The table was arranged in the form of 
a large "C," and artistically decorated. Audubon J. Woolsey, Presi- 
dent of the class, acted as toastmaster. The toasts responded to were 
as follows: "Our Freshman Year," J. Sterry Lamson; ''The Sopho- 
more Year, ' ' Sumner S. Smith ; ' ' The Junior Year, ' ' S. Bruce Wright ; 
"The Senior Year," Earle C. Anthony; "The Girls of the Class," 
Miss Grace Barnett; "in Memoriam," Herbert W. Furlong; "Those 
Who Couldn't Come," Eobert A. Waring. At the close of his re- 
marks the last speaker read a poem written by John M. JSTewkirk, de- 
scribing in feeling manner the sentiments of ' ' The Man Who Couldn 't 
Come." At ten o'clock those present adjourned to Wilkins Hall, 
where an informal dance was held. This furnished an appropriate 
close to a most successful day. It was practically decided to hold 
the class reunions every three years hereafter. At the meeting held 
during the quinquennial reunion it was decided to publish a book of 
the class of 1903, which should aid the members in keeping informed 
of the present activities and addresses of all those who graduated with 
1903 or who affiliated with the class while in college. A committee 
consisting of Bruce Wright, chairman, Miss Martha Miller, Miss Ethel 
Jones, Walter J. Burpee, Fred E. Reed, Charles F. Gilcrest, and the 
President and Secretaries has been appointed to take charge of the 
work. The committee has sent to all members of the class blank cards 
calling for the information desired for the Class Book. If any mem- 
bers have failed to receive these cards or have misplaced them, they 
are invited to notify one of the class secretaries of the fact. It is 
hoped to have the book ready for distribution early in September. It 
will be attractively bound, and will contain much information that wiU 
be of value to the members of the class. Its price will be one dollar, 


The class of 1905 held its triennial reunion banquet and ball in 
Hearst Hall on May 8. Upwards of two hundred men and women 
who were affiliated with the class were present. The banquet was held 


in the lower room of Hearst Hall. Eugene E. Hallet acted as toast- 
master and chief of ceremonies. Toasts were responded to as follows: 
"How to Train the Young,"' Miss Edith E. Nichols; "The Co-ed 
Girl," Miss Varina Morrow; "Class Spirit," Miss Florence Eortson; 
"Graduate Queening," Reginald Kittrelle; "Why Not New York?" 
Emil Nathan; "The Girl Called Comrade," William Clark Crittenden; 
* ' Side Lights from Abroad, ' ' Augustin C. Keane ; ' ' The Alumni, ' ' 
Kalph Merritt, '07. The dance followed and was held in the upper 
room of Hearst Hall. 

News of the Classes. 

Note. — Under each class there is a list of addresses wanted. 
The letter D indicates the College of Dentistry; M, Medicine; L, 
Hastings College of the Law; P, Pharmacy; the others are graduates 
of the Academic Colleges. Anyone having the desired information is 
requested to send it to the Alumni Secretary, University of California, 
immediately, so that the Directory of Graduates can be made as com- 
plete and correct as possible. 

Eev. Albert F. Lyle, Secretary, 203 South Sixth st. Newark, N. J. 

Addresses wanted: 
Ferdinand Damour, M. William P. Welch, M. 

John C. Handy, M. 


John R. Glascock, Secretary, 2720 Derby st., Berkeley. 

Address wanted: 
E. J. C. Drinkhouse, M. 

L. J. Hardy, Jr., Secretary, 616 E. 24th st., Oakland. 

Addresses wanted: 
E. T. Barber, M. Marin B. Lingo, M. 

Charles A. Garter. Clarence F. Townsend. 

Granville Heavitt, M. 

Addresses wanted: 
John Cairns, M. Thomas W. Shelton, M. 

Thomas C. Hansen, M. John Steely, M. 



Clinton Day, Secretary, 2747 Bancroft way, Berkeley. 

Address wanted: 
G. Walz, M. 


D. T. Fowler, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce BIdg., Los Angeles. 
Addresses wanted: 

J. J. Clark, M. J. S. Webber, M. 

W. A. Cochran, M. A. J. Younger, M. 

Hiram P. Tuttle, M. 

EoBT. McKee, Secretaiy, 855 Broadway, Oakland. 
Addresses wanted : 
John H. Mackenzie, M. John J. Seawall, M. 


F. A. Whitworth, Secretary, 612 New York Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Address wanted: 
Charles B. Learned. 

Frank Otis, Secretary, 1609 Santa Clara ave., Alameda. 

J. C. EowELL, Secretary, Library, University of California. 
Addresses wanted: 
Leonard J. Lynch. L. Robinson, M. 

George E. Nottage, M. 

Frank P. Deering, Secretary, Union Trust Bldg., San Francisco. 
Addresses wanted: 
Chas. T. Boardman. Samuel R. Rhodes. 

John F. Colbreath, M. Edwin J. Schelhaus, M. 

W. P. Gummer. William P. Smith, M. 

Thomas W. Harris, M. Charles M. Swann, M. 

Isaac T. Hinton. W. Turkington. 

Robert C. Meyers, P. 


Dr. Arthur W. Scott, Secretary, Girls' High School, San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted : 

Victor A. Chaigneau, M. Albert G. Quinlan, M. 

William H. Chamberlain. Frederick E. Eay, P. 

T. J. Fitspatrick. James Rorke, M. 

J. W. Kirkwood, M. Thomas W. Seawell, M. 

James M. Powell, M. George W. Summers, M. 

Peter T. Eiley, Secretary, 2119 Bush st., San Francisco. 
George E. De GoUa has moved his law offices to the Oakland Bank 
of Sa\'ings Building, Eoom 613. 

Addresses wanted: 

Gregory F. McCall, M. George A. Eeich, M. 

James J. McDonald, M. S. P. Wharton, M. 

G. Eeed, Jr. E. M. Weis, M. 


Mrs. A. F. Morrison, Secretary, 2022 California st., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Abram C. Bradford. Edward S. Parker, P. 


E. G. Knapp, Secretary, Sacramento, California. 

Addresses wanted: 

Henry H. Howell, M. Louis P. Messing, P. 

Lewis J. Hughes, M. Agnes M. Sparks, M. 

Herman F. Jantzen. Edward A. Younger, M. 

Dr. A. A. D'Ancona has resigned as Secretary of the class because 
of the pressure of other duties. He has recently been appointed 

Addresses wanted: 
E. L. Collins. Louis Heintzelman Long. 

John P. Gray. William P. Morrison, P. 

Harry E. Havens. L. A. Sabey, M. 

G. L. Hughes. 


George M. Gumming, Secretary, 3623 Sixteenth st., San Francisco. 
Addresses wanted: 
Edward M. Beardsley, M. W. F. N. Hurtzig, P. 

Ernest Brand, L. John H. Lucas, L. 

James M. Dewitt, P. Joseph Rosenthal, L. 

George H. Filham, M. Gustavo Touchard, Jr., L. 

EuFUS A. Berry, Secretary, 2148 Center st., Berkeley. 

Addresses wanted: 
Herbert L. Adams, L. George W. Marks, L. 

Marshall H. Arnold, L. Frank de F. Miller, L. 

Isaac G. Burnett, L. Farrand E. Stranahan, L. 

C. W. Hibbard, D. Samuel Tevis, L. 

L. V. Hitchcock, L. James W. Tryon, P. 

E. Hitlzeimer, L. Frank P. Wickersham, L. 

Eobert D. Jackson, P. David Wight, P. 

Samuel M. Levy. 

Wm. W. Deamer, Secretary, 1031 Fillmore street, San Francisco. 

Mrs. May L. Cheney has resumed her work as Appointment Secre- 
tary of the University after a year's leave of absence spent abroad, 
chiefly in Paris. 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry J. Borda, M. William W. Knott, L. 

Emily Buckhout (Mrs. J. A. Baker)Emile C. Meroy, M. 
Eugene Del Mar, L. Henry Miller, L. 

Francis T. Hoburg, L. Thomas J. Shackleford, L. 

J. P. Kelley, L. William S. Wagner, L. 

Chas. L. Huggins, Secretary, 2313 Channing way, Berkeley. 

Gustav Eietzke, D.D.S., has opened his new dental oflSices at 206 
Pacific Building, San Francisco. 

Dr. Josephine E. Barbat, formerly at 639 Cole street, is now at St. 
Winifred's Pharmacy, 1057 Sutter street, San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry A. Ball, P. George W. Leohr, P. 

William A. Beatty, L. '87. Edward D. McCabe, L. 

J. G. Day, M. Isabella J. Miller. 

Theodore R. Finley, L. Henry F, Price, L. 

Frank H. Gates, M. Frank E. Williams, L. 

Archibald D. Gleaves, D. 



Kev. W. A, Brewer, Secretary, Burlinganie, Calif. 

Addresses wanted: 

Gcorp;e T. Beaislev, P. W. E. Fitzpatriek, D. 

Henry S. Bettis, D. Prescott B. Glidden, L. 

Daniel B. Gate, D. O. J; Mayer, P., M. '96. 

George W. Cool, D. William J. Patton, P. 

William J. Davis, P. Joseph Schneider, D. 

Ealph G. Dorrance, P. Harry H. Skilling, P. 

G. T. Clark, Secretary, Stanford University. 
Addresses wanted : 

William G. Brittan, L. 
Ernest S. Brown, M. 
Alice Chapman. 
Hector L. Couret, D. 
Nicholas A. Givovich, D. 
Samuel P. Hughes, P. 

John G. Humphrey, D. 
Charles L. Morgan, P., M. 
Lincoln E. Savage, L. 
Louis D. Schwitters, L. 
Jackson L. Shrader, L. 
William W. B. Stevens, L. 


Warren Gregory, Secretary, ^Merchants' 

Addresses wanted: 
E. L. Davis, D. 
Frederick W. Driscoll, P. 
George H. Francoeur, L. 
Richard Gibson, L. 
George J. Glaze, M. 
Martin G. Loefler, L. 
Milburn H. Logan, P. 
Ella C. McNeeley. 

Exchange Building, San 

C. A. Seifert, P. 
J. M. Simpson, D. 
Lawrence E. Thompson, L. 
Xathan Vidaver, L. 
Tey Wantanabe, M. 
Joseph S. Warren, P. 
John F. Wilkinson. 

Geo. a. Merrill, Secretary, 16th and Utah sts., San Francisco. 
Addresses wanted: 

Monroe E. Alexander, M. 
Adolph G. Bussenius, P. 
Melvin B. Estes, M. 
George E. Flint, P. 
W. H. Fowler, L. 
David L. Henderson, P. 

John L. Kelly, M. 
James H. McCarthy, P. 
James J. Molony, P., M. '91. 
Mayella G. Murphy. 
William C. Wallace, L. 
Thomas J. White, P. 



G. E. LuKENS, Secretary, Syndicate Building, Oakland. 
Addresses wanted: 

Eobert E. Bunker, M. 
J. L. Flaherty. 
Christopher C. Gleaves, M. 
Frank B. Heider, P. 
Herbert S. Herrick, L. 
Edward E. Holmes, M. 
H. J. Jory. 

Masajasu Kawakani, M. 
Mary E. McLean. 

Frances E. Mart (Mrs. Green), M. 

Francis D. Murphy. 

J. A. Oliver, M. 

Ambrose E. O'Neil, P. 

Edward W. Prat, D. 

Wilfred E. Proctor. 

G. C. Zeyn, M. 

Lawrence E. Williams, P. 


EosEMARY Dobbins, Secretary, 2600 Warring st., Berkeley. 
William F. Sharp, D.D.S., has removed his offices to the Union 
Square Building on Post street, between Stockton and Powell streets, 
San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 

Louis S. Aitken, P. Edward Lagan, M. 

J. H. Gary. Charles S. Mann, M. 

Eichard F. Dean. - Ada H, Eamsdall. 

Hubert P. Dyer. F. W. Eowe, P. 

Paul C. Erhardt, D. • Charlotte Spring, M. 

Jabes A. Jenkins. Kirby B. Smith, P. 

John J. Keef e, P. Harry H. Timken, L. 

Albert L. Ehrman, Secretary, 

Addresses wanted: 
Arthur F. Allen. 
H. C. Baldwin. 
Joseph L. Cerf, P. 
Cosmor B. Clark, L. 
George E. Coleman. 
Francis J. Collin, P. 
Adrian C. Ellis, Jr., L. 
Charles L. Griswald, D. 
Edward L. Grossman, P. 
Dowen F. Hance, P. 
Edwin C. Hyde, D. 
Henry Ladd, P. 
F. Levetti, i-'. 


212 California st., San Francisco, 

John M. McDonald, M. 

George L. Olds, P. 

Marie G. Olson, M. 

F. H. Orton, D. 

S. S. Prosser, P. 

John W. Satterwhite, L. 

H. Schwartz, P. 

H. H. Shaw, D. 

Edwin D. Smith, L. 

Eobert L. Sutherland, M. 

Wallace L. Thompson, L. 

H. A. Tobin, L. 

Paul Wecksler, P. 




Albert C. Aiken, Secretary, 34 Ellis st., San Francisco. 

James G. Sharp, D.D.S., Dean of the College of Dentistry, is con- 
templating a trip East with his family, during July and August, com- 
bining business and pleasure. The chief motive of his trip is to aid 
in the establishment of a University Dental Faculties Association, for 
the purpose of promoting and maintaining higher standards of Dental 
Education and establishing reciprocal relations with leading colleges. 

Addresses wanted: 

Frederick Cogswell, P. 

E. E. Crook (Mrs. McCay), M. 

Lafayette N. Des Marias, P. 

J. H. Gray. 

Robert H. Hawkes, P. 

Frederick L. Janeck, P. 

Ernest K. Johnston, M. 

Charles "W. Jones, L. 
J. A. Xelson, M. 
George W. Ogden, M. 
Samuel S. Peck, P. 
Chester B. Pooler, P. 
G. T. Stone. 

Walter H. Henry, Secretary, 630 Vernon st., Oakland. 
Walter S. Brann, manager of the University of California football 
team for the year 1893, recently filed articles of incorporation in Oak- 
land for the Consolidated Burner and Fuel Company. Brann is a di- 

Addresses wanted : 

John W. Aird, M. 
Hubert F. Bagley, P. 
Clarence A. Chapman, P. 
Paul S. Coke, D. 
F. C. Deacon. 

Frederick C. G. Flesher, M. 
George A. Green, P. 
Walter M. Hedrick, P. 
C. P. Hirst, P. 
Edward S. Horton, M. 

Edgar A. Kelley, L. 
C. W. Leach. 
C. W. Lynch, L. 
William B. McKenny, P. 
Carl L. Mendel, P. 
ScoUay Parker, P. 
Corydon B. Eoot, D., M. '94. 
Sidney H. Schrader, M. 
Mary E. Spooner. 
Matthew S. Wise, P. 

Benjamin Weed, Secretary, 2nd and Folsom sts., San Francisco. 
Oscar N. Taylor has been re-engaged for the coming season to 
coach the University Rugby team. 

Myrtle Walker was married on March 1 to Mr. Walter G. Perrine. 



Addresses wanted: 
Edward F. Bandel, P. 
Abraham Bergiund, L. 
Clarence F. Bickenson, M. 
Joseph H. Blum, P. 
John E. Booth, M. 
Henrietta Byrne. 
John E. Coffer, L. 
Francis J. Conlon, P. 
Frances A. Dean. 
A. Greth, M. 
John T. Handsaker. 
Walter S. Jewell, D. 
William D. Jewett. 

Julian O. Kelton, P. 
Sophia Lane. 
J. H. Knight, L. 
Martin B. Macinnis, M, 
Mary Morrison, M. 
Frank L. Potter, P. 
Eichard F. Puck, P. 
C. E. Quigley, L. 
Fenelon M. Eeith, M. 
Sheffield S. Sanborn. 
Neli A. Sime, M. 
Bertha I. Stone, P. 
Thomas C. Taylor. 


Mrs. ViDA Eedington Volkhardt, Secretary, 2827 Deakin st., 


A daughter, Cecily Beatrice, was born to the wife of Charles J. 
Fox Jr., on April 17 in Los Angeles. 

A daughter, Dorothy Britten, was born to the wife of John E. 
Hardy, D.D.S., on April 1 in San Diego. 

Addresses wanted: 

John J. Grafton, M. 
Edward S. Holloway, D. 

Harry L. Alexander. 
Mary G. Allen. 
Joseph C. Badilla, M. 
Frank C. Becker, P. 
Louis L. Bernheim. 
Arthur Brand, L. 
Willard W. Butler, L. 
John F. Christopher, P. 
Ealph C. Coleman, D. 
Ella M. Cook. 
J. Wirt Cummins, P. 
Eugene M. Dodson, D. 
Frank W. Dudley, M. 
Mario Escobar. 
Walter Everett, L. 
Charles D. Fairbanks, P. 
Adelina M. Feder, M. 

Henry Horn. 
George E. Hyde, M. 
Hammond J. McCallum, M. 
Tatsuniro Magario. 
Harold E. Monser. 
Margaret A. Quinton. 
William T. Ehea. 
T. G. Eobinson, L. 
W. E. Singleton, D. 
Charles W. Smyth, L. 
Fred L. Stewart, L. 
J. E. Strachan. 
Arthur C. Turner. 
Frederick G. Ullman, P. 
E. E. Waterman, D. 


Mrs. Clara Henky Lothjerback, Secretary, 2713 Derby st., Berkeley. 
A recent issue of Petermanns MitteUungen (Germany) cites ap- 
provingly Arthur North 's map of San Pedro Martir Sierra appearing 
in the December, 1907, issue of the Bulletin of the American Geograph- 
ical Society, while a number of Mexican journals have reproduced in 
Spanish his article on ' ' The Eesources of Lower California, ' ' which 
was published in the December, 1907, number of the Bulletin of the 
International Bureau of American Republics. The April Review of 
Reviews accords to Mr. North's "Story of Magdalena Bay" appear- 
ing in the Suriset Magazine for ^larch, 1908, first place in its Ust of 
leading American magazine articles for that month. The Chicago 
Inter-Occan of April 4, 1908, devotes a column to a favorable review 
of Mr. North's new book, "The Mother of California." The re- 
viewer, in closing, says, ' ' The writer has a pleasing style and his work 
is at once informative to the student of history and interesting to the 
general reader. There are many illustrations, a special map and an 
index. Probably in no one book can be found anything like the in- 
formation contained in this." This western writer's work has, indeed, 
received general approval from the eastern reviewers. In the course 
of a critical resume of "The Mother of California" appearing in the 
Washington (D.C.) Star of April 11, 1908, the re%-iewer states, "This 
publication is a beautiful specimen of book making. The subject mat- 
ter, moreover, is of unusual interest. The book contains most vivid 
descriptions. It is a pioneer work in a new field." 

Addresses wanted: 

Geo. Abrams, D. Louise Hawkins (Mrs. Moore). 

Helen Anderson, M. S. W. Hilliard, D. 

Daisy M. Bowen, P., L. '05. Wm. J. Jackson, P. 

Elizabeth Blanchard. Lillie IT. Kalman. 

C. H. Bowman, D. Ichitaro Katsuki, M. 

Herbert S. Bradford, L. Eugene A. Kiely, P. 

Edgar Bridgewater, P. Christine B. Labarraque, L. '99. 

William D. Chace, M. Naomi G. MacDonald (Mrs. 

W. N. Clark, D. N. G. Lane), D. 

Edwin E. Cox, Jr. L. T. Merwin. 

Henry D. Danforth. George W. Minstrell, P. 

Grace Feder, M. George T. Moore, P. 

Lewis A. Gibbons, L. Brayton Muscott, M. 

Amy Gilbert (Mrs. Bov^^nan), D. J. H. O'Brien, M. 

Joseph T. Harrigan, M. William H. I. O'Malley, M. 

George M. Harris, D. Wallace E. Parkman, M. 



Helen G. Eeynolds, P. 
Anna Sa'wyer (Mrs. Sturgis), D. 
Otto Scholl, P. 
F. J. Smith, D. 
John T. Stafford, M. 
Mary J. Stewart (Mrs. A. W. Mar- Alberto Trevino, M 
shaU), M. 

Stephen L. Sullivan, L. 
Newton B. Waller, M. 
William H. Ware, D. 
Gilbert S. Walker. 
Howard T. Trumbo, L. 

John D. Hatch, Secretary, 

Addresses wanted : 
Julian W. Ashley, D. 
John F. Baldwin. 
H. A. Barre. 

Benjamin A. Bosqui, D. 
Cyril Brackenbury. 
William H. Butler, P. 
William E. Cole. 
Holton C. Curl, M. 
Daniel L. Donnelly, L. 
Edith J. Duffy (Mrs. E. J. D. 

B. F. Greenbaum, L. 
Thomas A. Hickey, M. 
Erie G. Hockabout. 
Samuel D. Huntington, M. 
William I. Hupp. 
Y. Kuno. 

Melville E. Lubosch, P. 
William A. Lynn. 

805 Arlington av., Berkeley. 

Albert L. McKay, P. 
Frank A. McMabon, M. 
Julius I. Morris, D. 
Charles W. Morse. 
William Muller, P. 
Thos. H. Quirk, D. 
G. W. Eaymond, D. 
Harry G. Eeynolds, D. 
Frank O. Eobinson, D. 
Peter Eock, P. 
Samuel E. Eodgers. 
Fannie E. Scott, D. 
Henry Stiles, D. 
Francis P. Taylor, L. 
Jessie G. Turner. 
T. E. Wheeler, D. 
Pereival W. Willis. 
Martha Wood. 


Marie J. McKinley, Secretary, 161 Alpine st., San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 
Henry G. Allen, D. William L. Bell, M. 

Emile C. Armand, P. • Spencer Bishop. 

John H. Atkins, D. 
Theodore H. Barnes. 
Cosam J. Bartlett, M. 
H. H. Beaucamp, P. 

Allan C. Burdick. 
Herbert M. Butler. 
Marian Etta Bybee. 
Edwin Callaway, M. 



Joseph P. Chamberlain, L. 
H. K. Church, L. 
William L. Collier. 
A. J. Dii'kie. 
Maurice L. Euphrat. 
Silas W. Geis. 
Edward D. Giroux, M. 
Fred W. Grimwood. 
Kinhei Hayakawa. 
Wildric F. Hynes. 
Andrew R. Jackson. 
William P. Jarvis. 
W. M. Jeffreys. 
Edna Jones. 
Perley C. Jones, D. 
S. P. Jones. 
Minnie Jordan, D. 
J. S. Keane (Vet. S.). 
Grant A. Laughlin, L. 
Frank E. Lockwood, P. 
Ralph W. Lohman. 
Robert R. McGregor. 
Charles L. McPike, D. 
Gertrude E. MeVenn. 
Alfred H. Marchant. L. 

Frederick C. Miller, M. 
Walter H. Morgan. 
Bertha Newell. 
William H. Ott, P. 
Harriet A. Parsons. 
E. K. Payne, L. 
Elinor D. Pratt, L. 
G. J. Rector. 
James G. Reed. 
Oscar C. Reeve. 
Julian F. Rosenberg. 
Theodore F. Rosenthal. 
Frederick W. Ruhser, P. 
Franklin T. Scott, D. 
Grace H. Sharp. 
Annie L. Sharkley. 
George H. Stewart, D. 
R. S. Stewart. 
Edward P. Tobin, L. 
William H. Wakefield. 
William A. Walden, D. 
Mary E. Wellman. 
Jean I. Worthington, D. 
Una Y. Yanagisawa, M. 
J. Audley Young. 



Milton Newmark, Secretary, 250 Montgomery st., San Francisco. 

Joseph L. Beretta, LL.B., announces the removal of his law offices 
to rooms 610 to 612 Hibernia Building, Jones street near Market 
street, San Francisco; telephone 1700. 

D. G. Aplin is president of the Imperial Water Company Number 
One, in the Imperial Valley, California. 

A son, Benjamin Graber, was born to Mrs. C. E. Jones (Ada 
Graber) on February 14. 

A son, Robert, was born to the wife of William Durbrow April 3. 

Charlotte Hoffman was married in the gardens of the Villa Orelo, 
Florence, Italy, on May 4 to Professor Vernon Kellog of Stanford. 

A daughter, Elizabeth Taylor, was born to the wife of Clarence 
Herriott at Hangchow, China, on May 22. 



Addresses wanted: 
William M. Beard, L. 
May Blossom, D. 
Belle Bowden (Mrs. F. K. 
r. W. Borden, L. 
Mary E. Christal, P. 
Helena Cohen. 
J. A. Colegrove, D. 
James A. Craig, L. 
Anna B. P. Croall, D. 
F. M. Duncan, P. 
Nelson A. Eckart. 
Henry A. Geisendorfer. 
Frederick T. Grant, D. 
, Walter J. Hennesey, M. 
Olga Heyman. 
Elbert Hiserman. 
Burt E. Hooper. 
Raimondo Jadarola, P. 

William F. Kingsbury. 
Charles F. Kuster, D. 
Jenks). William J. Lawson, D. 
J. B. F. Millar, D. 
Harry C. Moore, P. 
J. M. Murray (Vet. S.). 
Alice Porter (Mrs. Ware) 
Matthew A. Sammett. 
Albert P. Seymour, P. 

F. M. Simpson. 
Katharine Stack. 
Maud M. Taylor. 
E. O. Whitney, D. 

•John Jarvis Williams, D. 

G. A. Wright, L. 
Helen E. Youman. 
Edward L. Young. 


Frank W. Aitken, Secretary, 3663 Washington st., San Francisco. 

A son, Hubert, was born to the wife of Hubert C. Eller, D.D.S., 
on April 14. 

Alfred Skaif e was married on June 16 to Miss Amy MacCarty. 

Addresses wanted: 
Edith M. Allen 
Frank W. Anderson, D. 
Ruth H. Armstrong (Mrs. H. L. 

W. L. Bowron. 
Thomas M. Carmichael, D. 
Edward I. Clawiter, L. 
Ernestine Doychert, M. 
William T. S. Doyle, L. 
Robert H. Eveleth, P. 
Warren F. Geary, P. 
David Goodale. 
Walter Griffiths, L. 
John J. A. Hay. 
James B. Herreshoff, Jr. 

Walter E. Jackson, P. 
Margaret McCowan. 
Aloysius P. Mallon. 
Tadataro Miyabe, M. 
Fred L. Morris. 
James D. Mortimer. 
Peter Obsvig, M. 
Totaro H. Ohhara. 
Adel A. Parker. 
Henry J. Phillips, D. 
Wallace W. Reading, D. 
J. R. Robinson. 
Samuel R. Rodgers, L. 
Grace A. Sullivan. 
Alice C. Ward, P. 



Jesse Steinhart, Secretary, 827 Eddy st., San Francisco. 
E. W. O 'Brieu, D.D.S., has opened his office over the Bank of 
Eichmond, Point Eichmoud, California. 

William J. Murphy, M.D., died in April on board the steamship 
San Juan, to which he was attached as surgeon, in the port of Mazat- 

Elery J. Loagor has been appointed foreman of the refinery of the 
United States Mint in San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 

Edward L. Betterton, D. 
J. S. Bright. 
H. S. Britt. 
Ella M. Bunnel. 
Ealph E. Burns, D. 
Ernest G. Callender, P. 
Charles S. Chandler, L. 
Philip S. Clapp, P. 
Mary S. Cooper. 
James S. Domeniconi, D. 
John W. Douglass, L. 
O. Eastland, P. 
Guy W. Eddy. 
J. W. J. Enright, P. 
T. E. Farrell, P. 
Martin Espinosa, D. 
Edith Gaddis. 
Alfred E. Goldstein. 
Laurence L. Greene. 
Melvin S. Griffiths. 
Marcella Gunning. 

Fred B. Hart, L. '03, 
Anna L. Hudgens, D. 
John D. Illia, P. 
John L. A. Jaunet, L. 
Herman Kronenberg, P. 
John V. Leonard, M. 
Hugh M. Love. 
F. L. Morong, M. 
Henry D. Morse. 
Oney M. Nicely. 
Eobert Pateck. 
Clara C. Piper (Mrs. Dillon). 
Eobert C. Eamage, P. 
Eleanor M. Eussell. 
W. A. Shuey. 
Taichi Tanabe. 
T. D. Trueworthy, P. 
Amy Van Deerlin (Mrs. Irish). 
Lilian C. Versalovich (Mrs. J. 

T. J. Bacigalupi, Secretary, Flood Building, San Francisco. 

William H. Poppert was married recently to Helena Struckmeyer 
in Colusa. 

Charles S. Cavanaugh, D.D.S., died on February 4. 

Addresses wanted: 

William A. Barnhill, L. C. N. Bertels. 

Harriet L. Blackburn, P. Bonfield Bowman. 

C. W. Benjamin, D. Will D. Carlisle, D. 


Chin-tas Chen. Edward A. Nis. 

Harold M. Childs. Kotaro Nishikawa. 

J. S. Colbath. Mary L. Poage. 

William H. Cooper. Frank L. Putnam, M. 

J. D. Elliot, P. Horace M. Kamsey. 

John W. Foley, P. F. H. Eedewill. 

Walter D. Hambleton, D. E. H. Ehoades, D. 

P. C. Hartman, D. Charles P. Eichmond. 

Alma J. Heger. Henry S. Eichmond. 

James S. Horovitz. Christopher H. Eowlands. 

Bessie Hutchins, P. Harriette W. Smith. 

Gus S. Levy, P. Seiichi M. Tamura. 

Percival J. Meyer, D. William H. Thompson, D. 

George H. Moore, L. Mary L. Thorpe (Mrs. Winkelman) 

Tokiehi Murakami. C. A. G. Weymouth. 

Chickara Nakano. Nancy L. Wilkins, D. 

Guy Needham, P. Henry E, Worley, L. 


John A. Brewer, Secretary, 770 Summit av., Oakland. 
Grace Barnett, Assistant Secretary, 2528 Eidge road, Berkeley. 

Arthur Markwart was married to Miss Marie Chesebrough on May 
26, at the Trinity Episcopal Church in Oakland. 

Ernest A. Bailey is assistant engineer for the Santa Cruz Portland 
Cement Co., and is at present engaged in the construction of the com- 
pany 's plant at Davenport, California. 

John Stewart is consulting chemist for the Amalgamated Sugar 
Company of Ogden, Lewiston and Logan, Utah. 

Earle C. Anthony is the manager of the Western Motor Car Com- 
pany of Los Angeles. He has recently made a tour of the eastern 

William W. Mackie, who has been with the United States Bureau 
of Soils in different states of the western coast for the last five years, 
is now in charge of the work of soil utilization in California for the 
United States Department of Agriculture, -with headquarters in the 
Post Office building at Sacramento. 

Edgar C. Levey, Alfred B. Weiler, J. Sherry Lawson, Edwin M. 
Otis, Duncan A. McLeod, William P. Caubu, J. J. Mazza, Joseph Gen- 
dotti, Edwin J. Hanson, Bruce Wright and John A. Brewer are prac- 
ticing law in San Francisco. James M. Koford is Deputy Town At- 
torney of Berkeley, and Walter J. Burpee Deputy District Attorney 


of Alameda County. T. Bell and Stanley J. Smith are in the legal 
department of the Eealty Syndicate in Oakland. Robert Waring is 
practicing law in Sacramento. 

Among the members of the class of 1903 who are engaged in the 
business of real estate about the bay, are Fred E. Reed, Ralph L. 
Langworthy, Alanson Swain, Fred W. Ilollman, Walter Stevens, 
George C. Davis and George Sessions. 

Benjamin F. Kierulff, Jr., was married on May 6th to Miss L. P. 
Vanderwoort, of Los Angeles. 

W. Kierulflf is head of the firm of B. F. Kierulff & Co., electric 
and telephone engineers and sales agents, with offices in Los Angeles, 
San Francisco and Portland, Oregon. 

Warren Bee was married on July 6 to Miss Mabel F. MacFarlane. 

William G. Davies was married in January to Miss Louise B. 
Flanders, '06. He is now civil engineer in charge of the design and 
construction of the distributing system of the Payette-Boise project 
of the United States reclamation service, with headquarters in Boise 
City, Idaho. 

Miss Edith Evans was married on the evening of June 18th to 
Herman Bierce Waters, a graduate of Cornell University. Mr. and 
Mrs. Waters will reside in San Luis Obispo, where Mr. Waters is at 
present engaged in electrical engineering work. 

The engagement is announced of Charles W. Petit to Miss Eliza- 
beth Arneill, '04. 

A. Boedefeld is in business as a grain broker at Colusa. 

Samuel J. Van Ornum is City Engineer of Pasadena. 

Harry G. Butler is Assistant City Engineer at Marshfield, Oregon. 

George M. Parker is assistant cashier of the First State Bank of 
Livingston, ^Montana. 

Fred H. Kreese is principal of the Vacaville Grammar School. 

Samuel C. Dickson is engaged in raisin growing and packing at 

Thornton A. Mills is minister of the church of the Christian Union 
(Independent) in Rockford, Illinois. He is to deliver a course of lec- 
tures in San Francisco early in July. 

Dr. George C. Sabichi, who played center on the 1903 freshman 
football team, is chief surgeon at the Yellow Aster Mine at Randsberg, 
Kern County. 

Benjamin Macomber is principal of the Shasta County High School 
at Redding. 


Henry B. Dewing has been for the last year an instructor in Greek 
at Yale University. 

Edward B. Gould is at present engaged in farming at Lindsay, 
Tulare County. 

Corinne Barry was married on June 21 to Mr. D. J. O'Connor of 

Bruce F. Brown is assistant manager of the California Paper and 
Board Mills at Antioch. 

Edgar F. Bougn has been for the last five years principal of the 
Hemet Union High School. 

Sumner Smith is mine superintendent at Winthrop, Shasta County. 

William H. Greenhalgh is Superintendent of Schools of Amador 

Arthur P. Lathrop is teller in the American National Bank of San 

William B. Haines is superintendent of ore sales at El Paso, Texas. 

John H. Grill was married on May 12th to Miss Ethel Gardner of 
Etna Mills, Siskiyou County. 

Lester Xewman is an interne at the German Hospital, San Fran- 

Lewis Elmore has returned from teaching in the government 
schools of Japan and is in charge of farming interests at Sebastopol. 

Charles C. Finn is secretary of the John Finn Metal Works, in 

^Milton G. Banner is engaged in the wholesale and retail millinery 
business in San Francisco with five stores. 

James Concannon is engaged in grape growing, wine making, cattle 
raising and general farming in the Livermore Valley. 

Horace Philips is foreman of the Santa Fe yards at Point Kich- 

James A. Thomas is assistant cashier of the Siskiyou County Bank 
in Yreka. 

Herbert Lee is Superintendent of Schools at Wallace, Idaho. 

Otto Schultze, M.D., was married to Miss Edith Curry in San 
Francisco on June 24. 

Charles A. Triebel is yard chemist at the United States Navy Yard 
on Mare Island. 

Herbert Keon is assistant chemist at the Navy Yard. 

James H. Wise is hydraulic engineer for the California Gas and 
Electric Corporation in San Francisco. 


George Siiiithsou is iustructor in English ])hilolog3- i" the Uni- 

Joseph V. Wrenn is an interne nt St. Luke's Hospital, San Fran- 

John E. Sutton is vice-principal of the Oakland High School. 

Clarence B. Crane is vice-principal of the Washington School, 

Beverly S. Allen, who has been instructor in English at the Uni- 
versity, will go to Harvard this year to take graduate work in English. 

Hari-y C. Vensano is assistant engineer with the California Gas and 
Electric Corporation. 

Clarence Murray is superintendent of construction at Trinity Cen- 
ter, Eichmond. 

Herbert L. Kimball is manager of the preserving and honey de- 
partment of the Pacific Coast Syrup Company, of San Francisco. 

Otto W. Peterson, who has been ill for the last year with ailments 
contracted while civil engineering in Mexico, has entirely recovered 
his health. 

Harry S. Gilbertson is teaching history in the Alameda High 

James W. Hamilton is teaching at Eio Vista. 

Franklyn Schwabacher is with the Floristou and Crown Pulp and 
Paper Co., with an office in San Francisco. 

The engagement has been announced of Charles Norris to Miss 
Kathleen Thompson of San Francisco. 

Addresses wanted: 

E. S. Abenheim. Jess T. Forsyth, P. 

Caroline Armstrong, P. M. H. Freidenrich. 

Totaro Asahina, D. W. V. Gaflfey, L. 
Winifred Atkins (Mrs. Couch). E. B. Gould. 

Jeanette Boardman F. A. Gowing. 

(Mrs. Ensign), D. Henrietta Hagan, M. 

Louis I. Breitstein. William S. Herreshoff. 

Adelina D. Cereghino, P. George A. Hodges, D. 

Carl L. Cook. D. W. Irvine, P. 

Bertram E. Corlett. John B. Jones, D. 

Edward F. Dunbar, D. Louis H. Kilpatrick, P. 

H. Button, P. Leonard T. Kitts. 

John E. Dyer, L. Kisatsuchi Koda. 

Lloyd E. Elwell. Elsie B. Leale (Mrs. F. B. John- 
Perry F. Farrington, P. stone). 

Oscar H. Folkers, P. Edward Leppien. 



H. H. Lissner, M. 
Frank Lorin, L. 
James A. McBain, D. 
Annie McCleave. 
William G. McGuire, M. 
C. L. McKown, M. 
Ethelwyn Mills. 
Thomas E. Morrissey. 
Katharine Nolan, P. 

Charles W. Petit. 
George A. Kaven. 
C. C. Eicks, D. 
Josephine Kosenberg. 
Mary B. Schmitz, P. 
Keijiro Tanaka. 
H. L. Taylor, D. 
C. I. Wright. 


Albert Eosenshine, Secretary, 2425 Fillmore st., San Francisco. 

Emort W. Thiercof, Ph.G., was married to Eleanor Maher Jan- 
uary 20. 

Stanley Sinsheimer was married to Edna Eiseman on Janaury IG. 

Anthony Cadogan is with the Montana Tonopah Mill, Tonopah, 

Helen Staples was married recently to Dr. McNulty of Yreka. 

Walter C. Howe, ex- '04, has been appointed superintendent of 
streets in Oakland. 

Portia Ackerman was married on June 23 to Mr. J. F. Forbes of 
San Francisco. i 

The engagement has been announced of Jesse Peter Jr., ex- '04, 
to Miss Frances Woolsey of Santa Ecsa. 

Lee H. Patty, ex- '04, was married on May 7 to Miss Grace Johnson. 

Addresses wanted: 

Lerda E. Arbulich. 
David W. Brown, M. 
Albert M. Dinsmore, D. 
Elexander M. Ehrlich. 
Arnold M. Ehrlich. 
Emma Gale (Mrs. Hazard). 
Faye Gans (Mrs. Harris). 
Evelyn Gilmore (Mrs. J. L 

William P. Golden, L. 
Mary O. Gundry (Mrs. 

Edward J. Howard, D. 
Loren L. Hursh. 
Fred L. Johnston. 
Carrie W. Liddle (Mrs.) 
Theodore J. Ludlow. 

Walter W. Merriam. 
John E. Middleton, D. 
Eichard E. Mitchell. 
Laura F. Mosher. 
A. Nicholls. 

Eichard B. Nichols, P. 
Claire Easor, P. 
Frank E. Eodolph, D. 
Charles G. Eogers. 
E. H. Eogers, P. 
C. Poin-Sei K. Sanada. 

Edgar L. Scott, P. 

Tien C. Tan, 

Paul A. Trullinger, D. 

H. Tuohy. 

Fred D. Weber. 

Samuel S. ifoung. 


Nat N. Eddy, Secretary, L1144 University Avenue, Berkeley. 

Edward Y. Podge is assistant superintendent of a group of mines 
in San Bernardino (."ounty, California. 

Sadie Innes died at San Rafael on April 15 after an illness of 
several months. 

Abner "Wiester was married July 5 to Miss E. L. Ornbaum at 

Harrj^ Cheney, who has been in Paris attending L'Eeole des Beaux 
Arts, has returned to Berkeley for a few months, after which he will 
return to Paris to continue his studies in architecture. 

A son, Alfred Bates, was born to Mrs. C. A. Spinks ("Virginia 
May Nelson) on March -3. 

Ernest Babcock was married to Miss Georgia Bowen on June 24 at 
Vancouver, Washington. 

Helen Parker, ex- '05, was married on April 22 to Lieutenant 
Harry Finch. 

Ben Stroud, ex- '05, is at Maricopa, Kern County, with the Monte 
Cristo Silver Company. 

Justin W. Esberg, ex- '05, is at present studying medicine at 
Munich, Germany, and is making the most brilliant record of his class. 

Alice Holmes has announced her engagement to Otis Baldwin. 

"The Story of the Golden Fleece," by Henry Kirk, ex- '05, was 
recently staged with success at Ye Liberty in Oakland. 

Roy Hackley was married recently to Miss Alice E. Dresser in New 

Eugene Hallet, accompanied by Carl Hoffman, ex- '07, will start in 
August on a tour of the world to test certain theories as to cheap 
methods of travel; they will put their experiences in book form to be 
illustrated by Hoffman. 

Addresses wanted: 

Ray K. Barows. J. Robert Lindsay, P. 

Clarence S. Ballagh, P. William E. Lindsay, P. 

Mary T. DeHaven, M. H. Marshall. 

Ethel E. Eggleston. Roy F. Morehead, D. 

Adolph A. W. Foerster, D. M. S. Morris, P. 

Marj' B. Grant. James S. Mullen. 

W. H. Hill. John W. Peck, M. 

Shun T. Kong. Harold Petterson. 


W. H. Phillips. Mary L. Somerville. 

J. A. Pritchard, L. Ernest J. Stanley. 

Charles H. Kedmond, P. Eleanor Stanton. 

Jeremiah T. Eegan, P. George C. Steinmiller, D. 

J. H. H. Scudder, P. H. F. Sturdevant, D. 

Helen M. Sinsheimer. A. E. Syverson, D. 

James G. Smith. Keuben V. Vaughan, P. 

Charles D. Snyder, P. T. Vaughn, D. 

L. Solomon. Carl A. Wigholm. 


Matthew C. Lynch, Secretary, San Jose, 

The engagement has been announced of Blanche Cameron to 
Henry Beecher. 

William Kelley was married to Leone Lane, '08, May 28, at Marys- 

Bertine Wollenberg was married to .John A. Wilcox on June 30. 

William M, Mason, D.D.S., was married in May to Miss Geraldine 
B. Strickland. 

Eoy Filcher was married on April 15 to Miss Mary E. Steedman 
of Berkeley. 

Louis Denton was married on May 20 to Helen M. Clark of Gilroy ; 
they are living at Richmond. 

Prentiss Gray was married in Washington, D. C, on May 27th to 
Miss Laura Sherman. 

William Hopkins was married on May 9 in Santa Eosa to Louise 

The engagement has been announced of Eoy Briggs, ex- '06 and 
M.D. '08, to Florence Ziegenfuss, ex- '07. 

Marian Allen has announced her engagement to Edward Heinrich, 
'08; the wedding is set for the Fall. 

Ira Wheeler is with the National Lead Company of California; his 
office is 838 Merchants Exchange Building, San Francisco. 

Matthew Lynch and Louis D. Bohnett have associated themselves 
for the practice of law in San Jose. 

Dan Fessenden is in charge of the Lenion Mill at Manhattan, Ne- 

The engagement has been announced of Harry Encell to Miss Mar- 
jorie Howe of Eiverside. 


Aura Lee was married to Howard Johnson on June 24th. 

C. O. Prenio is in the employ of the Southern Pacific at Kern City, 

R. I. Dunn was married July 4 to Maude Matthews at Puyallup, 
Washington. They will live in Seattle. 

Clarence Kromer is draftsman for the American Bridge Company 
at Ambridge, Pa. 

Addresses wanted: 

Katharine C. Barrett. Richard L. Ochsner, M. 

Sarah P. Bixby. Thomas C. Oliver. 

William L. Borthwick. G. Q. Pease, P. 

Josephine Campbell. Antonio M. dal Piaz, M. 

Sidney R. Dannenbaum, M. Frederick B. Reece. 

W. Farris. Jessie T. Robertson. 

Edward P. Genochio, P. Vida M. Scott, L. 

J. J. Griffin, D. Paul L. Simon. 

Chester F. Hoyt. W. J. Stone, il. 

Louise M. Igo, M. Charles H. Strub, D. 

Selmar W. Isaacson, D. Robert T. Sutherland. 

Frederick C. Lewitt. C. B. Walker. 

Chee S. Lowe. Alfred J. Warren. 

Elwy H. MacGilvray, P. W. C. Williams, P. 
Ella W. Miller. 


JuLicrs Klein, Secretary, Faculty Club, University of California. 

Ethel Louden was married to Claude E. Gillis at Vallejo April 22. 

Mabel Chubb is teaching history in the Kern County High School. 

David H. Parry is surveyor. District E, for the Board of Under- 
writers of the Pacific, with offices in the Phoenix Building, Butte, 

The engagement of George T. Plummer to Katharine Burns, '08, 
has been announced. 

Kenneth Miller is in charge of the development work in connection 
with a mine at Manhattan, Nevada. 

H. S. Bibers, D.D.S., is located in the Butler Building, San Fran- 

Charles Haley is at the Silver Peak iline at Blair, Nevada. 

Hubert Harpham is with the Tonopah Mining Company, Tonopah, 


Carl Fry is at the Belmout mine at Millers, Nevada. 

Arthur H. Adams is assayer at the Montgomery Shoshone Mines, 
Ehyolite, Nevada. 

Eay Gabbert was married June 25 to Miss E. J. Gordon. 

George Jones was married to Kuth Green in Berkeley on June 16; 
they will take up their residence in Tonopah, Nevada. 

Mary Crowell is head of the Latin department at the Hanford 
High School. 

Addresses wanted: 

Lloyd A. Craig, M. Charles G. Loeb, L. 

B. M. Davis. Ethel Miller. 

S. Thomas Donohoe, D. Charles E. Morfoot, L. 

O. A. Friedlander. Frederick G. Nopel, P. 

Douglas Graham. Charles L. Preisker, L. 

Frederick C. Lang, P. Allen Walcott, M. 


Frank E. Johnson, Secretary, 2427 Channing way, Berkeley. 
Freida Watters, Assistant Secretary, Watsonville. 

The engagement has been announced of Edith Ostrander to Clyde 

Jessie Bowers and Julia JEvans have positions with the United 
States Immigration Commission in San Francisco. 

George Ashley has gone to Paris, where he will take the examina- 
tions for entrance into the Beaux Arts. 

Edgar Cline has been appointed assistant to Professor John Galen 
Howard in connection with the architectural work for the Alaska- 
Yukon Exposition at Seattle. 

Clyde White was married to Miss Winifred Shaw, May 17. 

The engagement has been announced of Lilian Head to Ayllmer 

Sayre Macneil and Eobert Blake will tour Europe this summer, 
after which they will enter Harvard. 

The engagement has been announced of Marian Cotrel to Irving 
Aten. Aten will enter Harvard next Fall. 

Frank Kleeberger has been appointed an instructor in the depart- 
ment of physical culture at the University of Arizona. 

The engagement has been announced of Marguerite Daniels to 
Harold Hall, '07. 


The ongagenient has been announced of Esto Dunbar to Ernest 

Sam Hume has gone to Nome, Alaska, -nhere he has a position with 
a eomniereial company. 

Laura McDonald T\as married on June 25 to Charles E. Hemming 
of Sacramento. 

Fannie Manley has announced her engagement to Claude Rogers. 

Bernard McMahon, ex- '08, has been appointed clerk to Justice 
Edgar of Berkeley. 

Bert Golcher, ex- '08, is at the Desert Mill, Millers, Nevada. 

Albert S. Peake has been appointed a lieutenant in the Philippine 

H. H. Braun has been appointed assistant chief engineer of the 
Arizona Power Company. 

Jane Hawk has been appointed head of the physical culture depart- 
ment of Snell's Seminary. 


Vol. X OCTOBER, 1908 No. 4 



Thorstein Veblen. 

A discussion of the scientific point of view which avowed- 
ly proceeds from this point of view itself has necessarily 
the appearance of an argument in a circle ; and such in great 
part is the character of what here follows. It is in large 
part an attempt to explain the scientific point of view in 
terms of itself, but not altogether. This inquiry does not 
presume to deal Avith the origin or the legitimation of the 
postulates of science, but only with the growth of the hab- 
itual use of these postulates, and the manner of using them. 
The point of incjuiry is the changes which have taken place 
in the secondarj^ postulates involved in the scientific point of 
view — in great part a question of the progressive redistribu- 
tion of emphasis among the preconceptions under whose 
guidance successive generations of scientists have gone to 
their work. 

The sciences which are in any peculiar sense modern take 
as an (una vowed) postulate the fact of consecutive change. 
Their inquiry always centers upon some manner of process. 
This notion of process about which the researches of modern 
science cluster, is a notion of a sequence, or complex, of con- 
secutive change, in which the nexus of the sequence, that by 

* Eead before the Kosmos Club, at the University of CaKf ornia, 
May 4, 1908. 


virtue of which the change inquired into is consecutive, is 
the relation of cause and effect. The consecution, moreover, 
runs in terms of pereistence of quantity or of force. In so 
far as the science is of a modern complexion, in so far as it 
is not of the nature of taxonomy simply, the inquiry con- 
verges upon a matter of process ; and it comes to rest, pro- 
visionally, when it has disposed of its facts in terms of 
process. But modern scientific inquiry in any case comes to 
rest only provisionally ; because its prime postulate is that 
of consecutive change, and consecutive change can, of 
course, not come to rest except provisionally. By its own 
nature the inquiry cannot reach a final term in any direc- 
tion. So it is something of a homiletical commonplace to 
say that the outcome of any serious research can only be to 
make two questions grow where one question grew before. 
Such is necessarily the case because the postulate of the 
scientist is that things change consecutively. It is an un- 
proven and unprovable postulate — that is to say, it is a 
metaphysical preconception — but it gives the outcome that 
every goal of research is necessarily a point of departure; 
every term is transitional.^ 

1 It is by no means unusual for modern scientists to deny the truth 
of this characterization, so far as regards this alleged recourse to the 
concept of causation. They deny that sucli a concept — of efficiency, 
actiAaty, and the like — enters, or can legitimately enter, into their 
work, whether as an instrument of research or as a means or guide to 
theoretical formulation. They even deny the substantial continuity 
of the sequence of changes that excite their scientrfic attention. This 
attitude seems particularly to commend itself to those who by prefer- 
ence attend to the mathematical formulations of theory and who are 
chiefly occupied with proving up and working out details of the system 
of theory which have previously been left unsettled or uncovered. The 
concept of causation is recognized to be a metaphysical postulate, a 
matter of imputation, not of observation; whereas it is claimed that 
scientific inquiry neither does nor can legitimately, nor, indeed, current- 
ly, make use of a postulate more metaphysical than the concept of an 
idle concomitance of variation, such as is adequately expressed in terms 
of mathematical function. 

The contention seems sound, to the extent that the materials — es- 
sentially .statistical materials — with which scientific inquiry is occupied 
are of this non-committal character, and that the mathematical formu- 
lations of theory include no further element than that of idle variation. 


A hundred years ago, or even fifty years ago, scientific 
men were not in the habit of looking at the matter in this 
way. At least it did not then seem a matter of course, lying 
in the nature of things, that scientific inquiry could not 
reach a final term in any direction. To-day it is a matter 
of course, and will be so avowed without argument. Stated 
in the broadest terms, this is the substantial outcome of that 

Such is necessarily the ease because causation is a fact of imputation, 
not of observation, and so cannot be included among the data; and 
because nothing further than non-committal variation can be ex- 
pressed in mathematical terms. A bare notation of quantity can con- 
vey nothing further. 

If it were the intention to claim only that the conclusions of the 
scientists are, or should be, as a matter of conservative caution, overtly 
stated in terms of function alone, then the contention might well be 
allowed. Causal sequence, eflSciency or continuity is, of course, a mat- 
ter of metaphysical imputation. It is not a fact of observation, and 
cannot be asserted of the facts of observation except as a trait im- 
puted to them. It is so imputed, by scientists and others, as a matter 
of logical necessity, as a basis of a systematic knowledge of the facts 
of observation. 

Beyond this, in their exercise of scientific initiative, as well as in the 
norms which guide the systematization of scientific results, the conten- 
tion will not be made good— at least not for the current phase of scien- 
tific knowledge. The claim, indeed, carries its own refutation. In mak- 
ing such a claim, both in rejecting the imputation of metaphysical pos- 
tulates and in defending their position against their critics, the argu- 
ments put forward by the scientists run in causal terms. For the polem- 
ical purposes, where their antagonists are to be scientifically confuted, 
the defenders of the non-committal postulate of concomitance find that 
postulate inadequate. They are not content, in this precarious con- 
juncture, simply to attest a relation of idle quantitative concomitance 
(mathematical function) between the allegations of their critics, on the 
one hand, and their own controversial exposition of these matters on 
the other hand. They argue that they do not ' ' make use of ' ' such a 
postulate as ' ' efficiency, ' ' whereas they claim to ' ' make use of ' ' the 
concept of function. But "make use of" is not a notion of func- 
tional variation but of causal efficiency in a somewhat gross and high- 
ly anthropomorphic form. The relation between their own thinking 
and the '' principles " which they "apply" or the experiments and 
calculations which they "institute" in their "search" for facts, is 
not held to be of this non-committal kind. It will not be claimed that 
the shrewd insight and the bold initiative of a man eminent in the 
empirical sciences bear no more efficient or consequential a relation 
than that of mathematical function to the ingenious experiments by 
which he tests his hypotheses and extends the secure bounds of human 
knowledge. Least of all is the masterly exi^erimentalist himself in a 
position to deny that his intelligence counts for something more effi- 


nineteenth-century movement in science with which the 
name of Danvin is associated as a catch-word. 

This use of Darwin's name does not imply that this 
epoch of science is mainly Darwin's work. What merit 
may belong to Darwin, specifically, in these premises, is a 
question which need not detain the ar^iment. He may, by 
way of creative initiative, have had more or less to do with 
shaping- the course of things scientific. Or, if you choose. 

cient than idle concomitance in such a ease. The connection between 
his premises, hypotheses, and experiments, on the one hand, and his 
theoretical results, on the other hand, is not felt to be of the nature 
of mathematical function. Consistently adhered to, the principle of 
"function" or concomitant variation precludes recourse to experiment, 
hypotheses or inquiry — indeed, it precludes "recourse" to anything 
whatever. Its notation does not comprise anything so anthropomor- 

The ease is illustrated by the latter-day history of theoretical 
physics. Of the sciences which affect a non-committal attitude in 
respect of the concept of efficiency and which claim to get along with 
the notion of mathematical function alone, physics is the most out- 
spoken and the one in which the claim has the best prima facie validity. 
At the same time, latter-day physicists, for a hundred years or more, 
have been much occupied with explaining how phenomena which to all 
appearance involve action at a distance do not involve action at a 
distance at all. The greater theoretical achievements of physics dur- 
ing the past century lie within the sweep of this (metaphysical) prin- 
ciple that action at a distance does not take place, that apparent action 
at a distance must be explained by effective contact, through a con- 
tinuum, or by a material transference. But this principle is nothing 
better than an unreasoning repugnance on the part of the physicists 
to admitting action at a distance. The requirement of a continuum 
involves a gross form of the concept of efficient causation. The 
"functional" concept, concomitant variation, requires no contact and 
no continuum. Concomitance at a distance is quite as simple and con- 
vincing a notion as concomitance within contact or by the interven- 
tion of a continuum, if not more so. What stands in the way of its 
acceptance is the irrepressible anthropomorphism of the physicists. 
And yet the great achievements of physics are due to the initiative of 
men animated with this anthropomorphic repugnance to the notion of 
concomitant variation at a distance. All the generalizations on un- 
dulatory motion and translation belong here. The latter-day re- 
searches in light, electrical transmission, the theory of ions, together 
with what is known of the obscure and late-found radiations and 
emanations, are to be credited to the same metaphysical preconception, 
which is never absent in any "scientific" inquiry in the field o'f 
physical science. It is only the "' ' occult ' ' and ' ' Christian " " Sciences '"' 
that can dispense with this metaphysical postulate and take recourse 
to "absent treatment." 


his voice may even be taken as only one of the noises which 
the wheels of civilization make when they go round. But 
by scientifically colloquial usage we have come to speak of 
pre-Darwinian and post-Darwinian science, and to appre- 
ciate that there is a significant difference in the point of 
view between the scientific era which preceded and that 
which followed the epoch to which his name belongs. 

Before that epoch the animus of a science was, on the 
whole, the animus of taxonomy ; the consistent end of scien- 
tific inquiry was definition and classification, — as it still 
continues to be in such fields of science as have not been 
affected by the modern notion of consecutive change. The 
scientists of that era looked to a final term, a consummation 
of the changes which provoked their inquiry, as well as to a 
first beginning of the matters with which their researches 
were concerned. The questions of science were directed to 
the problem, essentially classificatory, of how things had 
been in the presumed primordial stable equilibrium out of 
which they, putatively, had come, and how they should be 
in the definitive state of settlement into which things were 
to fall as the outcome of the play of forces which intervened 
between this primordial and the definitive stable equilib- 
rium. To the pre-Darwinian taxonomists the center of in- 
terest and attention, to which all scientific inquiry must 
legitimately converge, was the body of natural laws gov- 
erning phenomena under the rule of causation. These nat- 
ural laws were of the nature of rules of the game of causa- 
tion. They formulated the immutable relations in which 
things "naturally" stood to one another before causal dis- 
turbance took place between them, the orderly unfolding of 
the complement of causes involved in the transition over 
this interval of transient activity, and the settled relations 
that would supervene when the disturbance had passed and 
the transition from cause to effect had been consummated, — 
the emphasis falling on the consummation. 

The characteristic feature by which post-Darwinian 


science is contrasted with what went before is a new dis- 
tribution of emphasis, whereby the process of causation, the 
interval of instability and transition between initial cause 
and definitive effect, has come to take the first place in the 
inquiry; instead of that consummation in which causal ef- 
fect was once presumed to come to rest. This change of the 
point of view was, of course, not abrupt or catastrophic. 
But it has latterly gone so far that modern science is be- 
coming substantially a theory of the process of consecutive 
change, which is taken as a sequence of cumulative change, 
realized to be self-continuing or self-propagating and to 
have no final term. Questions of a primordial beginning 
and a definitive outcome have fallen into abeyance within 
the modern sciences, and such questions are in a fair way 
to lose all claim to consideration at the hands of the scien- 
tists. Modern science is ceasing to occupy itself with the 
natural laws — the codified rules of the game of causation — 
and is concerning itself wholly with what has taken place 
and what is taking place. 

Rightly seen from this ultra modern point of view, this 
modern science and this point of view which it affects are, 
of course, a feature of the current cultural situation, — of the 
process of life as it runs along under our eyes. So also, 
when seen from this scientific point of view, it is a matter 
of course that any marked cultural era will have its own 
characteristic attitude and animus toward matters of knowl- 
edge, will bring under inquiry such questions of laiowledge 
as lie within its peculiar range of interest, and will seek 
answers to these questions only in terms that are consonant 
with the habits of thought current at the time. That is to 
say, science and the scientific point of view will vary char- 
acteristically in response to those variations in the prevalent 
habits of thought which constitute the sequence of cultural 
development; the current science and the current scientific 
point of view, the knowledge sought and the manner of 


seeking it, are a product of the cultural growth. Perhaps 
it would all be better characterized as a by-product of the 
cultured growth. 

This question of a scientific point of view, of a particular 
attitude and animus in matters of knowledge, is a question 
of the formation of habits of thought ; and habits of thought 
are an outcome of habits of life. A scientific point of view 
is a consensus of habits of thought current in the commun- 
ity, and the scientist is constrained to believe that this con- 
sensus is formed in response to a more or less consistent 
discipline of habituation to v/hich the community is sub- 
jected, and that the consensus can extend only so far and 
maintain its force only so long as the discipline of habitua- 
tion exercised by the circumstances of life enforces it and 
backs it up. The scheme of life, within which lies the 
scheme of knowledge, is a consensus of habits in the in- 
dividuals which make up the community. The individual 
subjected to habituation is each a single individual agent, 
and whatever affects him in any one line of activity, there- 
fore, necessarily affects him in some degree in all his various 
activities. The cultural scheme of any community is a com- 
plex of the habits of life and of thought prevalent among 
the members of the community. It makes up a more or less 
congruous and balanced whole, and carries within it a more 
or less consistent habitual attitude toward matters of knowl- 
edge — more or less consistent according as the community's 
cultural scheme is more or less congruous throughout the 
body of the population ; and this in its turn is in the main 
a question of how nearly uniform or consonant are the cir- 
cumstances of experience and tradition to which the several 
classes and members of the community are subject. 

So, then, the change which has come over the scientific 
point of view between pre-Darwinian and post-Darwinian 
times is to be explained, at least in great part, by the 
changing circumstances of life, and therefore of habitua- 


tion. among the people of Christendom durintr the life- 
history of modern science. But the growth of a scientific 
point of view begins farther back than modern Christendom, 
and a record of its growth would be a record of the growth 
of human culture. ^Modern science demands a genetic ac- 
count of the phenomena with which it deals, and a genetic 
inquiry into the scientific point of view necessarily will have 
to make up its account with the earlier phases of cultural 
growth. A life-history of human culture is a large topic, 
not to be attempted here even in the sketchiest outline. The 
most that can be attempted is a hasty review of certain 
scattered questions and salient points in this life-history. 

In W'hat manner and with what effect the idle curiosity 
of mankind fii"st began to tame the facts thrown in its 
way, far back in the night of time, and to break them in 
under a scheme of habitual interpretation ; what may have 
been the earliest norms of systematic knowledge, such as 
would serve the curiosity of the earliest generations of men 
in a way analogous to the service rendered the curiosity 
of later generations by scientific inquiry — all that is, of 
course, a matter of long-range conjecture, more or less wild, 
which cannot be gone into here. But among such peoples 
of the lower cultures as have been consistently observed, 
norms of knowledge and schemes for its system atization are 
always found. These norms and systems of knowledge are 
naive and crude, perhaps, but there is fair ground for pre- 
suming that out of the like norms and systems in the re- 
moter ages of our own antecedents have grown up the 
systems of knowledge cultivated by the peoples of history 
and by their representatives now living. 

It is not unusual to say that the primitive systems of 
knowledge are constructed on animistic lines ; that animistic 
sequence is the rule to which the facts are broken in. This 
seems to be true, if "animism" be construed in a sufficiently 
naive and inchoate sense. But this is not the whole case. 


In their higher generalizations, in what Powell calls their 
" sophiology, " it appears that the primitive peoples are 
guided by animistic norms ; they make up their cosmologieal 
schemes, and the like, in terms of personal or quasi-personal 
activity, and the whole is thrown into something of a dram- 
atic form. Through the early cosmologieal lore runs a 
dramatic consistency which imputes something in the way 
of initiative and propensity to the phenomena that are to be 
accounted for. But this dramatization of the facts, the ac- 
counting for phenomena in terms of spiritual or quasi- 
spiritual initiative, is by no means the whole case of prim- 
itive men's systematic knowledge of facts. Their theories 
are not all of the nature of dramatic legend, myth, or ani- 
mistic life-history, although the broader and more pictur- 
esque generalizations may take that form. There always runs 
along by the side of these dramaturgic life-histories, and 
underlying them, an obscure system of generalizations in 
terms of matter-of-fact. The system of matter-of-fact gen- 
eralizations, or theories, is obscurer than the dramatic gen- 
eralizations only in the sense that it is left in the back- 
ground as being less picturesque and of less vital interest, 
not in the sense of being less familiar, less adequately ap- 
prehended, or less secure. The peoples of the lower cultures 
' ' know ' ' that the broad scheme of things is to be explained 
in terms of creation, perhaps of procreation, gestation, birth, 
growth, life and initiative; and these matters engross the 
attention and stimulate speculation. But they know equally 
well the matter of fact that water will run down hill, that 
two stones are heavier than one of them, that an edge-tool 
will cut softer substances, that two things may be tied to- 
gether with a string, that a pointed stick may be stuck in 
the ground, and the like. There is no range of knowledge 
that is held more securely by any people than such matters 
of fact ; and these are generalizations from experience ; they 
are theoretical knowledge, and they are a matter of course. 
They underlie the dramatical generalizations of the broad 


scheme of things, and are so employed in the speculations 
of the m^-th-makers and the learned. 

It may be that the exceptional efficiency of a given edge- 
tool, e.g., will be accounted for on animistic or quasi-personal 
grounds, — grounds of magical efficacy ; but it is the excep- 
tional behavior of such a tool that calls for explanation 
on the higher ground of animistic potency, not its work-day 
performance of common work. So also if an edge-tool 
should fail to do what is expected of it as a matter of course, 
its failure may require an explanation in other terms than 
matter-of-fact. But all that only serves to bring into evi- 
dence the fact that a scheme of generalizations in terms of 
matter-of-fact is securely held and is made use of as a 
sufficient and ultimate explanation of the more familiar 
phenomena of experience. These commonplace matter-of- 
fact generalizations are not questioned and do not clash 
with the higher scheme of things. 

All this may seem like taking pains about trivialities. 
But the data with which any scientific inquiry has to do are 
trivialities in some other bearing than that one in which 
they are of account. 

In all succeeding phases of culture, developmentally sub- 
sequent to the primitive phase supposed above, there is 
found a similar or analogous division of knowledge between 
a higher range of theoretical explanations of phenomena, 
an ornate scheme of things, on the one hand, and such ai* 
obscure range of matter-of-fact generalizations as is here 
spoken of, on the other hand. And the evolution of the 
scientific point of view is a matter of the shifting fortunes 
which have in the course of cultural growth overtaken the 
one and the other of thase two divergent methods of ap- 
prehending and systematizing the facts of experience. 

The historians of human culture have, no doubt justly, 
commonly dealt with the mutations that have occurred on 
the higher levels of intellectual enterprise, in the more 
ambitious, more picturesque, and less secure of these two 


contrasted ranges of theoretical knowledge ; while the lower 
range of generalizations, which has to do with work-day 
experience, has in great part been passed over with scant 
ceremony as lying outside the current of ideas, and as be- 
longing rather among the things which engage the attention 
than among the modes, expedients and creations of this 
attention itself. There is good reason for this relative 
neglect of the work-day matters of fact. It is on the higher 
levels of speculative generalization that the impressive mu- 
tations in the development of thought have taken place, and 
that the shifting of points of view and the clashing of con- 
victions have drawn men into controversy and analysis of 
their ideas and have given rise to schools of thought. The 
matter-of-fact generalizations have met with relatively few 
adventures and have afforded little scope for intellectual 
initiative and profoundly picturesque speculation. On the 
higher levels speculation is freer, the creative spirit has some 
scope, because its excursions are not so immediately and 
harshly checked by material facts. 

In these speculative ranges of knowledge it is possible 
to form and to maintain habits of thought which shall be 
consistent with themselves and with the habit of mind and 
run of tradition prevalent in the community at the time, 
though not thereby consistent with the material actualities 
of life in the community. Yet this range of speculative 
generalization, which makes up the higher learning of the 
barbarian culture, is also controlled, checked, and guided 
by the community's habits of life ; it, too, is an integral part 
of the scheme of life and is an outcome of the habituation 
enforced by experience. But it does not rest immediately 
on men's dealings with the refractory phenomena of brute 
creation, nor is it guided, undisguised and directly, by the 
habitual material (industrial) occupations. The fabric of 
institutions intervenes between the material exigencies of 
life and the speculative scheme of things. 

The higher theoretical knowledge, that body of tenets 


which rises to the ditrnity of a philosophical or scientific 
system, in the early cnltnre, is a complex of habits of 
thoncrht which reflect the habits of life embodied in the 
institutional structure of society; while the lower, matter- 
of-fact greneralizations of work-day efficiency — the trivial 
matters of course — reflect the workmanlike habits of life 
enforced by the commonplace material exigencies under 
which men live. The distinction is analogous, and indeed, 
closely related, to the distinction between "intangible" and 
"tangible" assets. And the institutions are more flexible, 
they involve or admit a larger margin of error, or of tol- 
erance, than the material exigencies. The latter are sys- 
tematized into what economists have called "the state of the 
industrial arts." which enforce a somewhat rigorous stan- 
dardization of whatever knowledge falls within their scope : 
whereas the institutional scheme is a matter of law and cus- 
tom, politics and religion, taste and morals, on all of which 
mattei's men have opinions and convictions, and on which 
all men "have a right to their own opinions." The scheme 
of institutions is also not necessarily uniform throughout the 
several classes of society; and the same institution (as, e.g., 
slavery, ownership, or royalty) does not impinge with the 
same effect on all parties touched by it. The discipline of 
any institution of servitude, e.g., is not the same for the 
master as for the serf, etc. If there is a considerable in- 
stitutional discrepancy between an upper and a lower class 
in the community, leading to divergent lines of habitual 
interest or discipline ; if by force of the cultural scheme the 
institutions of society are chiefly in the keeping of one 
class, whose attention is then largely engrossed with the 
maintenance of the scheme of law and order; while the 
workmanlike activities are chiefly in the hands of another 
class, in whose apprehension the maintenance of law and 
order is at the a wearisome tribulation, there is likely 
to be a similarly considerable divergence or discrepancy 
between the speculative knowledge, cultivated primarily by 


the upper class, and the work-day knowledge which is prim- 
arily in the keepino^ of the lower class. Such, in particular, 
will be the case if the community is organized on a coercive 
plan, with well-marked ruling and subject classes. The 
important and interesting institutions in such a case, those 
institutions which fill a large angle in men 's vision and carry 
a great force of authenticity, are the institutions of coercive 
control, differential authority and subjection, personal dig- 
nity and consequence ; and the speculative generalizations, 
the institutions of the realm of knowledge, are created in 
the image of these social institutions of status and personal 
force, and fall into a scheme drawn after the plan of the 
code of honor. The work-day generalizations, which emerge 
from the state of the industrial arts, concomitantly fall into 
a deeper obscurity, answering to the depth of indignity to 
which workmanlike efficiency sinks under such a cultural 
scheme ; and they can touch and check the current specula- 
tive knowledge only remotely and incidentally. Under 
such a bifurcate scheme of culture, with its concomitant two- 
cleft systematization of knowledge, ' ' reality ' ' is likely to be 
widely dissociated from fact — that is to say, the realities 
and verities ■which are accepted as authentic and convincing 
on the plane of speculative generalization ; while science has 
no show— that is to say, science in that modern sense of the 
term which implies a close contact, if not a coincidence, of 
reality with fact. 

Whereas, if the institutional fabric, the community's 
scheme of life, changes in such a manner as to throw the 
work-day experience into the foreground of attention and to 
center the habitual interest of the people on the immediate 
material relations of men to the brute actualities, then the 
interval between the speculative realm of knowledge, on the 
one hand, and the work-day generalizations of fact, on the 
other hand, is likely to lessen, and the two ranges of knowl- 
edge are likely to converge more or less effectually upon a 
common ground. When the growth of culture falls into 



such lines, these two methods and nonns of theoretical 
forunilation may presently come to further and fortify one 
another, and something in the way of science has at least 
a chance to arise. 

On this view there is a defrree of interdependence be- 
tween the cultural situation and the state of theoretical in- 
quiry. To illustrate this interdependence, or the concomi- 
tance between the cultural scheme and the character of 
theoretical speculation, it may be in place to call to mind 
certain concomitant variations of a general character which 
occur in the lower cultures between the scheme of life and 
the scheme of knowledge. In this tentative and fragmen- 
tary presentation of evidence there is nothing novel to be 
brought forward ; still less is there anything to be offered 
which carries the weight of authority. 

On the lower levels of culture, even more decidedly than 
on the higher, the speculative systematization of knowledge 
is prone to take the form of theology (mythology) and cos- 
mology. This theological and eosmological lore serves the 
savage and barbaric peoples as a theoretical account of the 
scheme of things, and its characteristic traits vary in re- 
sponse to the variations of the institutional scheme under 
which the community lives. In a prevailingly peaceable 
agricultural community, such, e.g., as the more peaceable 
Pueblo Indians or the more settled Indians of the Middle 
West, there is little coercive authority, few and slight class 
distinctions involving superiority and inferiority ; property 
rights are few, slight and unstable; relationship is likely 
to be counted in the female line. In such a culture the 
eosmological lore is likely to offer explanations of the scheme 
of things in terms of generation or germination and growth. 
Creation by fiat is not obtrusively or characteristically pres- 
ent. The laws of nature bear the character of an habitual 
behavior of things, rather than that of an authoritative 
code of ordinances imposed by an overruling providence. 


The theology is likely to be polytheistic in an extreme de- 
gree and in an extremely loose sense of the term, embody- 
ing relatively little of the suzerainty of God. The relation 
of the deities to mankind is likely to be that of consanguin- 
ity, and as if to emphasize the peaceable, non-coercive char- 
acter of the divine order of things, the deities are, in the 
main, very apt to be females. The matters of interest dealt 
with in the cosmological theories are chiefly matters of the 
livelihood of the people, the growth and care of the crops, 
and the promotion of industrial ways and means. 

With these phenomena of the peaceable culture may be 
contrasted the order of things found among a predatory 
pastoral people — and pastoral peoples tend strongly to take 
on a predatory cultural-scheme. Such a people will adopt 
male deities, in the main, and will impute to them a coercive, 
imperious, arbitrary animus and a degree of princely dig- 
nity. They will also tend strongly to a monotheistic, pa- 
triarchal scheme of divine government; to explain things 
in terms of creative fiat; and to a belief in the control of 
the natural universe by rules imposed by divine ordinance. 
The matters of prime consequence in this theology are mat- 
ters of the servile relation of man to God, rather than the 
details of the quest of a livelihood. The emphasis falls on 
the glory of God rather than on the good of man. The 
Hebrew scriptures, particularly the Jahvistic elements, 
show such a scheme of pastoral cultural and predatory 
theoretical generalizations. 

The learning cultivated on the lower levels of culture 
might be gone into at some length if space and time per- 
mitted, but even what has been said may serve to show, in 
the most general way, what are the characteristic marks of 
this savage and barbarian lore. A similarly summary charac- 
terization of a cultural situation nearer home will bear more 
directly on the immediate topic of inquiry. The learning of 
medieval Christendom shows such a concomitance between 
the scheme of knowledge and the scheme of institutions, 


somewhat analogous to the barbaric Hebrew situation. The 
medieval scheme of institutions was of a coercive, authorita- 
tive character, essentially a scheme of graded mastery and 
graded servitude, in which a code of honor and a bill of 
differential dignity hold the most important place. The 
theology of that time was of a like character. It was a 
monotheistic, or rather a monarchical system, and of a 
despotic complexion. The cosmological scheme was drawn 
in terms of fiat; and the natural philosophy was occupied, 
in the main and in its most solemn endeavors, with the 
corollaries to be subsumed under the divine fiat. When the 
philosophical speculation dealt with facts it aimed to inter- 
pret them into systematic consistency with the glory of God 
and the divine purpose. The "realities" of the scholastic 
lore were spiritual, quasi-personal, intangible, and fell into 
a scale of differential dignity and prepotency. Matter-of- 
fact knoAvledge and work-day information were not then 
fit topics of dignified inquiry. The interval, or discrepancy, 
between reality and actuality was fairly wide. Throughout 
that era, of course, work-day knowledge also continually 
increased in volume and consistency; technological profi- 
ciency was gaining; the effective control of natural pro- 
cesses was growing larger and more secure ; showing that 
matter-of-fact theories drawn from experience were being 
extended and were made increasing use of. But all this 
went on in the field of industry; the matter-of-fact theories 
were accepted as substantial and ultimate only for the pur- 
poses of industry, only as technological maxims, and were 
beneath the dignity of science. 

With the transition to modern times industry comes into 
the foreground in the wCvSt-European scheme of life, and the 
institutions of European civilization fall into a more inti- 
mate relation with the exigencies of industry and technol- 
ogy. The technological range of habituation progressively 
counts for more in the cultural complex, and the discrepancy 
between the technological discipline and the discipline of 


law and order under the institutions then in force grows 
progressively less. The institutions of law and order take 
on a more impersonal, less coercive character. Differential 
dignity and invidious discriminations between classes grad- 
ually lose force. 

The industry which so comes into the foreground and 
so affects the scheme of institutions is peculiar in that its 
most obvious and characteristic trait is the workmanlike 
initiative and efficiency of the individual handicraftsman 
and the individual enterprise of the petty trader. The 
technology which embodies the theoretical substance of this 
industry is a technology of workmanship, in which the 
salient factors are personal skill, force and diligence. Such 
a technology, running as it does in great part on personal 
initiative, capacity, and application, approaches nearer to 
the commonplace features of the institutional fabric than 
many another technological system might ; and its disciplin- 
ary effects in some considerable measure blend with those 
of the institutional discipline. The two lines of habituation, 
in the great era of handicraft and petty trade, even came 
to coalesce and fortify one another; as in the organization 
of the craft gilds and of the industrial towns. Industrial 
life and usage came to intrude creatively into the cultural 
scheme on the one hand and into the scheme of authentic 
knowledge on the other hand. So the body of matter-of- 
fact knowledge, in modern times, is more and more drawn 
into the compass of theoretical inquiry; and theoretical in- 
quiry takes on more and more of the animus and method of 
technological generalization. But the matter-of-fact ele- 
ments so drawn in are construed in terms of workmanlike 
initiative and efficiency, as required by the technological 
preconceptions of the era of handicraft. 

In this way, it may be conceived, modern science comes 
into the field under the cloak of technology and gradually 
encroaches on the domain of authentic theory previously 
held by other, higher, nobler, more profound, more spiritual, 


more intaiiijible conceptions and systems of knowledge. In 
this early phase of modern science its central norm and 
universal solvent is the concept of workmanlike initiative 
and efficiency. This is the new organon. Whatever is to be 
explained must be reduced to this notation and explained 
in these terms; otherwise the inquiry does not come to rest. 
But when the requirements of this notation in terms of 
workmanship have been duly fulfilled the inquiry does come 
to rest. 

By the early decades of the nineteenth century, with a 
passable degree of thoroughness, other grounds of validity 
and other interpretations of phenomena, other vouchers for 
truth and reality, had been eliminated from the quest of 
authentic knowledge and from the terms in which theoretical 
results were conceived or expressed. The new organon had 
made good its pretentions. In this movement to establish 
the hegemony of workmanlike efficiency — under the style 
and title of the "law of causation," or of "efficient cause" — 
in the realm of knowledge, the English-speaking communi- 
ties took the lead after the earlier scientific onset of the 
south-European communities had gone up in the smoke of 
war, politics and religion during the great era of state- 
making. The ground of this British lead in science is ap- 
parently the same as that of the British lead in technology 
which came to a head in the Industrial Revolution: and 
these two associated episodes of European civilization are 
apparently both traceable to the relatively peaceable run of 
life, and so of habituation, in the English-speaking com- 
munities, as contrasted with the communities of the con- 

2 A broad exception may perhaps be taken at this point, to the 
effect that this sketch of the growth of the scientific animus overlooks 
the science of the Ancients. The scientific achievements of classical 
antiquity are a less obscure topic to-day than ever before during mod- 
ern times, and the more there is known of them the larger is the credit 
given them. But it is to be noted that, (a) the relatively large and 
free growth of scientific inquiry in classical antiquity is to be found 
in the relatively peaceable and industrial Greek communities (with an 


Along with the habits of thought peculiar to the tech- 
nology of handicraft, modern science also took over and 
assimilated much of the institutional preconceptions of the 
era of handicraft and petty trade. The "natural laws," 
with the formulation of which this early modern science 
is occupied, are the rules governing natural "uniformities 
of sequence;" and they punctiliously formulate the due 
procedure of any given cause creatively working out the 
achievement of a given effect, very much as the craft rules 
sagaciously specified the due routine for turning out a staple 
article of merchantable goods. But these "natural laws" 
of science are also felt to have something of that integrity 
and prescriptive moral force that belongs to the principles 
of the system of "natural rights" which the era of handi- 
craft has contributed to the institutional scheme of later 
times. The natural laws were not only held to be true to 
fact, but they were also felt to be right and good. They 
were looked upon as intrinsically meritorious and beneficent, 
and were held to carry a sanction of their own. This habit 
of uncritically imputing merit and equity to the "natural 
laws" of science continued in force through much of the 
nineteenth century; very much as the habitual acceptance 

industrial culture of unknown pre-Hellenie antiquity), and (6) that 
the sciences best and chiefly cultivated were those which rest on a 
mathematical basis, if not mathematical sciences in the simpler sense 
of the term. Now, mathematics occupies a singular place among the 
sciences, in that it is, in its pure form, a logical discipline simply; its 
subject matter being the logic of quantity, and its researches being 
of the nature of an analysis of the intellect's modes of dealing with 
matters of quantity. It's generalizations are generalizations of logi- 
cal procedure, which are tested and verified by immediate self -observa- 
tion. Such a science is in a peculiar degree, but only in a peculiar 
degree, independent of the detail-discipline of daily life, whether tech- 
nological or institutional; and, given the propensity — the intellectual 
enterprises, or ' ' idle curiosity ' ' — to go into speculation in such a field, 
the results can scarcely vary in a manner to make the variants incon- 
sistent among themselves; nor need the state of institutions or the 
state of the industrial arts seriously color or distort such analytical 
work in such a field. Mathematics is peculiarly independent of cul- 
tural circumstances, since it deals analytically with mankind's native 
gifts of logic, not with the ephemeral traits acquired by habituation. 


of tlie prinoiples of "natural rights" has held on by force 
of tradition long: after the exigencies of experience out of 
which these "rights" sprang ceased to shape men's habits 
of life.^ This traditional attitude of submissive approval 
toward the "natural laws" of science has not yet been 
wholly lost, even among the scientists of the passing gen- 
eration, many of whom have uncritically invested these 
"laws" with a prescriptive rectitude and excellence; but 
so far, at least, has this animus progressed toward disuse 
that it is now chiefly a matter for expatiation in the pulpit, 
the accredited vent for the exudation of effete matter from 
the cultural organism. 

The traditions of the handicraft technology lasted over 
as a commonplace habit of thought in science long after 
that technology had ceased to be the decisive element in the 
industrial situation ; while a new technology, with its incul- 
cation of new habits of thought, new preconceptions, grad- 
uall}' made its way among the remnants of the old, altering 
them, blending with them, and little by little superseding 
them. The new technological departure, which made its 
first great epoch in the so-called industrial revolution, in 
the technological ascendancy of the machine-process, 
brought a new and characteristic discipline into the cul- 
tural situation. The beginnings of the machine-era lie far 
back, no doubt ; but it is only of late, during the past century 
at the most, that the machine-procass can be said to have 
come into the dominant place in the technological scheme; 
and it is only later still that its discipline has, even in great 

3 ' ' >.atiira] laws, ' ' which are held to be not only correct formula- 
tions of the sequence of cause and effect in a given situation but also 
meritoriously right and equitable rules governing the run of events, 
necessarily impute to the facts and events in question a tendency to a 
good and equitable, if not beneficent, consummation; since it is neces- 
sarily the consummation, the effect considered as an accomplished out- 
come, that is to be adjudged good and equitable, if anything. Hence 
these "natural laws," as traditionally conceived, are laws governing 
the accomplishment of an end — that is to say, laws as to how a sequence 
of cause and effect comes to rest in a final term. 


part, remodeled the current preconceptions as to the sub- 
stantial nature of what goes on in the current of phenomena 
whose changes excite the scientific curiosity. It is only rela- 
tively very lately, whether in technological work or in 
scientific inquiry, that men have fallen into the habit of 
thinking in terms of process rather than in terms of the 
workmanlike efficiency of a given cause working to a given 

These machine-made preconceptions of modern science, 
being habits of thought induced by the machine technology 
in industry and in daily life, have of course first and most 
consistently affected the character of those sciences whose 
subject matter lies nearest to the technological field of the 
machine-process ; and in these material sciences the shifting 
to the machine-made point of view has been relatively very 
consistent, giving a highly impersonal interpretation of 
phenomena in terms of consecutive change, and leaving 
little of the ancient preconceptions of differential reality or 
creative causation. In such a science as physics or chem- 
istry, e.g., we are threatened with the disappearance or dis- 
sipation of all stable and efficient substances ; their place 
being supplied, or their phenomena being theoretically ex- 
plained, by appeal to unremitting processes of inconceivably 
high-pitched consecutive change. 

In the sciences which lie farther afield from the tech- 
nological domain, and which, therefore, in point of habitua- 
tion, are remoter from the center of disturbance, the effect 
of the machine discipline may even yet be scarcely ap- 
preciable. In such lore as ethics, e.g., or political theory, 
or even economics, much of the norms of the regime of 
handicraft still stands over ; and \ery much of the institu- 
tional preconceptions of natural rights, associated with the 
regime of handicraft in point of genesis, growth and con- 
tent, is not only still intact in this field of inquiry, but it 
can scarcely even be claimed that there is ground for serious 
apprehension of its prospective obsolescence. Indeed, some- 


thins: even more ancient than handicraft and natural rights 
may be found surviving- in jjood vigor in this "moral" field 
of inquiry, where tests of authenticity and reality are still 
sought and found by those who cultivate these lines of in- 
quiry that lie beyond the immediate sweep of the machine's 
discipline. Even the evolutionary process of cumulative 
causation as conceived by the adepts of these sciences is in- 
fused with a preternatural, beneficent trend; so that "evolu- 
tion" is conceived to mean amelioration or "improvement." 
The metaphysics of the machine technology has not yet 
wholly, perhaps not mainly, superseded the metaphysics 
of the code of honor in those lines of inquiry that have to 
do with human initiative and aspiration. Whether such a 
shifting of the point of view in these sciences shall ever be 
effected is still an open question. Here there still are spirit- 
ual verities which transcend the sweep of consecutive change. 
That is to say, there are still current habits of thought which 
definitively predispose their bearers to bring their inquiries 
to rest on grounds of differential reality and invidious merit. 



Thursday afternoon, August twentietli, in Hearst Hall 
at four o'clock, the memory of the late Jacob Voorsanger, 
Honorary Professor of the Semitic Languages and Litera- 
tures, was solemnized by three memorial addresses delivered 
by Dr. H. H. Powell, Professor William Carey Jones, and 
Professor William Popper. 

President Wheeler introduced Dr. Powell, who spoke as 
follows : 

It is with some diffidence that I speak this afternoon, 
not because of any hesitancy to bear witness to the char- 
acter and work of Dr. Voorsanger, but rather because I 
have been asked to speak as one of his former pupils. My 
connection with him as one of his pupils was indeed very 
informal. Unfortunately, in one sense, I never came under 
his direction as an undergraduate. His work with me was 
one of suggestion and guidance in graduate study, rather 
than of direct instruction. Instead of the formality of 
the classroom there was the spontaneity and charm of per- 
sonal intercourse and contact. I feel that I received much 
from Dr. Voorsanger. When I would report from time to 
time in that upper room, which he called his study, I always 
felt that I was coming into touch with a real master ; and I 
never left without an uplift and an inspiration. 


One of the chief of those things which are inspiring to re- 
member about such a life as that of Dr. Voorsanger seems to 
me to be — not the fact that he was pastor of a large city 
church, and as such probably came into intimate personal 
relation with hundreds or even thousands of lives, influenc- 
ing them for piety and religion ; or the fact that he stood out 
boldly as a wise and clear headed, vigorous leader of the 
forces which make for civic righteousness; or yet the fact 
that with all these demands upon his time and energy he 
still found time to Avork toward the establishment of new 
departments in the universities here and at Stanford — but 
rather the fact that with all this he kept that ardent in- 
tellectual fervor, that keen personal interest in scholarship, 
and that appreciation of it, which mark the true teacher. 

The work of the teacher falls into two chief lines; and 
his success depends upon the degree of harmonious balance 
he is able to maintain between them. He must not only 
impart his particular line of technical instruction to his 
students, but he must also arouse in them a desire and en- 
thusiasm for that particular kind of knowledge. His own 
personalit}" and his treatment of his subject must be so 
stimulating that they develop an appetite which grows 
larger the more it is fed. In some lines of study this is 
far more difficult than is the actual work of instruction. 
With Hebrew and its kindred subjects this is particularly 
the case. Hebrew seems so far removed from the bustling 
activity of this twentieth century; its value seems so com- 
pletely a technical one for the minister or Bible student, 
and for them there abounds such a number of good transla- 
tions and helps, that it often takes more energy to arouse 
in students a desire for information than it does to impart 
that information when desired. This is where the enthus- 
iasm and personality of the teacher count for most. Dr. 
Voorsanger had that enthusiasm in a remarkable degree. 
Despite the demands upon his time, despite his manifold 
activities, he kept alive such a keen interest in the details 


of his subject that he was able to galvanize into life the 
seemingly dry bones of Semitic archaeology. 

The life of such a man as Dr. Voorsanger makes us 
meditate also upon the question of what elements go to 
make up our estimate of the best type of character in this 
present age. The world has had various and very diverse 
conceptions of what goes to form the character of a true 
saint. In the early Christian ages, when the vice and im- 
morality of the effete and dying Roman civilization stood 
out in sharp contrast with the purity and sweet simplicity 
of primitive Christian virtue, the saint was one who fled 
from the world and in some cave or wilderness found sal- 
vation of soul by mortification of the flesh. A few cen- 
turies later, and the conception of sanctity had changed. 
The old idea was looked upon as one essentially selfish. 
Then the note of service was added; and the true saint 
was still the ascetic, but the ascetic who "lived not for him- 
self alone, ' ' — who Avent about preaching the Gospel. Such 
men were St. Francis and his followers. 

To-day we should probably so emphasize this note of 
service that in our saint there would be no asceticism ; but 
there would be the widest human sympathy and the steady 
and persistent devotion to humanity. 

It is interesting to remember that in the Hebrew con- 
ception of sanctity there always has been an additional note. 
The great work of a Hebrew saint is the study of the Law. 
He sets before himself the revealed will of God as the chie^ 
object of study. Asceticism, in itself, has no value except 
as it lends aid to this study ; service is of value chiefiy be- 
cause the Law can be truly known only by those who live it. 
A ruling note, therefore, in this Hebrew conception of 
sanctitv is the intellectual note. The Hebrew saint seeks 
to reach up to Infinity itself; he seeks to know the true 
order of the universe and to bring the soul into conformity 
with that order. It is just at this point that the life of such 
a man as Dr. Voorsanger becomes an inspiration. With 


his crowded activity, his manifold duties, more or less tem- 
porary in character, he still found time for the intellectual 
life. Therefore, while he will probably be remembered by 
tliousands across the bay to whom he ministered spiritual 
comfort, while he will be remembered ofiReially as the man 
who did most toward developiuii' the departments of Semitic 
study in these two ^reat Universities, yet by us who were 
permitted to come into intellectual intercourse with him, 
he will be remembered as a stimulating and inspiring 

Professor William Carey Jones was then introduced. 
He spoke as follows : 

Our hope for the world lies in the conviction that nature 
is eternal procrress. Every nation has its golden age in 
prospect. All movement is on the whole toward meliorism. 
The inorganic elements of the universe are in a process of 
constant improvement. Order is ever being worked out 
of chaos. Rhythm and harmony are being evoked from 
clash and conflict. Organic life is acting under the same 
propulsion, tending to a realization of higher forms. The 
sum-total of all struggle is for existence, not for extinction; 
to preserve and improve, not to impair and destroy. Much 
of the struggle is cooperative and social, — not individual, 
selfish and antagonistic. Upward and outward, into higher 
and larger life, is the universal tendency. 

AVithin man's realm of free action, it is none the less 
the same. ]\Ian's impulses are towards improvement. It 
is trite to speak of man's conquest of physical forces; of 
the rapid progress in material development in the past hun- 
dred years. But the achievements of past ages were not 
the less great and beneficent. And they have all tended 
to the unification of mankind; towards cosmopolitanism of 
life and thought. The significant characteristic of recent 
times is that the accumulated power of many discoveries 
and inventions drives the world on to quicker and still 


larger achievement. The hijn:her demands of humanity are 
promptly met by larger and better supply. 

In matters of intellect and morals, certain facts may 
seem, on first impression, to negative the idea of improve- 
ment. We cannot, indeed, count any later age or civiliza- 
tion as having intellects superior to those Greece produced 
in Homer, Aristotle, Plato. The world has never touched 
a higher moral thought than the Golden Rule. But Plato, 
Bacon, Kant are inspirational powers of the intellectual 
world. They were culminations of influences prevailing 
in their epochs. We cannot set down the later of these as 
intellectually greater than the earlier. But neither do we 
have to admit a superiority of the earlier over the later, 
and we can claim that the modern world produces brains 
equal to any of any previous age. The important point is 
that intelligence is now widely diffused, and that the uni- 
versal tendency is to make the highest intellectual attain- 
ment possible to every human being. That is the promise 
of the present for the future ; that is the evolutionary move- 
ment conspicuous in human development. With the still 
wider diffusion of education, with its improvement, with 
its extension so as to embrace effectively training of the 
hand and of moral character, we shall get the mighty coop- 
eration of millions of minds, hands and hearts in the up- 
building of civilization. If we may not anticipate any 
marked increase of individual brain capacity, we may reas- 
onably expect a sufficient average of intellectual power to 
effect the physical and moral sanitation of the world. 

The Golden Rule is the highest expression of moral con- 
duct conceived by man. It may be that it is practised 
only in individual instances and in a partial manner. It 
may be that it is inconsistent with many creeds and reli- 
gions. But the enunciation of the Golden Rule was in itself 
a declaration of a standard of ethics beyond anything recog- 
nized before. And while the one who gave utterance to it 
was the Supreme Man, the incarnation of the highest in 


humauity. he was also a Jew, the hiirhest efflorescence of 
the Jewish race. It may be that Christianity has not lived 
and practised the Golden Kule. It may even have re- 
pudiated it at every turn, but in vain, for Christianity 
cannot remain Christianity and not hold np the Golden 
Rule as its ideal and standard of effort. And the Rule 
is just as inescapable to the Jew as to the Christian. 
It is Jewish in principle. It is the Semitic leaven contrib- 
uted to universal human conduct. From Judaea in the age 
of Jesus and the centuries just preceding came a large sup- 
ply of the ameliorating influences of the world. Judaea 
was then a focal point, a distributing centre for ideas and 
forces ; and Jewish history and Jewish character were such 
as to make of the Jews real cosmopolitans, humanitarians, 
believers in and practicers of the brotherhood of men. 

With inevitable lapses and occasional moral catastrophes, 
man's life on earth has been marked by a steady advance to 
higher conditions. But the largest hope for the future of 
civilization lies in the belief that humanity is but just en- 
tering upon the development of its ethical career. This, 
and the following centuries, how fast or how slowly we 
cannot predict, are going to bring mankind, along with 
material and intellectual improvement, to a higher plane of 
moral living. With this larger, fuller, more beautiful life 
of men as men. we may confidently hope that a truer con- 
ception of religion will be attained. Religion has ever 
divided and separated mankind. But with the diffusion of 
common ethical standards, the expression and foundation 
of religion in human conduct, the church universal that 
shall bind humanity together for the fulfilment of God's 
purposes will be realized. 

To me, the significant thing in the life of Jacob Voor- 
sanger was his catholicity of view, his human-wide sym- 
pathy, the cosmopolitanism of his character. He con- 
tributed to widen the idea of neighbor and to make it a 
living reality. By so doing he aided in the complete moral- 


ization of mankind, and, ultimately, in their spiritnaliza- 
tion. It is throusih the agency of him, and such as he, 
that the universe becomes transformed from a struggle of 
selfish forces to a moral self-sacrificing cooperation. We 
are led to higher ethical perceptions and loftier religious 
ideals. AVe see for humanity a recog-nition of mutual in- 
terdependence and of common service and worship. "We 
obtain a clear and abiding sense of the words Neighbor and 

Professor Popper, of the Department of Semitic Lang- 
uages, delivered the principal address, which is here printed 
in full. 

Three years ago I arrived in San Francisco a total 
stranger. Within an hour or two of my arrival. Professor 
Voorsanger had come to give me a hand-clasp of generous 
Western welcome ; and from that moment until his death I 
found in him a friend such as I had not believed one man 
could find in another not his own flesh and blood. I learned 
to know him well in those three years; and to-day I wish 
that I might have some portion of his own gift of eloquence, 
for only the elociuence of a Jacob Voorsanger could do jus- 
tice to the character of a Jacob Voorsanger. And yet, 
though I have only a simple sketch of his life to bring as 
my tribute, I believe that he himself would have had it thus, 
even as on that day, when some of us performed the sad 
duty of messengers of the University's grief at his grave- 
side, we heard no word of public eulogy uttered. But no 
finer or more fitting tribute could have been paid to the 
memory of any man than the tear-choked voices of the 
many, young and old, who, as individuals or as represen- 
tatives of societies and institutions, told one another of the 
personal loss each had suffered — proudly claimed, each one, 
just as I had thought to claim, to have been nearest to his 
friendship. For a soul so noble, a heart so big, a mind so 
broad as were those of Jacob Voorsanger, made him the 


devoted friend and the ardent protector of as many men 
and as many causes as a dozen ordinary human beings 
would have found too exacting. 

But of all his many interests, from his earliest boyhood 
throutrhout his life, it was his love for learnins: that was 
his master-passion ; the name of student was the pass-word 
to his heart; and he avowed that the world's salvation lies 
no less in the hands of those who devote themselves to the 
cause of research and education than in the hands of those 
who work through the church. And so, out of a life of mani- 
fold demands and activities, he himself gave to the University 
a day each week for lecturing, and many an hour beside for 
earnest thought and planning. Few, I think, have ever 
realized the full extent of his devotion to the University. 
It meant so much of his energy that many of his friends, 
including his physician, urged him to give up his weekly 
trips to Berkeley. But a whole life-time given to the study 
of the Bible, an absolute freedom from prejudice, a gift of 
forceful, magnetic speech, and a compelling eagerness to 
teach what he believed the truth and to combat supersti- 
tion, combined to make him feel himself fitted for the par- 
ticular task he had assumed here in a way that no one 
who is merely a scholar is fitted ; and on the very last oc- 
casion I was with him he once more declared that he felt 
this work to be part of his sacred duty; for here in the 
University he might reach those he could not reach either 
through pulpit or through press. 

What a source of inspiration Professor Voorsanger was 
in the Semitic Department of the University, and to Jewish 
scholarship in general, I can only feebly tell you. What 
his influence was upon the clergy of the country has been 
gratefully acknowledged in many pulpits of all denomina- 
tions. Tributes to his force as writer and editor have been 
paid in numerous editorials in the secular and religious 
press; charitable and fraternal organizations have bewailed 
their loss in memorial meetings; and you all will testify 


that humanity has lost a av arm-hearted friend and these 
United States a most enthusiastic and devoted patriot. 

But with all his breadth of view and sympathy, with 
all his diversity of activity, he was still the staunchest de- 
fender of his own people and religion ; a man of the world, 
in the best sense of the term, he still cherished his own 
particular ideals and a childlike simplicity of faith. He 
taught, as he lived, the solution of two difficult problems: 
how to square our actual and approved practices with our 
preached ideals, the failure to do which lends so often an 
air of insincerity to our modern complex life ; and, in the 
second place, how to combine breadth of sympathy and cos- 
mopolitanism with local patriotism and intensity of in- 

In these respects, for these reasons of character, of ac- 
tivity, of scholarship, and of philosophy of life, Jacob Voor- 
sanger was the representative of all that is best in American 
manhood — the ideal of that for which an American uni- 
versity should stand. And this is true despite the fact that 
he was over twenty years of age before he came to America, 
and that at that age his period of schooling was over. "What 
he was, then, in this regard as in all others, he was, not by 
accident of birth and circumstance, but by choice and force 
of will. 

He was born in Amsterdam, Holland, in November, 
1852, of parents who lived in the Jewish quarter of the 
city in very moderate circumstances ; and he was the second 
of a large family of children. He attended the public 
schools of Amsterdam ; and at the close of each day 's session 
he studied for two additional hours in a Hebrew school. 
By the time he was twelve his career as rabbi had been de- 
termined upon, and he entered the theological seminary in 
his native city. Of an investigating turn of mind, indus- 
trious, and mentally endowed, it was certain not only that 
his career at the seminary would be a brilliant one, but 
also that this period would be one of storm and stress for 


him. For, on the one hand, the institution was a rigidly 
orthodox one, as regards both the theology it taught and 
the rules and regulations it enforced for the daily conduct 
of life. Ceremonies and laws that had had their origin 
back in the centuries, that had been preserved in that won- 
derful treasury of Jewish lore, the Talmud, that had been 
codified by medieval rabbis into an effective protection 
against the various forces that assailed their people — these 
laws and ceremonies were still a part of the educational 
system and of the life to which Jacob Voorsanger was rigidly 

But, on the other hand, the Theological Seminarj'- had 
lately undergone a transformation in certain respects. Tra- 
ditional matter was now taught by modern scientific meth- 
ods: and, furthermore, the curriculum provided for the 
secular studies of a modern gj'mnasium course, in addition 
to Hebrew, some of the cognate Semitic dialects, and the 
various subjects pertaining to the theological career. This 
course he pursued for seven years, and then attended the 
University of Amsterdam an additional year. Once hav- 
ing been introduced into the wider mental world through 
his study of the classics, modern languages, and to some 
extent, philosophy and the natural sciences, he soon found 
himself in rebellion against a system which denied its fol- 
lowers absolute mental freedom, and which aimed to shut 
them out of the larger life of the world in the narrow con- 
fines of a ghetto. His inherited and acquired tendencies, 
however, his recognition of the value of discipline, lent him 
a saving conservatism which kept him during this period 
from going to the extremes of revolt, and which ever after- 
ward continued to make his practices somewhat less radical 
than the principles with which he sympathized. An incident 
which took place when he was only sixteen reveals this con- 
servatism as well as the absolute fearlessness which char- 
acterized his whole life. At a meeting of Social Demo- 
crats held in Amsterdam at that time, after the speakers 


of the evening had finished their addresses, he sprang upon 
the platform, and, receiving permission to speak, attacked 
vehemently the radicalism of their propaganda. At the 
age of twenty he had not yet left the ranks of orthodoxy. 

The outlook for him in Amsterdam, however, was 
gloomy. He knew he should have to wait several years 
before receiving a call there; and he found few to sym- 
pathize with his mental attitude. Nevertheless, with all 
his heterodox views, he had always retained the respect and 
the admiration of his orthodox teachers, and with the as- 
sistance of one of these he decided to leave his home for 
London. There he organized a small congregation, and, in 
addition, acted as instructor to the children of its members. 
In this way, within three months, he was enabled to set sail 
for his land of promise. 

He first set foot on American soil in January, 1873, and 
in a few months was appointed cantor of a small congrega- 
tion in Philadelphia. Here he felt himself only moderately 
successful ; but he was preparing himself for the opportun- 
ity he knew would come. He began immediately to lecture 
in English, and determined to make himself a master of the 
language ; out of a salary of four hundred or five hundred 
dollars a year, though he was now a married man, he still 
was able to further his plans by employing a teacher of 
elocution. After three years he accepted another charge, 
in Washington, D.C. In the meantime his work in Phila- 
delphia had brought him to the favorable notice of religious 
leaders elsewhere; and when, in 1877, a modem reform con- 
gregation was organized in Providence, R.I., he was elected 
to fill the new pulpit. Freed from the necessity of attempt- 
ing to fetter his own mind, he soon gave evidence of his 
growing ability as a powerful speaker and fluent writer of 
good English. His ardent nature and his fearlessness in 
championship of his principles quickly won the members 
of his Providence parish to a warm personal attachment; 
though within a year he felt compelled by the opportunity 


for a wider activity to accept a call from the great South- 
west, at Houston, Texas. This was in 1878, and he was 
now twenty-six years of age. He was to remain in Texas 
eight years, and these years, too, were to be years of prep- 
ai-ation. Optimistic and self-confident though he was, he 
felt that the absence of opportunity for much University 
work in his earlier years had imposed certain limitations 
to his OM'n ambitions, and so he still remained the hard 
working student. Well on into the night he could always 
be found at his study-desk ; for relaxation he had his brother 
read to him in French. His aptitude for languages and his 
retentive memoiy were providing him with such a store of 
the world's history and literature that later, even in his 
lengthiest extempore addresses, he was never at a loss for 
an apt illustration. 

His success in the Houston i)ulpit was unqualified. His 
genius for his calling is shown by this fact : that while his 
radical views were never concealed, he was able to hold 
spellbound an audience of pronounced ultra-conservative 
opinions and to make them his devoted followers. During 
his incumbency of the Houston pulpit there was a large 
migration to Texas of settlers from Eastern Europe who in 
their new home remained strict adherents of the orthodox 
views and habits they had brought with them. As long 
as Dr. Voorsanger remained in Houston they were content 
to worship with his congregation, and they established a 
separate one only after he had left. 

But the pulpit alone did not afford to Dr. Voorsanger 
a wide enough sphere of activity; believing in the eflficacy 
of the editorial as a factor in the moral uplifting of the 
people, in Houston he had the opportunity of using both 
a religious and a secular press for making his influence 
felt over a wider circle than that of his own congregation 
and his own city. In the few years that he had been in 
America he had made himself a thorough enough American 
to warrant an intelligent and leading participation in all 


that concerned the civic and national welfare. He had 
learned to love the freedom and the unbounded possibilities 
of his adopted country in a way that few native born citi- 
zens can appreciate; he was such an ardent admirer of 
American political institutions that, when in Houston he 
was joined by a younger brother from Amsterdam, he re- 
fused to allow the latter to spend his leisure as he desired 
until he had mastered the Constitution of the United States. 
It is easy to understand, then, why Dr. Voorsanger accepted 
a position on the editorial staff of The Houston Post, to his 
duties in connection with which he devoted two or three 
hours daily. His services were then desired in a similar 
capacity by The Galveston News ; and, though he refused 
the offer, he wrote for The News an excellent short history 
of Texas, from documents in the State archives. His most 
sustained literary effort during his stay in Houston was a 
life of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, written in a 
fascinating style of extreme simplicity. 

In 1886 Dr. Voorsanger came to San Francisco as the 
junior minister of Temple Emanu-El ; and three years later, 
on the death of the senior rabbi, he succeeded to the in- 
cumbency. In San Francisco he found the larger field for 
his labors that he had longed for. His congregation soon 
became very dear to him, and in him it found a leader 
worthy of its position as one of the very foremost in the 

No little of his greater joy in his new charge was due to 
the proximity of the University, and to the intercourse with 
scholars that it offered him. He quickly showed that he 
himself had won the right to a place among scholars, and 
it must be remembered that this was largely the result of 
his own unaided efforts. A fitting recognition of his schol- 
arly attainments was made when the Board of Regents of 
the University in 1894 appointed him Professor of the 
Semitic Languages and Literatures, and when some years 
later the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati conferred 


upon him the degree of Doctor of Diviuit.y. It was always 
a cause of regret to Dr. Voorsanger that his busy life left 
him no time for that intensive scientific research required 
for extended literary productions of a scholarly kind ; but 
his lectures, his sermons, and his editorials bore sufficient 
evidence of his learning, as also of his breadth of view. In 
California he found men of all denominations eager to listen 
to him ; he was accustomed to address audiences, Reform and 
Orthodox, Jewish, Catholic and Protestant, with equal readi- 
ness and equally happy results. One of the Orthodox syna- 
gogues in the city alwaj^s looked forward to the sermon which 
he annually delivered there in the style of the ancient rabbis ; 
in Stockton on one occasion the Jewish clergyman spoke 
without a note for an hour and a half, before a Protestant 
audience, under the auspices of a Catholic institution ; and 
only two weeks before his death he addressed a large as- 
sembly of Episcopalians. 

It is hardly necessary to recall to citizens of California 
how entirely Jacob Voorsanger became one of their own. 
He was proud of the part his congregation had played, al- 
most from its foundation, in the history and growth of the 
better life of the community; how eager he was that it 
should continue to play such a part may be read in the 
one hundred and seventy-page account of the congregation's 
story which he published in 1900 as the "Chronicles of 
Emanu-El. " And the troubles which assailed the city in 
recent years were the subject of many a sermon, many an 
editorial in the paper of which he was the founder, Emanu- 
El, and of many a discussion. When the right demanded 
a champion, neither time nor place was reckoned with by 
his intense earnestness. If this earnestness occasionally re- 
sulted almost in brusqueness, it was at least well-balanced 
by a genial sense of humor that helped, through many a 
trying task, those who worked with him. 

His energy, his promptness in action, his fearlessness, 
naturally brought Dr. Voorsanger to the front on every 


occasion when he thought the welfare of his own people 
here or elsewhere, in danger. A number of years ago a 
mission to attempt their conversion was established in San 
Francisco. Believing that only harm could come of such at- 
tempts he promptly went before an assembly of clergymen 
of the denomination to which the mission belonged, and so 
impressed his views upon them that at least for a time the 
attempts were discontinued. When the terrible news of his 
people's suffering in the Russian Kishineff riots of 1903 
reached this country, owing largely to his exertions the 
relief sent to them by the San Francisco community out- 
measured in extent that offered by the largest American 
cities. He was one of the most insistent, too, of those who 
urged that steps be taken to arm the Russian Jews in their 
own defense. 

But his heart went out in the same ready sympathy to 
the suffering of all creeds. In 1893, when the streets of 
San Francisco were thronged with workmen out of employ- 
ment, a conference of clergymen was held to seek means 
for the relief of those in distress. Various plans were sug- 
gested, when Dr. Voorsanger declared that whatever else 
might be done, funds must be raised immediately to provide 
for their most pressing wants, and he himself headed the 
subscription list. 

We all know that in the early summer of 1906 he was 
one of the first to organize relief for the stricken city. The 
very day after the great calamity, refugees to Berkeley from 
San Francisco told of the heroic work he was already doing 
there, and on Friday morning I crossed the Bay to try and 
communicate with him. I was directed from one place to 
another, only to receive the information in each one that 
the Doctor had just finished a task there and had hastened 
to another elsewhere. I tried a second day at his new home ; 
his good wife was in the street preparing the noon-time 
meal, and she was confident that he must return soon — not 
because of any necessity on his part to eat, but because he 


was to perform a ceremony in Oakland early in the after- 
noon, and would have to change his clothes first. But she 
was mistaken ; the Doctor could not take the time from his 
relief work even for this, and had gone as he was to his 
appointment. I finally chose a late evening for my search, 
and found him this time reviewing the papers of sufferers 
who had applied for aid to the Rehabilitation Committee. 
As thus in the city's crises, so also in those quieter times 
that often try men's souls none the less severely, he was 
ever watchful, resourceful, and self-sacrificing. 

It is pei-haps hardly delicate to refer in detail to his 
many practical acts of kindness and personal charity, the 
extent of which, and in most cases even the fact of Avhich, 
were unknown till after his death. It was especially stu- 
dents that he aided. One of them, who has since died. Dr. 
Voorsanger provided with lodgings, invited to his table 
three times a day, assisted financially and otherwise 
throughout his long University course, and then started on 
his career of physician by fitting up an office for him. And 
typical of a life in which charity was practised no less 
often than the many times it was preached, is the fact 
that the very last cheek Dr. Voorsanger signed was one 
drawn for charity. 

In all mattei*s with which he had to deal he displayed a 
tireless energy. He was .so eager for everything to be done 
well that he rarely could persuade himself to entrust to 
others any part, even, of his routine duties. His life was 
indeed an example of the American life strenuous, and at 
the age of fifty-six he had lived a full life-time. Two years 
ago he felt already compelled to seek a change of activity for 
a while, and he decided to fulfill one of his long cherished 
ambitions : to visit the lands that had been the background 
of so much of his study and of his life-work. On his return 
from this visit to Egypt and Palestine he was filled with 
renewed enthusiasm and had apparently regained his for- 
mer vigor; his plans for future activity were multiplied, 
among them more than one that aimed at increasing the 


usefulness of the department in the University which owed 
its origin to his initiative, and much of its growth and in- 
fluence to his loving, untiring, and self-sacrificing efforts. 
In these efforts he had always had the welcome support of 
the men and women of his congregation; for many years 
they had maintained at the University the Emanu-El Fel- 
lowship in Semitic Languages, and they had made many and 
extensive contributions to the Semitic department of the 
Library. He himself now completed the transfer to the 
Universit}^ of the famous Deinard collection of one thou- 
sand volumes as a foundation for a Jacob Voorsanger Semi- 
tic collection for which he hoped to secure many additions. 
Aside from such plans, he also remodeled in the light of his 
recent travels his course of inspiring lectures on the history 
and development of the Bible and its peoples, a course which 
three years ago he gave by request at Stanford University ; 
and he offered last year an additional course on the Talmud 
and post-Biblical Hebrew literature. 

But in the midst of these plans a great sorrow came into 
his life, for one of his own beloved ones was taken from him ; 
and the resignation and quiet heroism with which he met 
this blow were to prove deceptive. The sturdy oak stands 
safe against the storm-winds of the ages; but one day the 
lightning flashes, and, though little outward sign reveals 
that harm has been done, the first gentle breeze that blows 
lays the giant low, for the stroke has pierced the heart. 
Though Professor Voorsanger continued his work almost 
to the end of the college year, he found his one-time easily 
borne tasks too great a strain, and he was forced to leave 
the city in April. Before the day came that brought to us 
a short respite from our labors there had been inscribed 
in the register of Life's University this legend: Jacob 
"Voorsanger, patient doer of the Divine Will, zealous seeker 
of the truth, fearless fighter for the right, gentle guardian 
of souls, skilful moulder of minds, faithful friend of all 
mankind: absent on eternal leave, by decree of the Great 



B. F. Wright. 

Had it been suggested to the class of 1897 that during 
the next decade the United States would enter upon a col- 
onial policy in both the eastern and western hemispheres, 
the most credulous would have hesitated to believe such a 
statement. So far were our thoughts from such a policy 
that in the usual college courses our attention was seldom 
called to the subject of colonization in the abstract. In the 
concrete our thought was confined mainly to the thirteen 
colonies of a kindred race scattered up and down the Atlan- 
tic coast, and to the adjacent French and Spanish settle- 
ments. In fact we thought of these more as settlements 
than colonies. People simply moved across the Atlantic 
bringing with them the governmental customs and tradi- 
tions of the home land, made homes for themselves, and 
worked out the problem of government in harmony with 
the new surroundings. The question of colonial govern- 
ment per se was obscured by the fact that we always felt 
ourselves to be an integral part of the mother country ; and 
had the advice of good Ben Franklin and others been heeded 
it is possible that such a relation might have subsisted even 
to the present time. At any rate the question of integral 

* Address delivered before the College of Commerce Club of the 
University of California, Nov. 11, 1907. 


relation was relegated to a minor place in our desire to fol- 
low the progress of the colonies in their intense struggle to 
obtain the mastery over the bountiful resources of the coun- 
try, and their success in working out the problem of self- 
government in a new environment unhampered by the re- 
straining customs and traditions of an older society. 

Our ideas of colonization were, therefore, confined large- 
ly to the spreadiug-out process, to the overflow- of the race 
in its westward march. There were, to be sure, numerous 
illustrations, as in the case of India, Java, South America, 
and the Philippines, of the colonizing principle in its more 
essential nature, namely, the governmental relation between 
a superior and an inferior people. Little emphasis was, 
however, placed upon this phase of the subject save as ma- 
terial for special investigation in post-graduate work from 
an academical point of view, or from its possible connection 
with the expansion of our commerce, the necessity for which 
was beginning to open our eyes a little more critically as to 
what was going on about us. 

The Spanish war came like a thunderbolt from the skies 
and plunged us into new relations with the world. People 
of an inferior race were thrust upon our care ; and now we 
are rubbing the dust and cobwebs from out our eyes as well 
as from off musty tomes in foreign languages to see how 
other nations have solved these problems. Like the grown- 
up boy who has come to the fathership of some lusty boys 
of his own, we are wondering what to do with our wards. 
The wise parent usually recalls his childhood days and finds 
in them an inspiration which teaches him to become a boy 
again, and to put himself, with all the memory of his boyish 
years, in the shoes of his little ones. It would indeed be 
consoling to us if we could deduce from the experience of 
our colonial days the principles that should enable us to 
govern wisely and well our wards across the seas ; but they 
are of another race and see through different eyes, and 
searching into our past history will reveal few principles to 


be successfully applied in the government of a tropical race. 
It is rather a case of searching carefully into their past 
history and learning to look through their eyes. We may 
in vain pour our new ideas into their oriental consciousness. 
Their rational faculties may even grasp our meaning, and 
yet we shall find little change in their mental constitution 
or springs of action. 

In the same way it ought to be clear that we cannot 
legislate the results of our social and political development 
upon the people of another race. We may, however, by a 
wise policy, be enabled to modify their social evolution and 
thus in time bring about a development of greater well-being 
and efficiency along the lines of our social experience. In 
order to make any lasting impression upon them as indi- 
viduals we must modify the principles and customs of their 
native societies. Of this necessity we have ample proof in 
the fact that three branches of the IMalay race have existed 
without change for hundreds of years under the rule of 
different peoples. Neither the Dutch in Java, the English 
in the adjacent mainland, nor the Spanish in the Philippines 
have made any serious attempt to modify the structure of 
the native society. Outside of conferring that greatest of 
all blessings to a primitive people, peace, they have devoted 
themselves largely to exploitation, and to forcing upon the 
natives institutions developed under entirely different en- 
vironments. The result has been that wherever the Malay 
is found to-day he displays the same characteristics which 
were noted by the earliest discoverers. Customs that have 
hovered about the development of a race for centuries can- 
not be lightly regarded. There is in them, crude as they 
may often appear to us, that which serves to protect the 
interests of the individaal. Meddling with such customs 
is almost certain to result in placing the least progressive 
of a people at the mercy of the crafty leader. Witness the 
attempt of the English to force upon the people of India 
the principle of freedom of contract, which is resulting in 


transferring the ownership of the soil into the hands of the 
few; or witness the results of the attempt of our own gov- 
ernment to give the same privilege to the Indian. Eloquent 
testimony of the applicability and efficiency of certain fun- 
damental principles of our common law, that heritage of 
protection to the common man, in solving some of the trou- 
blesome questions growing out of the growth of the cor- 
porate forms of industry, is given in the rising belief that 
this body of laws, venerable with age, contains ample rem- 
edy when properly applied. Just as the rights and priv- 
ileges of the common man are guaranteed to the Anglo- 
Saxon by the principles of the common law, just so are the 
rights and privileges of the common Malay very apt to be 
protected in the body of custom that holds for them the 
force of law. 

Of one thing, however, we may be absolutely certain in 
dealing with our tropical colonies, — there must be created 
and fostered a sound economic policy as the basis of any 
permanent progress. A productive rather than a consump- 
tive economy must be inaugurated and maintained. Instead 
of importing large quantities of rice, flour, eggs, etc., these 
commodities should rather form an item of export. Agri- 
culture in all its available branches must be encouraged, and 
the beginnings of native industry fostered and led into 
larger channels, for the fruits of a higher civilization can 
only be realized after centuries of patient toil and conquest 
of natural resources have accumulated a surplus which may 
be devoted to the culture side of life. 

There are four lines of work that our government is 
inaugurating in the Philippines for the direct betterment 
of economic conditions: the creation and maintenance of 
better means of communication, the establishment of an 
agricultural bank and the fostering of agriculture and in- 
dustry through experiment stations and schools of art and 
trades, the establishment of a system of justice reaching 
down to the very lowest social grades, and the establish- 


ment of a system of Postal Savings Banks. It is in regard 
to the fourth of these that the Dean of the College has kindly 
invited me to address you this afternoon. 

A better understanding of the necessity for, and the 
nature of, such an institution as the Postal Savings Bank 
can be had by recalling to your minds something of the 
environment of the Philippines. 

A multitude of beautiful, evergreen islands lying in 
placid seas under a vertical sun, with marvelously fertile 
valley's and plains, timbered hills, and inigged mountains 
behind which the sun sets in golden grandeur unknown 
outside the tropics, tinting earth as well as sky with a glory 
strange to behold ; a climate whose soothing, subtle influence 
mellows the struggle for existence, none too severe at best, 
till contentment well-nigh clasps hands with apathy, and 
effort vanishes into the morrow ; a soil so fertile that nature 
unassisted kindly ministers to the primitive wants of man, — 
such is the home of from seven to eight millions of people of 
the Malay race. 

Three hundred years of Spanish dominion have not been 
sufficient to break down entirely the barriers of tribal re- 
lationship; and, where one might expect to find a common 
dialect or language, there are two score dialects so exclusive 
in their nature that the people speaking one of them might 
find themselves unable to make their wants known some 
thirty miles from home. Their wants are exceedingly few 
and simple and easily satisfied, their habits primitive, their 
disposition hospitable, kindly, and peaceful. Physically 
they are a well built people, short and agile, the women being 
considerably smaller than the men. The children mature 
quickly ; but the bloom and freshness of youth fade rapidly 
into old age. Consumption and skin diseases are very pre- 
valent, and the ravages of the plague, of cholera, and of 
smallpox were, until the introduction of greater sanitary 
precautions by the Americans, beyond description. While, as 
a rule, the natives are cleanly of person, little or no attention 


is paid to the commonest sanitary precautions in the house 
and surroundings. This fact, together with a peculiar do- 
mestic economy by which a large part of their food is pur- 
chased, ready for consumption, from the innumerable little 
booths, places them absolutely at the mercy of contagious 
or infectious diseases. It is probable that the greatest 
blessing conferred upon the Filipino people by the Ameri- 
cans, other than the establishment of a peaceful and law- 
abiding regime, lies in the untiring efforts for the improve- 
ment of sanitary conditions throughout the islands, — a work 
which, strange to say, has met with the greatest opposition 
on the part of the very people it was designed to help. The 
earnest, painstaking, and determined work of Commissioner 
Worcester in this respect will go down in the history of the 
Islands as one of the greatest contributions toward the 
solution of colonial questions in the tropics. 

Few of the people outside the towns can read their na- 
tive dialect, and fewer still have more than the merest speak- 
ing knowledge of Spanish. As may be expected, these con- 
ditions lead to a narrow provincialism, and complicate ma- 
terially the governmental problem. The introduction of 
English as the language of the schools in every part of the 
Islands, and the widening of the means of communication, 
will tend to change these conditions by freeing the people 
from these local restrictions. 

It would be unfair, however, should I convey the im- 
pression that this is a faithful portrayal of the Filipino peo- 
ple as a whole. It is, I believe, fairly accurate as to the 
great body of the people inhabiting the interior who have 
not been reached in any material degree by the civilizing 
influences centering about the cities. It represents the stock 
with which we have to deal. 

The cities and towns present a different element — an 
element more advanced in civilization, but more diiiScult to 
handle from a governmental point of view, because endowed 
with that conceit and inordinate self-confidence which in- 


evitably accompany the first steps of prosfress. As Elbert 
Hubbard somewhere says of the penalty of oris^inal think- 
ing, "it inspires fools to unseemliness as well as wise men 
to action." It was in the cities, of course, that the civiliz- 
ing influences of the Spanish regime first made themselves 
felt, and it is here that we find the best that the Filipino 
race has to oifer. 

It is not my purpose, however, to enter into any discus- 
sion involving the ability of the people along political lines. 
I desire, rather, to point out some of their salient charac- 
teristics which must be given careful consideration in deal- 
ing with the development of the race from an economic 
point of view. Foremost among these is the lack of thrift 
and foresight among the great body of the people. Where 
nature provides so bountifully for the wants of her children 
it is not to be wondered at that these virtues should be of 
slow development. In fact it is a serious question as to 
just how far we are going to be successful in dealing with 
a tropical people without the assistance given by nature in 
temperate zones to the inculcation of foresight. The great 
body of the people see little farther than the wants of the 
present, and their productive efforts are put forth accord- 
ingly. Manual labor is looked upon as a disgrace both be- 
cause in their own original economy it was considered igno- 
minious by the tribal dignitaries, and also because of the 
example of lordly superiority to industry set them by the 
Spanish. The one who does the least work is the most re- 
spected ; and so the one fundamental element of all progress 
is lacking, for there can be no permanent progress without 
a material basis. Herein lies, perhaps, the greatest weak- 
ness of the people we are striving to benefit. 

In recognition of these conditions the Philippine govern- 
ment is establishing a system of instruction in trades, arts, 
and agriculture. It has also established a system of Postal 
Savings Banks for the express purpose of encouraging the 
growth of habits of thrift and foresight, not only by pro- 


viding a safe and convenient means of safeguarding the 
savings of the people, but also by an active campaign of 
education designed to bi'ing to the attention of the humblest 
citizen the necessity of these habits as essential elements in 
individual and racial progress. 

As you are well avv^are, the Postal Savings Bank is not 
a new institution, having been in operation in most Euro- 
pean countries and their colonies for many years. In fact 
the United States is the one striking example of a nation of 
prominence without a system of Postal Savings Banks. In 
its essentials a Postal Savings Bank differs little from the 
ordinary savings institution, being little more than the ex- 
tension of the functions of a savings bank through the most 
widely distributed government office — the Post Office — to 
the largest number of people with the least expense. Such 
an institution is especially well suited to the conditions 
existing in the Philippines and other tropical countries. 
Outside of Manila, with its four large commercial and ex- 
change banks, there are no banking institutions of any kind 
save four branches of these banks in Iloilo and Cebu. 

The law providing for the establishment of Postal Sav- 
ings Banks was passed by the Philippine Commission May 
26, 1906 (Act No. 1493). The first office was opened in 
Manila on October first of the same year. Branches have 
been established since in all the larger post offices, and grad- 
ually extended to the smaller ones, until now there are some 
250 offices widely distributed throughout the islands. It 
is the intention that branches shall ultim.ately be established 
in every post office. 

The principal features of the law are grouped about the 
following provisions relating — 

1. To those who may become depositors. 

2. To the use of savings bank stamps. 

3. To the receipt of deposits. 

4. To the payment of withdrawals. 

5. To the payment of interest. 

6. To the investment of funds. 


These provisions may be considered in their order. In 
the first place, it is provided that any resident over six 
years of age may open an account in his own name; that 
the head of any family, or person of lawful age, may open 
an account for the benefit of any person who is physically 
or mentally unable to manage his own affairs ; and that 
charitable and benevolent societies may open accounts with 
more generous privileges than in the case of individuals. 
In other words the privileges of the bank are open to all 
residents with the restraining provision that no person shall 
receive benefit from more than one account save as a mem- 
ber of some society or as trustee for another person. 

Secondly, in order to provide for the receipt of savings 
in small amounts, thus avoiding the trouble of small entries, 
provision is made for the use of specially designed stamps. 
These are in three denominations, five, ten, and twenty 
centavos, and can be used only in making deposits. Cards 
are supplied to all purchasers of stamps, free of charge, 
upon which must be affixed the proper stamps to the value 
of one peso. These stamps are on sale at all Postal Savings 
Bank offices, and will be received in deposit, when affixed 
to cards as above mentioned, in the same manner as a peso, 
the smallest cash deposit alloAvable. The real purpose of 
these stamps is to encourage the saving of small amounts of 
money by the children, although the law provides that all 
deposits in the third class or smallest banks must be made by 
means of stamps. I believe this to be an ill-considered 
provision, for it is a useless annoyance, and adds at least 
one per cent to the cost of handling such deposits. A suffi- 
cient length of time has not yet elapsed to determine the 
value of the stamp feature as a means of encouraging saving 
among the children. The fact, however, that the children 
are rather liberally supplied with centavos for the purchase 
of small articles of food leads to the belief that through 
the schools the children may in this way be induced to take 
the first steps in saving. 


Thirdly, there is no limit to the amount that a person 
may accumulate on deposit, though the amount drawing in- 
terest is limited as explained later. In the smaller offices, 
however, the amount of single deposits, as well as the 
amounts that may be deposited each month, is limited for 
the purpose of protecting the government against losses. 
Accordingly, offices are divided into three classes: in the 
first class there is no limit on the amount of deposits or 
withdrawals ; in the second class the limit of single deposits 
is ?=100, and the monthly limit ^200 ; in third class offices 
single deposits are limited to P25, and the monthly amount 
to ?50. 

Each depositor is supplied with a deposit book free of 
charge by the central office at Manila, in which his deposits 
and withdrawals are entered by the local postmaster. De- 
posits or withdrawals may be made at any office in the 
islands. In making deposits the ordinary deposit slip is 
made out by the depositor in duplicate and certified by the 
postmaster who forwards the original immediately to the 
central office, where the amount is entered to the credit of 
the depositor. These deposit slips, together with other 
forms mentioned in connection with withdrawals, form the 
basis for checking the postmaster's monthly account, which 
is rendered to the Central Office. A certificate of deposit 
is sent from the Central Office to each depositor for each 
deposit made. This certificate is valueless save as a notice 
to the depositor of the correct entry of the deposit (made 
with the local postmaster) to the depositor's credit on the 
books of the Central Office. It serves, however, as a check 
upon the postmaster in the correct repairing of deposits 
made at his office. 

"Withdrawals of funds deposited can be made at any office 
by forwarding an application for the amount to the Central 
Office and securing an authorization for the postmaster 
to pay the same. This application is certified by the post- 
master, and the authority for payment is sent directly to 


him, ^yith funds for the payment, if necessary. The amount 
that can be withdrawn at a given time or within a calendar 
month is limited as in the case of deposits. In no case, save 
in the closing of accounts, can more than two withdrawals 
be made during a calendar month. The postmaster's month- 
ly account, in the case of withdrawals, is checked by the 
receipt given by the depositor and by the retained copy of 
the authority for payment. 

Provision is also made for telegraphic withdrawals, in 
which case the cost, averaging about fifty-five centavos, of 
telegraphing is paid by the depositor. The provisions relat- 
ing to withdrawals are somewhat unsatisfactory owing to the 
length of time it takes to obtain the money desired. Com- 
munication with the outlying islands is slow and uncertain 
at best, and the result is that it often takes from two to 
three weeks to make a withdrawal. The keeping of the de- 
positors' accounts in the Central Office, however, makes it 
impossible to avoid the delay. It is possible that as soon 
as conditions become more settled and the business of the 
bank warrants, the islands may be divided into districts in 
each of which may be kept resident depositors' accounts. 
Meanwhile, in order to alleviate this condition, I have rec- 
ommended that postmasters be authorized to pay with- 
drawals not in excess of ten pesos, on demand, without 
awaiting for the usual authority from the Central Office. 
While this may involve the possibility of occasional small 
losses it will partially remove one of the greatest obstacles 
we have to overcom.e in inducing people to make use of the 
bank. With people in this stage of material progress con- 
sumption can not be long postponed, and it is essential that 
the savings should be largely consumed in the purchase of 
desirable commodities as soon as a sufficient amount has been 
accumulated. This, in connection with the natural lack of 
confidence, makes it essential, at least for a time, that sav- 
ings should be readily accessible. 

In regard to interest the law provides that it shall be 


paid at the rate of 21/4% on the lowest monthly balance not 
in excess of ?=1,000, or ?2,000 in the case of societies. In- 
terest is computed and added to the accounts at the close 
of each fiscal year, save in the case of closed accounts, in 
which case the amount due is added to the balance paid. 

As a rule the interest rate should be high in proportion 
as the incentive to save is weak. In the case of the Postal 
Savings Bank, however, sound financial considerations de- 
mand that the institution should become self-supporting as 
soon as possible. In the limited field of investments orig- 
inally provided a higher rate than 2i/o% was not deemed 
advisable. With the widening of the field of investment, 
reference to which will be made later, it is probable that a 
higher rate can soon be paid. 

Lastly, the original provisions of the law limited the in- 
vestment of funds to government securities, bank deposits, 
and the stock of certain banks. The field for investment 
was widened later on to include loans upon city real estate 
to the extent of 25% of the net deposits, and on agricultural 
land to the extent of 10% of the net deposits. Provision 
was also made for loans to the Provinces for public improve- 
ments, to be guaranteed by the Insular Government. Up 
to the close of the fiscal year 1907 all investments were made 
in the form of time deposits with local banks at a rate of 
31/2%. Since then loans have been made on real estate at 
the rate of 10%, and Provincial loans applied for at the rate 
of 6% interest. Under these conditions of investment the 
bank will very soon be placed upon a self-supporting basis. 

Such is an outline in brief of the salient features of the 
Postal Savings Bank system as in operation in the Phil- 
ippines. The necessity for a government audit of the ac- 
counts has made inevitable a considerable amount of red 
tape both in the making of deposits and withdrawals and 
also in the accounting. It is only fair to say, however, that 
some of it is due to the peculiar conditions under which 
the business must be carried on. As can readily be seen the 


success of the institution is quite largely dependent upon 
the class of postmasters obtainable. As would be expected 
the postmasters are almost entirely Filipinos, who as a rule 
have little or no knowledge of accounts. The salary paid 
is not sufficient to attract people of any ability. The result 
is that the postmasters are as a rule not anxious to push 
the work of the bank, since it means extra work for them. 
There are, of course, exceptions; one in particular, I call 
to mind, who posted the town with notices and maxims of 
thrift, such as "The Postal Savings Bank is a better place 
to invest your money than the cock-pit," with the result 
that an unusually large number of accounts was opened 
within a short time. 

The results of the first year's w^orking of the savings 
banks have been highly satisfactory. Up to October first, 
1907, there had been deposited the sum of Pl,102,709.29, of 
which amount the sum of f*'641,697.68 remained on deposit. 
At the same date there had been opened 3,967 accounts, of 
which 3.324 accounts remained open. Of these accounts 
2,150 were opened by Americans, and 1,817 by Filipinos 
and a few other residents. As would be expected the 
amount held on deposit by the Americans was greatly in 
excess of that held by the other depositors. These amounts 
stand as follows: American depositors, ^=551,859.42; others, 
?=89,836.26. This would give the average amount to the 
credit of Americans ^256, and to the credit of others, ?=49. 

At first sight these figures might seem to show an un- 
satisfactory condition as far as the use of the bank by the 
Filipinos is concerned. In forming any judgment on this 
subject it should be remembered that the extent to which 
the Filipinos will make use of the bank will be determined 
very largely by the conditions under which they live, as 
well as by the success attained in dispelling prejudice, over- 
coming custom, and making the institution known. To the 
great body of the people the government is but a hazy ab- 
straction, the occasional concrete manifestation of which is 


more apt to inspire fear than confidence, because of its re- 
straining influence. That the body of the people, so recently 
in the throes of an armed contest with our government, 
should look with suspicion upon the motives of that govern- 
ment when it asks them to deposit their savings with its 
officials for safekeeping, is no more than we ought to expect. 
It will take much time and patience to dispel this suspicion, 
and our hope of success lies largely upon what can be ac- 
complished with the rising generation through the schools. 
The conditions under which the Filipino people live should 
be given careful consideration. For many years to come 
they will need to spend the larger part of their income in 
raising their standard of living. The pathway of civiliza- 
tion is paved with an ever increasing number of wants ; and 
the more material of these wants will absorb the larger part 
of the income of the Filipino, and leave little to be saved 
for other purposes. The implanting of newer and higher 
ideals will form a fundamental factor in the development 
of these people. Nothing less will ever stir them out of the 
lethargy of their primitive content. In the planting of 
these higher ideals the schools and the church will ever be 
the most important means. However, they are not alone in 
that work. The merchant who, by the tactful display of 
his goods, can cause new wants to arise, is a powerful factor 
in stimulating that healthy discontent with present sur- 
roundings which will loosen the springs of action ; and while 
the prime motive behind commerce is financial gain, due 
credit should be given for the part it plays in carrying these 
concrete embodiments of civilization to the very doors of 
the humblest inhabitant of the globe, thereby awakening in 
him new desires and aspirations. 

In view of these circumstances the line of action in fur- 
thering the use of the Savings Banks seems to be clearly 
mapped out. Outside of the few favored ones who are 
blessed with a fixed purpose and endowed with sufficient 
energy to struggle for the attainment of the same, and who 


may be left out of consideration, the lesson to be taught 
by the banks is the proper discrimination in the valuation 
of the various commodities that enter into the daily life of 
the individual. The lower the scale of development the 
more pressing are the wants of the moment. So true is this 
that the satisfaction of wants can be postponed at best for 
only a short time. Inasmuch, then, as it is inevitable that 
there shall remain little or no margin of income over ex- 
penditure in this stage, it is imperative that the attention 
of the children should be called continually to the necessity 
of arranging expenditures in such a manner as will best 
contribute to permanent welfare. 

It is evident, therefore, that the Savings Banks for many 
years to come can hope to be but little more than the tem- 
porary depositaries of the small savings of the common peo- 
ple, and their work may accordingly be classed as largely 
educational. The schools thus become our strongest ally, 
and it is hoped that through their co-operation no pupil will 
leave the schools without a thorough acquaintance with the 
Postal Savings Banks and a desire to make use of them 
as a means of furthering his own advancement. 

Not only will the inculcation of habits of thrift and 
foresight in the young lead to a better economic condition 
of affairs, but it will also play an important part in the de- 
velopment of character. Self-reliance, self-respect, and a 
feeling of independence, inevitably follow the development 
of habits of thrift and saving. In the same way there grad- 
ually arises a consciousness of the rights of others. The 
thrifty person feels that he is an important part of the social 
mechanism. The actual accomplishment of one's aims leads 
to the appearance on the horizon of newer and higher ideals, 
and the consciousness of the ability to attain them lends that 
dignity and solidity to life which are essential elements to 
good citizenship. As you all know, success is measured by 
the ability to sacrifice the unessentials in life to the essen- 
tials, the lower wants of man to the higher. It is only the 


pressing nature of the lower cravings of our beings that 
clouds the horizon and shuts out the vision of the ideal, 
that divine principle within us, which, like the refiner's fire, 
separates the dross of life from its gold. 

If the Postal Savings Banks will teach the youth of the 
Philippine Islands the one lesson of so arranging the ex- 
penditure of their income that it may contribute to the di- 
rect attainment of a certain high end instead of becoming a 
mere unorganized dribbling away of money, it will have 
played no small part in their progress toward better things. 
Those of us who have the matter most at heart see in the 
results of the first year's work ample grounds for our faith 
in the future of the institution. 



A. W. Eyder. 

One day I was wandering in the southern forest and 
there I saw an old tiger who had taken the ceremonial bath 
and was holding a bunch of sacred grass in his paw. He 
was sitting on the edge of a pond and every once in a while 
he would call out: "Travellers! Travellers! Here is a 
golden bracelet which is yours for the taking." 

Now one and another, after listening to the tiger, be- 
came frightened, and none would go near him. But by and 
by there came one greedy wayfarer who thought : ' ' This is 
a lucky chance. Yet I suppose I ought not to take so great 
a risk. For I know : 

The blessing of a blessing dies, 

If come upon in evil ways; 
The very draught that deifies, 

If it be poisoned, slays. 

On the other hand, the winning of a good thing always in- 
volves a certain risk. As the proverb says: 

To him who never takes a chance. 
Fortune her favor never grants; 
But to the bold her favor gives, 
And he is happy — if he lives. 

Suppose I investigate." 

So he said aloud: "Where is this bracelet of yours?" 

Translated from the Sanskrit of the Hitopadega. 


The tiger held out his paw and showed the bracelet, but 
the traveller said : ' ' How can I trust a bloodthirsty creature 
like you?" 

"Listen, good traveller," answered the tiger, "long ago 
when I was young I was terribly wicked. I killed any num- 
ber of cows and Brahmans and men, and in revenge I don't 
know how many of my own sons were killed, and my wife 
too. To-day I am alone in the world. Then a certain 
pious man taught me to practise blessed charity, and I am 
now following his teachings. I take my ceremonial bath, I 
give gifts, I am old, my claws and teeth are fallen out, and 
I show mercy. Why should you not trust me ? You know 
yourself what the eight cardinal virtues are : 

Gifts to God's creatures, gifts to God, 

Study, and penance, self-restraint, 
Absence of greed, and lack of fraud, 

And patience: these make up the saint. 

Now the first four may practised be 
For show, without sincerity; 
But the last four are only found 
In those whose inmost heart is sound. 

Now I am so free from greed that, though I hold this brace- 
let of gold in my own paw, I am eager to give it to anyone 
who wants it. But there you have the saying 'Tiger eats 
man, ' and it is hard to get around it. You know yourself : 

In ancient ruts the world moves even now; 

And though sage words from harlot lips may flow, 
Men rather heed the Brahman 's counsel, though 

He may have murdered some unhappy cow. 

Besides, I have studied the sacred law. Listen : 

As heaven 's water in a thirsty place. 

As food to them that faint. 
Thrice blest the gift, O pride of Pandu's race. 

Which beggar takes from saint. 


Their life to other creatures is as dear, 

As your life is to you; 
The saint has pity for another's fear, 

And takes his point of view. 

A man may read his duty clear 

In giving — and withholding too. 
In woe and weal, in smile and tear: 

"Just take the other's point of view." 

Furthermore : 

VTlw sees in all that lives his own dear life. 
Who sees in others' wealth a clod, a weed, 

As his own mother sees his neighbor's wife, 
He sees, he sees indeed. 

Now you are a poor man. That is why I am particularly 
anxious to give you this. For the proverb says : 

Unto the poor give alms, my son, 

Waste not your gold on men of wealth ; 

With medicine much can be done, 
But not for men in perfect health. 

And again : 

When place and time are rightly met. 

The gift in duty's name that's given 
To one who cannot pay the debt, 

Will help the giver on to heaven. 

Bathe in this pool therefore and then receive the golden 
bracelet. ' ' 

So the traveller plucked up courage and went down into 
the pool to bathe; but he stuck fast in the mud and could 
not escape. 

The tiger saw that he was stuck, and said : "Aha ! You're 
stuck fast in the mud. I'll pull you out." 


So he crept up very, very slowly and caught hold of the 
traveller, while the traveller was thinking: 

Not by theology or Vectic lore 

Can scoundrels win the right to trust complete; 
Look at the character; that counts for more: 

The milk of cows is naturally sweet. 

The self -baptism of the elephant 

Is like the piety of lustful folk; 
The hag beneath her load of gems must pant; 

And sin finds scripture a convenient cloak. 

Plainly, I acted foolishly in putting my trust in this blood- 
thirsty creature. The proverb is right : 

The things that can claw, and the things that can gore. 

Are very untrustworthy things; 
And a man with a sword in his hand, furthermore. 

And rivers and women and kings. 

And again 


The habits we acquire are little worth; 
The nature that was ours before our birth 
Will master us, while yet we live on earth. 

And yet again : 

The thousand-beamed moon that moves alone — 
Denying dark to sin — mid heaven's stars. 

Fate's foreordained decree must still atone, 
And meet eclipse, that all her beauty mars. 

What power of man can hope to alter now 

The lines that fate once wrote upon the infant's brow?" 

While he was turning these matters over in his mind, 
the tiger killed him and ate him. 



"W. E. Hocking. 

The experience of State Universities in the attempt to 
maintain, in more or less modified form, the old institution 
of college chapel has been of ambiguous result. Perhaps 
half the number have some form of official worship. These 
include ^Maine, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Colorado, 
and, recently, Kansas. Cornell also, which is in part a State 
university, has its Sage Chapel, said to be an important 
factor in the spiritual life of the university. On the other 
hand, Wisconsin, more than twenty years ago, gave up the 
chapel service; and Michigan, within the last few years, 
has done likewise. The question is an open one M'hether 
this particular tyipe of religious expression is not out of 
accord with the spirit of the State university. The prac- 
tical objections to it are serious, but the theoretical objec- 
tions are even more serious. In the absence of any such 
exercise there is doubtless felt a certain lack, although it 
might be hard to say wherein the lack consists. The 
American people are not noted for reverence, and without 
some habitual act of humility it is not surprising that an 
unpleasant and even desolate self-sufficiency should filter 
into the spirit of student life. Perhaps it is fair also to 
mention our alleged "slender sense of the deeper poetry 


of things," which an institution of worship, with its appeal 
to ideas and feelings of wider range, would tend to nourish. 
The habit of stretching the mind over the comprehensive 
and solemn human vistas is undoubtedly a natural source 
of the sense of reverence also. Those universities which 
have recently adopted religious service have been moved 
by some such considerations as these. But it is not yet 
clear from experience that these advantages can be had 
without introducing so much that is foreign and disturb- 
ing to the temper of a State university as to neutralize 
their value. Religious worship is necessarily worship of 
a particular form, with particular presuppositions which it 
is not within the province of the State to enforce nor of the 
university to teach. It is truly desirable to balance in 
some way the concentrated utilities and humanities of col- 
lege business; but the worth of freedom from specific re- 
ligious offices, both in administration and in the intellectual 
work of the university, is too great to be overborne by this 
admitted fact. There are other agencies now at work to 
the same end; and there are other means, conceivable and 
in use, within the natural reach of the university. The dis- 
tinctive religious office can maintain itself within our State 
universities, as a university function, only in case it comes 
clearly within the province of the university and is part of 
its organic business. And it is more important in this mat- 
ter than in most others to defer to the strict theory of the 
situation ; for the spirit of religious worship is most sensi- 
tive to damage, and a subtle incongruity will more than 
destroy the value of the best-meant enterprise in this di- 

In \new of this I may be pardoned a review of the main 
points of policy relative to this question, before taking up 
the more concrete expediencies and the results of experi- 

American universities have not customarily acted upon 
the theory that it is the sole function of the university to 
furnish instruction. Such a division of labor is too clear- 


cut — ^too academic. We have interested ourselves in the 
student-community in the concrete — its housing, its health, 
its music and drama, its sport and amusement. We have 
done so in part as a matter of convenience, in part as a 
matter of responsibility. Higher animals, we know, mature 
slowly: however it may be with college students in Germany 
and France, the American student is not a finished citizen. 
We have assumed, therefore, that it is our business to see 
that his opportunities in various directions are somewhat 
proportional to their human importance; not simply to their 
necessity, nor to the student's naive estimate of their im- 
portance. The American State university has definitely 
rejected the attitude of laissez faire in regard to the general 
life of students in every respect except in this one of re- 
ligious worship. 

It is idle, of course, to put provision of facilities for 
worship in the same list with the provision of dormitories. 
The peculiarity of religion is this : that unless it is necessary 
for the university to be concerned with it, there are most 
weighty reasons for letting it alone. Only so much is clear 
— that no a priori definition of the university as a teaching 
body is sufficient to exclude the office in question. 

If any positive reason can be shown why the university 
should maintain, as a university, any religious office, it 
must come from the circumstance that the university in the 
course of its business as otherwise defined does inevitably 
act as a factor in the religious life of the student body, and 
is therefore bound, as far as may be, to make that action 
complete and just. We begin to see, in these days, how 
seldom it is that an individual agent can fairly say, "I de- 
fine my action as thus and so, and refuse to recognize any 
further bearings it may have." That kind of individual- 
ism, even in private contracts, is seen to be false. It is at 
least conceivable that the university which should say in 
effect, "I undertake to determine to a large extent the gen- 
eral intellectual outlook of a body of students, but in such 


wise as to incur no obligation to their religion" would be 
in a position equally false. 

Now the universitj' presumably teaches nothing but what 
is true ; and we have reached that point in clearness of head 
at which we are almost unanimously ready to assert that 
nothing in true religion can be injured or imperilled by the 
free pursuit of truth. The university may therefore, in 
defining its province, be individualistic to this extent: that 
it will undertake simply and disinterestedly to teach the 
truth, and let religion take the consequences, — which if it 
is sincere it w'ill gladly do. This, I believe, is the sense of 
the typical policy of our State universities, and seems to 
justify their release from religious activity. 

I believe that this is a perfectly valid position in so far : 
truth must be taught, and religion must take the conse- 
quences. But of these consequences, the first is that a cer- 
tain amount of work is thrown upon religion in order to 
maintain itself. Religious progress has alw^iys been in 
large part a slow and difficult adjustment to changes in 
ideas which have taken place independently: and in this 
respect also the history of individual development is a re- 
capitulation of the history of the race. It is, in fact, im- 
possible to change a man's mind without changing his re- 
ligion. The language of that religion may remain the same, 
but the meaning has undergone internal change; and it is 
very seldom that the change takes place wholly within the 
language and doctrine, without break. The simple truth 
is that the development of those views of the world which 
university life brings, makes, and ought to make, the reten- 
tion of religious views harder. The worth of religion in 
any mind is well measured by the tension it represents ; or 
let us say, by the range of that mind 's departure from orig- 
inal simplicity. It requires more potential energy for a 
person scientifically trained to hold a religion than it does, 
ceteris paribus, for an untrained person. The amount of 
work thrown upon the religious consciousness is thus di- 


rectly proportional to the depth of culture. It seems ob- 
vious, therefore, that the university, which more than any 
other agency throws this work upon the religious conscious- 
ness, since it deals with just that region of truth-seeking 
which the general religious life of the community has not 
3'et taken care of, is not quit of its duty by saying that trae 
religion can take care of itself. 

It is not to be expected that students will in general be 
able to reconstruct the religious reference of the several 
aspects of life with which they are scientifically concerned. 
It is not the business of instructors to do this. The self- 
sufficiency of the sciences in dealing with their own subject 
matters is necessary to tlieir existence ; and while there are 
none who better underetand the possibility and value of 
maintaining this religious reference than many individual 
members of our various faculties, to do so is never within 
their department. For it is not a department matter: the 
world-view of a student is a composite picture ; it is a pro- 
duct not of his instructors severally, but of the university. 
Any department, existing or conceivable, not excepting the 
"chair of religion" sometimes proposed, would fail, just by 
being a department, to meet this situation which the uni- 
versity creates. 

It seems clear, therefore, that the university owes some- 
thing officially to this situation. It is not a matter to be 
dealt with by students alone, either personally or in ama- 
teur religious societies, nor by instructors, nor by outside 
agencies. To depend upon churches and guild halls, which 
say both more and less than the university ought to say. and 
with many voices, and to irregular groups of persons, is an 
evasion. Whatever may be done by outside agencies, it is 
not the same thing as a peg, however simple, set by the uni- 
versity itself. And it may be proper to say, further, that 
to leave the case entirely to these independent religious 
bodies is a seriously defective policy in this respect : that it 
tends to fasten a sort of antithesis between the university 


and religious bodies which might better be buried. The 
eross-pulling which utters itself in such fashion as this : " It 
is said in the university thus and so, but we say unto you 
otherwise," would be most aptly rebuked and largely dis- 
armed if the university should claim both sides of the anti- 
thesis, as much as belongs to it. 

But what does it belong to the university to do? At 
least this, and perhaps not more than this : to convey a dis- 
claimer of belief in the sufficiency of its own results apart 
from religion. It cannot do the work of reconstructing re- 
ligious understanding — that has to be done by the mind 
itself as it becomes aware of change — but it can do some- 
thing to prevent the mind in question from giving up its 
attempt : it can stand for the reality of the goal. The uni- 
versity cannot undertake to solve the student's religious 
problems, nor to tell him how and M^here they are to be 
solved. It is not at all certain that the university foresees 
what consequences its own results will have for religion in 
the long run ; and it must necessarily be free to accept what- 
ever consequences appear. But it can foresee that there is 
a solution within the spirit of religion as it now is; and 
small as this assertion may seem, it is of the utmost value 
for minds engaged at any time in the struggle of their own 
personal problem that the university itself continuously ac- 
knowledges and asserts this fact. It is nothing but a point ; 
but it is something to fasten to. It enters a caveat against 
the impression that with all the appearance of totality and 
self-sufficiency in intellectual enterprises the place of re- 
ligion has been taken, and its values exhausted into those 
of the departmental rubrics. The obligation of the uni- 
versity is simply to negate the negation which its own busi- 
ness necessarily suggests ; and the more silently it does this, 
so it be unmistakably and officially done, the better. 

This, as it seems to me, is what the university wishes to 
convey; how it is to be conveyed without saying too much 
or too little it is not easy to determine. It would hardly 


be desirable, even if it were open to the university, to avow 
reli.u:ious doctrines or to teach them as theoretical proposi- 
tions. The simple and adequate thing: would seem to be 
not a theoretical pronouncement at all, but an act of re- 
lio'ious worship. Such an act, made into an official insti- 
tution, would declare without encroachment and in suffi- 
ciently definite terms that religjion remains; that a perma- 
nent place must be made in living for its spirit, together 
with the reverence, the humility, and the larger human 
feelings that belong to it ; that with all that is known and 
taught there must be acknowledged a remainder before 
which the intellect also must continue to bow. But any 
attempt, such as I have made, to express the possible sig- 
nificance of an act of worship, is well fitted to show how- 
superior the act is to the expressions; how elastic it is in 
comparison with any formulae; and yet how sufficiently 
it fills the requirement imposed upon the university by its 
inevitable religious activity. 

If we are right in our theory, the maintenance of re- 
ligious worship in some form is an integral part of the 
function of the State university. And this does not mean 
primarily that the university is to provide the students 
with facilities for worship ; it means that the university 
itself is to worship, wherein the student body is naturally 
included. For in establishing this exercise, the university 
as a governing and teaching body addresses the student 
body only by way of making its own religious confession. 
For this reason the exercise is fully significant, not when 
the president or the faculty conducts it ex officio as is usual, 
but when that which is authoritative in the university ap- 
pears here by its representatives in the attitude of rever- 

Although most persons who have thought about it might 
admit with much less argument that some institution of this 
sort would be in place if it could be devised, this may well 


be a case in which more depends on how a thing is done than 
on the fact of its performance or omission. Very probably 
the wrong ways of conducting worship are more pernicious 
than any way thus far discovered is likely to be beneficial. 
Once the question of theory is disposed of, the adoption of 
any proposed plan will not rest so much upon general prin- 
ciples as upon the values and expediencies of the particular 
proposition. And here the results of experience and the 
types of failure are the main guides in forming a workable 

The attempt to assemble all members of the university 
for religious worship has in most universities, state or other, 
reached its natural end. A mild type of compulsory chapel 
is kept up by the State college of Maine ; but this is possible 
there because it is Maine. As a principle, it is wrong, and 
largely because of a mistaken view of what is desirable, or 
of what constitutes the success of the institution. The worth 
of a religious service by the university is not proportional 
to the number of students who attend or to the frequency 
of their attendance. Any person who has gone to college 
where voluntary chapel existed can testify to that. In fact 
its chief importance is that it exist, and that it be regarded 
with respect. And the vulnerable point of the institution, 
strange to say, has been in just this matter of the respect 
which it has been able to command among the students. 
For the student is a sensitive critic ; he detects promptly 
any flaw of sincerity or of dignity or — since it must be said 
— of self-respect. If the religious exercise comes forward 
with a breath of apology, recommending itself by what it 
is mixed with rather than by its own natural object, or if it 
has not its own place and time and an environment of its 
own quality, it is questioned whether it ought to exist. But 
there are questions here which need to be separately spoken 

For the most part. State universities which have under- 
taken to have a religious exercise, unless it is a Sunday ser- 


vice as in Kansas and Virginia, have combined it with a 
regular student convocation or assembly, either by making 
it an introductory part of such gathering, or by including 
among them an occasional religious address or exercise. 
In this case, worship takes its place in a series of occasions, 
musical, civic, scientific, ethical, etc. Some of these uni- 
versities publish in their catalogues a list of the events of 
the year ; and the impression produced by reading through 
such a list may be considered symbolical of the impression 
produced on the mind of the student. It is a matter of 
experience that this kind of altercation tends rather to 
obliterate the spirit of worship than to dignify the other 
events. And one reason for this fact is not difficult to give. 
For a certain conflict of associations is inevitable when the 
same place and hour are used for rallies and for prayers; 
and in this conflict the religious association will yield, in- 
asmuch as it is the attitude of mind less concrete and self- 
supporting, requiring, therefore, a more deliberate inten- 

But the chief difficulty is of another sort. The inten- 
tion of this arrangement is in part to prevent that type of 
religion which tends to the remote and sentimental; it 
wishes to keep religion reminded that its meaning and des- 
tination is to express itself in service, and indeed to pene- 
trate all the motives of human action ; and this reminder is 
indeed important. But the means is ill-fitted to secure the 
end; nature has given us certain hints in the way of ac- 
complishing uniform illumination, rather through distant 
than through adjacent sources, which may illustrate the 
point. The desired fu.sion, in these mixed programs, is ac- 
complished too crudely and overtly. It is this same theory 
which in the hands of amateur organizations among stu- 
dents has sometimes brought religion into contempt. Their 
valid proposition that religion shall be an aid, and not a 
harm, to good-fellowship, has been made to appear as the 
proposition that religion shall take on the airs of rough-and- 


ready comradeship. It is the most vulgar mode of apolo- 
gizing for religion. To put it otherwise, in attempting 
these couplings, we show a certain utilitarianism in regard 
to religion which is at war with the spirit of worship. Re- 
ligion must serve. That is true ; but it will not serve bet- 
ter by being reminded on its own ground that it is nothing 
but a servant. Religion has required to be dealt with 
more generously ; it will do its work only on condition that 
it be set aside, and treated as a thing of value in itself — 
while it is, as the Egyptians used to say, "in its own mo- 
ment." It is not different from other regions of human 
attention in this respect, except in so far as it purposes to 
introduce the mind to those objects which are the frame 
of other objects and to those feelings which are the mother 
of other motives. 

I may add that one of the chief uses of religion in 
the university is to introduce a touch of the useless and 
irrelevant. It is most fitted to correct the necessity we 
Americans have of tracing in definite lines the whole track 
from means to end, so that we are robbing ourselves of all 
that is subtle and free and generous. Inasmuch as every 
courtesy and every expression of joy and beauty contains 
something at its core which is emancipated from grounds 
and causes, it contains something of the essence of religion, 
which has at its heart a free and irrelevant service. I have 
dwelt on this point because it is, as I believe, the chief 
source of failure of the religious institution in the state 
university, — a most natural source of failure where every- 
thing has to count and serve not one purpose alone but 
several. How far this demand for the essential separate- 
ness of the religious function is to be carried is a matter 
of judgment. My own belief is that this function should 
not be undertaken, except by way of planning for it, until 
it can be given its own building, and a building which by 
its place among the others and by its quality shall worthily 
symbolize the place of religion in the mental life of the 


university as a permanent eonnnent upon and supplement 
to its overt aims and accomplishments. The reason given 
by Michigan for the Avithdrawal of its chapel exercise is an 
entirely valid one : there is no suitable place for it. 

The chief practical difficulties in carrying out any plan 
in this direction come from the outside, and are due to the 
fact that worship has to take on some particular form, and 
thereby appear to enter the region of religious controversy. 
It is not to be expected that a perfect adjustment of all in- 
terests, real and supposed, will be reached ; but good work- 
ing adjustments have been I'eached, especially in the larger 
non-State universities which, so far as the public is con- 
cerned, have much the same problem as has the State uni- 
versity. Appleton Chapel and Sage Chapel, for example, 
have to consider the interests of all religious bodies; and 
their solutions are with slight changes applicable elsewhere. 
The university invites, through its president or through a 
committee or through an appointed officer, men of various 
faiths in turn to conduct prayers for a stated period. These 
men are invited solely on ground of their fitness to serve 
in the peculiar university situation ; and each one holds his 
own form of service, within general conditions laid down 
by the university. The experience of these foundations has 
been that "they make us more acceptable to the religious 
bodies, without alienating the mass of non-religious mind." 

But the State university ought to be more impartial 
than the simple status of public opinion at any time compels 
it to be. It ought to dissolve away from its religious activ- 
ity whatever is of an essentially theoretical and thus de- 
batable character. The religious discourse, the sermon or 
exhortation, is the only usual accompaniment of worship 
which is saliently theoretical ; and it is not really a part of 
worship. In the effort to shear the sermon of its possi- 
bilitias of mischief in public institutions, points of doctrine 
and difference have been customarily tabooed ; it thus moves 
into the field of general ethics and tends to forfeit whatever 


claim it might have had to be considered an intrinsic ele- 
ment of worship. In brief, a discourse either presents re- 
ligion along the lines of some theory, or else it is not specifi- 
cally religious. It is not clear why these discourses should 
not be omitted, and the service thus made more consonant 
with the spirit of reticence proper to the university, and at 
the same time far simpler, more impersonal, and thereby 
more significant as a religious act. In music and prayer, 
expressions indeed necessarily occur which have historic and 
partisan origins; but here the mind is at work in a region 
that is no longer a region of pure thought ; it is much nearer 
the springs of feeling and action, where no expression is 
adequate and hence all expression takes the tinge of symbol. 
The presuppositions of these types of expression, moreover, 
are much more universal than the expressions themselves. 
We know as a fact that the hymns and prayers of any 
religion are more widely valid and usable than its tenets 
are likely to be; and also that in the splitting of a religion 
into sects these parts of worship are likely to remain largely 

So far, it seems to the writer, the State university might 
well go in putting itself out of the party field, even beyond 
the point which its particular community might require. 
But still the university remains a party. It is engaged in 
the largest sense in making its community conscious of its 
spiritual bases, religious and other; it is trying to turn out 
citizens with enough of that internal energy of which we 
have spoken to sustain the spiritual burdens which their 
own particular civilization has bequeathed to them. In 
this simply reflective and conservative capacity the univer- 
sity takes a party position as against what we might call 
the constant religious entropy, or tendency to decline, which 
is natural, if we are right, to an intellectually progressive 
state. It takes this position, in part, by recognizing, and 
perhaps by affiliating itself with, such religious agencies as 
already exist as particular and historic facts in its own 


community. This is not impartial. It takes this position 
also by numerous acts and impulses which it initiates with- 
in its own body ; and these are not impartial. But it takes 
this position completely and explicitly only in some such 
overt official act as we have advocated, setting to these other 
modes of partisanship their keystone and sanction in a 
function itself less partial than they. 

Very probably, the relipious function of the State uni- 
versity cannot be made thus specific and actual without 
some initial friction ; but. of course, within certain limits 
the interest of avoiding friction is not primary. The real 
animus of any institution must appear in the course of 
time and be recognized by the public. It is in every respect 
to the advantage of the university to adopt a positive policy, 
to make its plans and lay down its lines of administration 
in this matter in advance of the proposals which from time 
to time come from the outside to every university. And it 
ought not to be forgotten that the relation of the university 
religious function to the various religious bodies is not 
simply passive. What the university does in this respect 
must have a prophetic value. For in the nature of the case 
the university can stand for religion, not in its severalty and 
division, but in its unity ; according therefore to the strength 
and clearness of its position it can do much to create the 
spirit in which the religions of the world must meet each 
other in the rapprochements which the next centuries must 
witness. And in this great enterprise California may have 
a leading role. 




1887 JULY 1, to 1907 JUNE 30. 

By Akmin O. Leuschner. 

A little more than twenty years ago regular meteorologi- 
cal observations were begnn at the Students' Observatory 
at Berkeley under Professor Frank Soule. The Observa- 
tory is equipped with a set of standard barometers and 
thermometers and a rain-gauge, and daily observations of 
the weather are made in accordance with the instructi'ms 
of the U. S. Weather Bureau for voluntary observers. Mr. 
Einarson of the Students ' Observatory has compiled, under 
my direction, the following synopsis of the observations 
from 1887 July 1, to 1907 June 30. A fifteen-year synopsis 
embodying the results of the observations from 1887 July 1. 
to 1902 June 30 was published in 1902.^ 

Temperature. — Experience has shown that the average 
temperature of a day approximates the average of the tem- 
perature observed at 8 :00 a.m., and 8 :00 p.m., and the av- 
erage is called the mean daily temperature. The maximum 
and minimum temperatures are observed daily by means 
of a maximum and a minimum thermometer. 

The highest temperature during the twenty years was 
101?1, on June 6, 1903; the lowest was 24?9, on January 
14, 1888. The mean highest temperature per year — ^.e., 

1 See The University Chronicle, Vol. V, No. 3. 


the average of the highest temperatures observed in each of 
the twenty years — is 92?3, while the mean lowest tempera- 
ture is 31 ?9. In an average year, therefore, we may expect 
92° in the shade on the hottest day, and 32° on the coldest 
day, or a range during the year of 60°. 

In order to give a clear idea of the weather conditions 
at different times of the year, twenty-j-ear averages have 
been drawn for each month, and are given in Table I. 

The average of the daily mean temperatures of a month 
we may call the monthly mean temperature, or the daily 
mean temperature for the month. The twenty-year aver- 
ages for each month of the year of these monthly mean 
temperatures are given in the first horizontal line of the 
temperature table — e.g., the mean temperature for July is 

The annual mean temperature at Berkeley, based upon 
records covering twenty years, is 54?1. 

The twenty-year means of the highest and the lowest 
daily average temperature {i.e., mean of the morning and 
evening observations) during the whole month are given in 
the second and third lines. Thus, for July the highest 
daily average and the lowest daily average temperatures are 
68 ?1 and 55 ?1 respectively. The fourth and fifth lines 
contain the mean highest and the mean lowest temperatures 
for each month during the twenty years. For example, 
the July mean highest and mean lowest temperatures are 
84?5 and 49?4 respectively; and the difference 35?1 in- 
dicates the mean monthly range in temperature for the 
month. The seventh and eighth lines contain the mean 
daily maximum and the mean daily minimum temperatures 
for each month. These for July are 70?4 and 53?4 respec- 
tively. Their difference, 17?0, gives the average range of 
temperature during a day in July. The last two lines give 
the twenty-year means of the greatest and the least daily 
range for each month. 

Atmospheric Pressure. — The highest barometer reading 


during the twenty years was 30.829 inch&s, 1903 December 
25, at 8 :00 a.m. ; the lowest, 29.196 inches, 1891 February 
22, at 9 :00 p.m.- The means given in the pressure table 
were derived in the same way as those of the temperature 
table. Thus the daily mean atmospheric pressure for July 
is 29.941 inches (sea level). 

The annual mean atmospheric pressure is 30.012 inches 
(sea level). 

Relative Humidity of the Air. — If the humidity of the 
air at saturation is taken as 100 per cent., the average 
humidity for the twenty years is found to be 85.2 per cent. 
The first horizontal line of the table gives the average 
for a normal day of each month, etc. The humidity fre- 
quently reaches the maximum, 100 per cent., and rarely 
falls below 30 per cent. The minimum humidity for twenty 
years was 27.3 per cent. 1890 October 28. 2 p.m. The lowest 
percentage is reached during the prevalence of dry north 
winds or ' ' northers. ' ' 

Rainfall. — The average annual rainfall is 27.48 inches. 
The greatest annual rainfall, 47.37 inches, occurred in 
1889-90: the least. 14.41 inches, in 1897-98. The distri- 
bution of the rainfall during the year is easily seen from 
the table. The maximum rainfall observed in twenty-four 
consecutive hours was 4.16 inches, 1891 February 14-15. 
Snow rarely falls. 

Weather in General. — Under this heading the days of 
the month are divided into three groups, "clear," "fair," 
and "cloudy." The twenty-year means are given in the 
table. In addition, the number of days on which fog or 
rain was observed is stated separately. 

Wind. — The prevailing direction of the wind every 
month is given in the table. The W. and S.W. winds are 
usually cool and damp, and rarely exceed fifteen miles per 
hour; the S. winds are generally warm and rainy, the N.E. 

2 Formerly observations were made at 7 a.m., 2 p.m. and 9 p.m. 


winds, or "northers." hot and dry, with an estimated veloc- 
ity of from thirty-five to forty miles per hour. Fierce and 
cold winds generally come from the N.W. 

An inspection of the table shows that the mean tem- 
perature varies bnt little during the year. The maximum 
daily range of temperature is comparatively small dur- 
ing the winter months (about 19°), indicating a uniform 
winter climate. It should be stated that the meteorological 
Observatory is too protected for an accurate determination 
of the maximum and minimum temperatures. The daily 
variation for the average location in the town of Berkeley 
would be somewhat greater than the figures in the table 
indicate. The difference will be determined as soon as the 
Observatory can secure another set of instruments, which 
will be set up in a more exposed locality. Two-thirds of the 
days in a month are usually clear or fair. July and August 
have the greatest number of foggy days. Rain rarely falls 
during the months of June, July, August, and September. 

Table II gives the annual means and a synopsis of other 
data for the twenty-year period. 








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Twenty-year Annual Means 1887 July 1, to 1907 June 30. 

North latitude 37° 52' 23'.'6 

Longitude west from Greenwich 122° 15' 40'.'8 

Height of cistern of barometer above sea 320 feet 


Mean barometer 30.012 

Highest daily average, Dec. 25, 1903 30.740 

Lowest daily average, Feb. 22, 1891 29.296 

Highest barometer, Dec. 25, 8 a.m,. 1903 30.829 

Lowest barometer, Feb. 22, 9 p.m., 1891 29.196 

Twenty-year Range 1.633 

TEMPERATURE (Degrees, F.) 

Mean temperature 54.1 

Highest daily average, Sept. 7, 1904 81.5 

Lowest daily average, Jan. 14, 188S 30.9 

Maximum temperature, June 6, 1903 101.1 

Minimum temperature, Jan. 14, 1888 24.9 

Twenty-year range 76.2 

Mean of daily maximum temperatures 63.6 

Mean of daily minimum temperatures 48.9 

Mean daily range 14.7 

Greatest daily range, June 30, 1898 37.4 

Least daily range, Feb. 19, 1892 1.5 

RAINFALL (Inches). 

Mean 27.48 


Mean relative humidity 85.2 

Maximum humidity, often 100. 

Minimum humidity, Oct. 28, 1890, 2 p.m 27.3 

Twenty -year range 72.7 

Greatest daily range, Jan. 15, 1888; Jan. 28, 1895 52.0 

Least daily range, often 0.0 


Number of clear days 151 

Number of fair days 106 

Number of cloudy days 108 

Total 365 

Number of foggy days 60 

Number of days on which rain fell 70 



Benjamin P. Kurtz. 

While most of the principles and elements of literary art 
enumerated by Aristotle in his Poetics have received a sys- 
tematic and comparative illustration from the hands of such 
modern critics as Brunetiere, Texte, Beljarae, Paris, and 
Gautier, there is one important literary ingredient, men- 
tioned repeatedly in the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth 
chapters of the Poetics, which has as yet met with no ex- 
ploitation in the fields of modern literary criticism of the 
scientific sort. This element, the marvellous (to Oavfiaa-Tov)^ 
is admitted by Aristotle into tragedy, but is held to have 
w4der scope in the epic; and his further discussion of this 
now neglected subject precipitated the famous passage on 
poetic truth. From that time to this almost nothing of 
comprehensive scope or critical research has been done upon 
the wonderful by any literary student. Opinions of the 
moment, to be sure, mere asides from other investigations, 
have often been thrown out, from Plato or Horace down; 
and the ancients occasionally made collections of wonder- 
stories, such as the famous pseudo- Aristotelian HEPI 
HATMASinN AKOTSMATHN. Photius (Vol. 3, Col. 
413) quaintly notices one of these collections as consisting 
of four books, one each on the following subjects: of in- 


credible fiction, of incredible stories about demons, of in- 
credible tales of souls appearing after death, of incredible 
things of nature. But these patch-quilts of wonder had no 
more purpose of literary criticism than did the moralistic 
and philosophic objections of the Greek philosophers who 
descended upon Homer for employing incredible and im- 
pious tales about the gods. The self-conscious epic art of 
the Italian Renaissance, of Ariosto and Tasso, drew in its 
wake an acrimonious and voluminous disputation upon the 
place of the prodigious in epic composition; but the criti- 
cism was always dogmatic, a priori and partisan — never 
comparative and inductive. Now and then, in modern times, 
there have appeared short essays upon the habits of par- 
ticular writers or periods in dealing with the wonderful, 
such as Hazlitt's essay upon witchcraft in Shakespeare, or 
Bodmer's antiquated monograph upon the angels in Para- 
dise Lost (Kritische Abhandlung von dem Wunderbaren in 
der Poesie. Ziirich, 1740). Fielding, in one of his asides 
in Tom Jones, discoursed wittily upon the proper use of 
wonder. In 1880, Yardley put forward a sketchy essay 
upon The Supernatural in Romantic Fiction, and in the 
sixth volume of the Studien zwr vergleichenden Literatur- 
geschichte there is a collection of medieval wonders. A 
classification of the wonders in French literature of the age 
of Louis XIV has been made by Delaporte ;^ and, in 1906, R. 
Reitzenstein published his Hellenistiscke Wimdererzahlun- 
gen, which involves a short discussion of some aspects of the 
Hellenistic wonder-literature. None of these, however, has 
made a serious attempt to follow up the subject with a 
definite and exhaustive method. 

But in one direction the marvellous has been treated 
with surprising fullness. The students of ethnology and 
folk-lore have, with purposes other than those of literary 
criticism, brought together and partially classified a vast 

1 P. V. Delaporte ; Du Merveilleux dans la Litterature Franqaise 
sous le Eegne de Louis XIV. Paris, 1891. 


number of marvels drawn from primitive and popular re- 
ligious belief, custom, and superstition. It is unnecessary 
to cite here the long^ roster of those who in all parts of the 
learned world have followed in the steps of Spencer, Lord 
Avebury, Tylor, and Frazer. By the systematic and de- 
voted efforts of this fjreat band of modern humanists there 
has been brought together a mass of observations upon, and 
explanations of, the marvellous element in belief and story, 
which, though quite independent of any literary interpreta- 
tion, nevertheless is by all odds the most considerable 
achievement in the study of the wonderful, not only since 
the time of Aristotle, but in all time. Such works, to men- 
tion only English examples, as the Principles of Sociology, 
The Origins of Civilization. Primitive Culture, The Golden 
Bough, Myth, Ritual and Religion, or The Legend of Per- 
seus, are as monumental of the success attending the ap- 
plication of the methods of scientific research to spiritual 
matters as they are unique in the history of humanism. 

Dr. Tylor, speaking in the light of his long investiga- 
tions, has said in the first volume of his Primitive Culture 
that "little by little, in what seemed the most spontaneous 
fiction, a more comprehensive study of the sources of poetry 
and romance begins to disclose a cause for each fancy, an 
education that has led up to each train of thought, a store 
of inherited materials from out of which each province of 
the poet's land has been shaped and built over and peopled." 
Than this statement, based upon the scientific accumulations 
of Tylor and his fellow-students, there could be nothing 
more encouraging to the literary student who might wish 
to take up Aristotle's observations and expand them into a 
coherent presentation of the function and development of 
the marvellous in literature. Here, ready to his hand, is a 
body of data and principles, which needs only an applica- 
tion of the literary point of view and the addition of 
further data strictly literary that did not enter into the 
view of the ethnologists, to be reduced to a history and 


theory of the appearance, function, and development of 
the literary use of the wonderful. Upon these data as foun- 
dation may be built such criticism of the marvellous as will 
show the relations between the various cases or details of 
wonder before they were incorporated into literary begin- 
nings, during the processes of that incorporation, and 
through the subsequent stages of literary development. By 
following successively the constantly changing relations of 
the wonder element to other elements in literature, and to 
the general principles of literary art and evolution ; by 
observing its concomitant and comparative positions in the 
various literary types at the different periods of their de- 
velopment ; by determining the evolution of particular mar- 
vels as they are influenced or determined by parallel changes 
in the technique and consciousness of the literary artist ; by 
explicating the sometimes obvious, the sometimes subtle, in- 
fluence of a contemporary philosophical or scientific criti- 
cism of the marvellous upon the vitality and popularity of 
wonder in purely literary usage; by generalizations based 
upon the inspiration offered by wonder to the individual 
artist at various stages of his own or of the race's develop- 
ment, — by such employments as these that peculiarly basic 
element in literary interest, which, as Aristotle racily ob- 
served, persuades good story-tellers, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, to add something wonderful to their recitals, would 
receive the consistent treatment and illustration obviously 
demanded by its prime, but slightly recognized importance. 

In the elaboration of such an essay, however, one of the 
first desiderations would fall within the field of descriptive 
psychology, rather than within that of ethnology. It would 
be necessary to come to some understanding, more exact 
than the popular view, of what constitutes wonder or mar- 
vel. Unfortunately, the psychologists have treated this 
subject as unsatisfactorily as the literary critics have treated 
it on their respective side. It becomes necessary, therefore, 
for the methodical literary student to invade the field of 


another specialist, and endeavor as best he may some ac- 
count of the states and processes of wonder. At this mo- 
ment only the barest suggestions of such a technical study 
can be indicated in a non-technical fashion. 

In the first place, wonder is of course a complex state 
and requires an analysis which, among other component 
parts, will put forward in their proper synthetic relations 
the states (it is dangerous to call them elements) of sur- 
prise, astonishment, curiosity, belief, imagination, fear, and 
pleasure-pain. But, short of describing the mutual propor- 
tions in which these possible ingredients unite to produce 
states of wonder, it may be suggested that there are four 
characteristics of stimulus which in their variations account 
for four corresponding variations in the wonder-state and 
its allied states. 

(1) If the stimulus has merely a sudden character (such 
as the slamming of a door while one is reading) the response 
is almost purely that of motor surprise, which passes off in 
a series of diminishing motor vibrations. But if the sur- 
prise is complicated by a considerable degree of fear it may 
pass into that temporary motor paralysis which often goes 
by the name of astonishment — struck dumb with astonish- 
ment, as the phrase has it. In neither case, however, can 
wonder succeed unless the suddenness of the stimulus comes 
under mental interrogation as to its cause. If curiosity 
finds itself baffled for an hypothesis, then wonder as to the 
possible or probable cause may supei-vene. 

(2) If the stimulus has an unusual character (such as 
the appearance of a herd of buffalo in the main street of 
a quiet New England town ; or, to adapt the former il- 
lustration to this case, the slamming of a door in an empty 
house when there is no wind and all the doors are known 
to be shut) the very conceptual nature of such a character 
presupposes a response definitely mental, whether attended 
or unattended with motor disturbances. The disadaptation 
of usual mental states and habits by the intrusion of the 


unusual may at first result in a mental surprise, which, in 
turn, passing to the stage of interrogative assimilation of 
the new factor into accustomed ways of thinking, eventuates 
in a state of curiosity. If curiosity is baffled through a 
failure in assimilation, wonder results. Should, however, 
the unusual stimulus provoke fear, the wonder state, up to 
a certain degree of fear-intensity, will be heightened. Be- 
yond that degree, fear usurps the entire attention and won- 
der finds no place for its activity. 

(3) If the unusual character of the stimulus extends so 
far as to present to the perceiving mind in no uncertain 
degree the conception of improbability (such as a story of a 
trip to the moon and back; or the story of Doctor Jekyll 
and Mr. Hyde) the very improbability will tend to ab- 
breviate or even, in some cases, entirely abrogate a state of 
curiosity in favor of one of wonder, providing always that 
the improbability is not so great as to instantly destroy all 
possibility of belief. The improbable is sometimes ridic- 
ulous; sometimes it is wonderful. Within the bounds of 
belief the very sense of the improbability clouds the effort 
of curiosity to find a sufficient explanation, and gives in 
advance a sense of the abortiveness in which the effort must 
end. Such a state is distinctively favorable to wonder. 
Most important, however, is this fact : that where the stim- 
ulus is the improbable, it is found, by the very nature of 
the case, and at least nine times out of ten, in the form of a 
story — not in the form of an immediate first-hand experi- 
ence. In this fact alone lies a justification of the critical 
study of wonder in literature. 

(4) Finally, if the unusual character of the stimulus is 
of such a degree as to carry the mind directly from the rule 
of experience into realms ordinarily designated as the im- 
possible, there is per se to the skeptical mind no pondering 
of hypotheses, and the stimulus (such as the story of Poly- 
phemus) awakens ridicule rather than wonder. But if, 
instead of a thoroughgoing skepticism, there is present a 


superstitious inclination and a belief in superhuman powers 
to whom the impossible is possible, then witches, ghosts and 
hobgoblins, land of faery, Joshua's ruling of the sun, Circe's 
magical pranlvs, and the descent of Orpheus into Hades, 
arouse wonder. Within the realm of a belief which is 
wavering this way and that in uncertain fascination with 
these marvels, wonder is supreme. This is its own chief 
realm — the realm of scop and troubadour. Its outposts are 
the improbable, but its citadel, to express the matter in a 
further figure, is the impossible. From one to the other 
wonder rises by leaps and bounds until, in its full regnancy. 
we behold the dead risen to life, time turned backward, and 
every corner of the world filled with magicians and their 
familiars. Furthermore, by this very rise out of reality 
into the impossible, imagination comes necessarily to the 
front in the wonder-complex as well as in the wonder-tale. 
Upon these two, stimulus and reaction, it exerts a circular- 
like influence, so that the stimulus heightens the reaction, 
and the reaction heightens the stimulus, only to be itself in- 
creased again in turn, — and so on. In a word, wonder 
grows with the tale and the tale grows with the wonder. — 
Again, it is through imagination that we still wonder at 
stories of the impossible even after we have learned the 
unreality of their pretensions. We give an imaginative 
consent ; and putting aside prosaic reality we lose ourselves 
in the mazes of poetic adventure. — Lastly, it is obvious 
enough, and a fact that cannot be insisted upon too strongly, 
that the very passing out of fact, the very escape from 
experential hjT)othesis, is what throws the marvellous into 
the arms of literature. The primitive and the troubadour 
cannot corporeally present their impossibilities; they can 
only sing of them. Only in literature, again, that home 
of poetic unrealities, can the sophisticated reader, escaping 
fact, preserve his ideal standard of possibility. Thus both 
the two, superstition and sophistication, find their marvels 
in a telling, in literature. This consanguinity of wonder 


and literature is in itself a sufficient philosophical reason 
for undertaking an inquiry into their mutual relations dur- 
ing their respective courses of development. 

These four variations in stimulus reveal an ascending 
order — from the sudden to the unusual, thence to the im- 
probably unusual, and, lastly, to the impossibly unusual. 
In the rising plane of wonder-states so established it would 
be very convenient if we could draw a dividing line through 
the middle and call all states and stimuli belonging to the 
lower, the sudden and unusual classes, wonderful ; and all 
states and stimuli belonging to the higher, the improbable 
and impossible, marvellous. For such a technical limitation 
there is some warrant in popular usage. We pretty com- 
monly feel that the Latin and more learned word, here, as 
in other cases, possesses a superior dignity and impressive- 
ness. The marvellous is felt, in general usage, to be a bit 
more wonderful than the wonderful. The lower stimuli 
and states, where the wonder is of a minor sort and is con- 
cerned only with the sviddenness or unusualness of things, 
and where it is so closely related to the matter of surprise 
and curiosity, might therefore be well distinguished by the 
weaker word, wonderful. Thus would be designated all 
those common wonder-tricks of the story-teller by which he 
raises the interest and suspense of his audience, — such as 
the employment of surprise, leading to our wonder at the 
suddenness' or unusualness of its nature ; or the exaggera- 
tion of situation and character until we wonder at the beauty 
of the one or the heroism of the other. But M^here the real 
marvels of the improbable and impossible come in, when 
Merlin and Excalibur and Morgan Le Fay appear, let us 
drop the word wonderful and begin to speak of the mar- 
vellous. — The complete discussion of the problem of the 
wonderful in literature must of course take into view both 
of these categories, and the relation of that wonder which 
is part of the very warp and woof of the story-teller's art, 


to those marvels which at times he adds to his tale, or takes 
for his subject, must be carefully determined. But the 
former may be treated separately in actual study because 
it is so much the art of composition, and, as such, presents 
that division of our problem which demands a psychological 
analysis of the reader's attention and interest as stimulated 
by surprise and wonder, rather than an historical research 
into the literary use of particular marvels. In the rest of 
this note, therefore, the historical problems of particular 
marvels in their relations to literary usage and develop- 
ment will alone be considered. 

After a preliminary description of the complex states of 
wonder, and the consequent definition and technical limita- 
tion of terms, the student should secure the orientation of 
the subject by tracing in detail the history of what literary 
criticism has had to say on the use of the marvellous. Thus 
the warrant in previous criticism for the present under- 
taking may be determined, while at the same time the vari- 
ous moments and characters in the development of the 
critical attitude, themselves considered as stages in the de- 
velopment of the marvellous in literature, may be revealed. 
As an example of such a review the results of an inquiry 
into the rise and evolution of Greek literary criticism upon 
the subject may be cited.^ In the following eight points, 
under which the results are summarized, it becomes clear 
that the desired warrant may well be taken to lie in the 
very rise of literary criticism itself from the presence of 
the marvellous in literature. The last point distinctly 
characterizes the moments of development. 

(1) Greek criticism of the marvellous is for the most 
part an undifferentiated element in Greek criticism of the 
fictitious in the poets. In most of this criticism there seems 
little or no change of emphasis when the illustrations pass 
from the minor aspects of fiction to the decidedly marvel- 

2 The citation is drawn from a more extended essay in course of 


loiis. Both are criticized in like fashion in the same breath. 
In some cases, however, notably in Aristotle and Plutarch, 
the primary reference seems to be to the distinctly pro- 

(2) Greek criticism of the fictitious arises through a 
criticism of Greek mythology. This myth-criticism begins 
with a moral expostulation with the impieties and impro- 
prieties of many of the marvellous details of the god-stories, 
extends to a moral attack upon the fiction of mythology and 
of the poets in general, and is given something of an econ- 
omic aspect by Plato, who is also the chief supporter of its 
ethical character. This criticism is delivered by the phil- 
osophers, historians, logographers, and in less degree by 
some of the poets themselves. 

(3) Various solutions are offered of the difficulties and 
perplexities raised by the impious and fictitious (marvel- 
lous) elements in mythology. Rationalization, allegory, 
euphemerism, are broached; they are all philosophical and 
do not recognize the problem in any other light than that of 
philosophy and religion. 

(4) Inasmuch as the moral criticism and the philosoph- 
ical solutions are necessarily based upon Homer and Hesiod, 
these poets themselves, and, by analogy, all poets, are cen- 
sured and censored. Thus a criticism of poetry, that is to 
say, literary criticism itself, begins to develop out of the 
ethical criticism of marvel and fiction. But so long as the 
ethical preoccupation continues literary criticism does not 
realize its own separate ends. 

(5) At last, with Aristotle, there develops a real literary 
criticism which is divorced from moral philosophy. This 
new criticism, in turn, attacks the problem of fiction, and 
especially the marvellous in fiction, as a purely literary 
problem. An aesthetic has succeeded the ethical outlook. 
Thus is developed the theory of poetic truth, under which 
the marvel assumes its proper place. 

(6) The successors of Aristotle mix the real literary 


criticism he established with the older moral expostulation 
and interpretation. Plutarch is the most important name 
after Aristotle. 

(7) Throughout the entire course of critical commen- 
tary run certain minor doctrines, which, by extenuating the 
marvel for the litcj'ary purposes of beauty and force, con- 
tribute to the aesthetic liberation of the wonderful. 

(8) Finally, it may be remarked that these facts con- 
cerning the development of a literary criticism of the mar- 
vellous, illustrate at the same time a stage in the history of 
the marvellous. To summarize that stage would be equiv- 
alent to repeating the details of the rise of that new Greek 
consciousness by which the marvels of a believed religion 
passed through the transitional epoch of ethical distrust and 
criticism to the condition of accepted aesthetic illusion. 
Literature then inherited the marvellous a second time, — 
not, as at first, from religious faith, but from an aesthetic 

It is at once evident from these considerations that the 
marvellous will have found its place in literature, and have 
thriven there under the fostering guidance of religious 
faith and superstition, long before it comes to enter upon 
its aesthetic development under the tutelage of a properly 
emancipated literary criticism. The discussion of that 
earlier stage of implicit belief brings the inquiry to the point 
where the data of the ethnologist and student of folk-lore 
become available. The relations between literature, religion, 
and the marvellous must be contemplated in their simplest 
possible manifestations, that is to say, in their primitive 
appearances. One must even go back of literary beginnings 
and endeavor to determine what of marvel there is in that 
primitive fund of savage custom and belief out of which the 
tale and the subsequent forms of the tale develop. 

But in turning to the beginnings of the marvel in such 
primitive culture a subjective difficulty is encountered. 
There will be no difficulty in collecting cases that to a 


modern, sophisticated standard of the usual and possible 
will seem marvellous ; but were these things — the control of 
sun and wind and rain, the magic pointing-stick, the world 
of spirits or ghosts — were these things marvellous, or even 
wonderful, to the early mind ? The answer, however, is not 
as difficult as would at first blush appear. The description 
of the state of wonder will have put into our hands a very- 
real method of measurement in this subjective puzzle; and 
we shall be able to scrutinize any case of supposed primitive 
marvel with such aids for determining its original marvel- 
value as these: to the mind of the savage does such or 
such a case involve any unusual power, anything of in- 
explicable suddenness, mysterious rarity, or impossibility; 
what amount of belief, fear, credulity, or imagination does 
it call forth ; is it, on the other hand, a usual occurrence, a 
matter of custom, or a habit belonging to each individual? 
By such questions as these the mental status of marvels 
in their primitive beginnings may be established with a fair 
approximation to exactness. I cannot conceive that this 
subjective side of the problem can be put forward as a 
demurrer to its value or practicability by those who have 
themselves indulged in researches upon the tragic, comic, 
satiric, beautiful, and the like, in literature ; or by those who 
have studied the origins and development of art and belief. 
Now, in view of the principles of wonder already laid 
down, there are certain remarkably apposite observations to 
be made upon the character of primitive customs and be- 
liefs. In the first place, there is an entire series of condi- 
tions which make directly against the marvellous. Primi- 
tive mind has no conception of unexceptional regularity. 
Perceptions of the unusual it certainly experiences, but that 
conscious concept of unexceptional regularity which mag- 
nifies the unusual into a marvel through a recognition of 
its improbability or impossibility, it does not possess. 
Furthermore, all rarities in perceptional experience are im- 
mediately attributed to agencies of practically unlimited 


power, spirits or magicians, both of which are regarded as 
indubitable matters of fact. Consequently no impossibility 
is possible to primitive consciousness. Therefore, no sense 
of the truly marvellous can be present. — Again, the curios- 
ity of the primitive is not such as to support a faculty of 
marvelling. Outside of a mere sensitiveness to novel objects 
as such, which expresses itself in stupid staring and mouth- 
ing, or aimless stroking and feeling, the curiosity of the 
primitive extends but indefinitely. Reflective and discrim- 
inating character it possesses almost not at all ; for the ques- 
tion of the savage, like that of the child, is satisfied with the 
first answer that comes to mind, as Dr. Lang is at pains to 
point out,^ and that answer is the answer of imagination. In 
the mind of the savage imagination takes the place of reflec- 
tion to a very great degree. A creative activity of mind, 
rather than a critical examination, is what constitutes primi- 
tive reflection, and makes of primitive science a realm of 
fairy-stories. But such a simple, idle, unreflective curiosity 
gives nothing of that baffling of hypothesis which makes 
for marvelling. Thus, too, the imaginative activity itself 
eventuates in absolute belief, rather than in wonder. 
Living in a narrow consciousness, where the functions of 
association completely dominate the mind, the inner pres- 
entations of his imagination are received by the savage with 
the same feeling of reality with which he greets the objects 
in his external world. "Beholding the reflection of his own 
mind like a child looking at itself in the glass, he humbly 
receives the teaching of his second self." — Finally, magic, 
so far from being wonderful, is the primitive's science, and 
his implicit belief in it is as destructive to the marvellous in 
magic as the implicitness of his belief in spirits is incom- 
patable with the marvellous in spiritism or animism. 

In the second place, it may be observed that, although 
the matters so far mentioned are inimical to marvel, there 
are nevertheless already present, even at this stage, certain 

3 A. Lang: Myth, Eitual, and Eeligion: I, 51. 


tendencies which eventually must develop into wonder. A 
necessary prerequisite for the development of the wonderful 
and the marvellous from these primitive conditions is a cer- 
tain specialization and uniqueness here and there in the 
midst of common and universal conditions, a separating 
and seclusive tendency by which the individuality that be- 
longs to rarity and the unusual, may grow up in the midst 
of the communal character of primitive life and belief. It 
is the particular, the glaringly personal, the discrete fruit 
of exaggerated specialties, that is needed as much for the 
production of real wonder and marvel as it is for the 
economic and social advance of horde or clan. Now, such 
specializing, seclusive tendencies appear in various ways. 
They appear in the development of separate, overlording 
deities out of the communal mass of spirits. Great, par- 
ticular and individual spirits, through their awfulness as 
well as through their uniqueness, raise the heart in wonder ; 
and the close corporation of priests systematically elevates 
its unusual sanctity for selfish ends. The same characteris- 
tic tendency appears in the development of the magician 
into a special esoteric office, into which induction is a mys- 
terious and dread affair. The professional magician, for 
the better support of his rare dignity, gathers his powers 
about him with ever increasing airs of secrecy; and by his 
playing upon the superstitious credulity of his audience 
magic itself tends to become "magical." Taboo is another 
example of the segregating tendency, and its wide diffusion 
lends importance to these foundations of the wondering 
faculty. Finally, the universal inclination to exaggerate 
in telling a tale must be taken as a perpetually present 
aspect of the particularizing tendency. Indeed this is the 
mental factor concerned in the elevation of gods, priests 
and magicians, and the neuropathic experiences of adepts, 
to an impressive importance above the ordinary and com- 
monplace. These are all children of exaggeration. Ex- 
aggeration has lifted them into notability ; exaggeration has 


crowned priests and endoM^ed niatiicians; has magnified the 
gods, and intensified fits of ecstacy, and elaborated the realm 
of taboo. It has been the more or less unconscions creator 
of wonderful beliefs and forms and offices. It does not stop 
there. It finds further employment in the common, every- 
day practice of talking and telling and recounting the mul- 
titude of passing and past experiences. And into the tale 
are woven the wonder-stock of custom and belief, of god 
and priest, of magician and the "magical," of trance and 
vision ; by exaggeration in the tale these all receive a par- 
ticularity of unusualness that transcends experience beyond 
the avarice of the magician's wildest pretensions. Exag- 
geration is the first door opening towards that ideal realm 
of the marvellous, imaginative literature. It may be said 
to be the gate-way of wonder into literature. As in the 
•history of criticism the marvellous was seen to be closely 
inter-twined with the beginnings of that discipline, so here, 
with the faint beginnings of narrative literature in the 
primitive tale, wonder and marvel are woven into the fabric 
of the tale by the very exaggerating force which contributes 
so largely to their actual genesis. 

Thus an examination of the forces in primitive custom 
and belief would reveal more or less clearly two tendencies 
— one m.aking against wonder, the other for it — which run. 
through these primitive affairs and mental attitudes. The 
more primitive the people, the greater the former ten- 
dency ; the less primitive, the greater the latter. The just- 
ness of these observations might well be illustrated by a 
study of the Central Australian tribes which have been 
described by Howitt, and by Spencer and Gillen. It would 
not be difficult to detect among those peoples cases to sup- 
port our general observation that many a marvel-element, 
recognized as such to-day, was plain matter-of-fact to the 
savage. Among them, indeed, there is to be met no con- 
ception of an unexceptional regularity ; spirits of ancestors 
are as common as men and women, or dogs and trees ; their 


curiosity passes into a crude imagination, severely dom- 
inated by a narrow field of consciousness and the materials 
of the past ; magic is their ' ' science, ' ' practised, to a certain 
extent, by everyone. In a word, as being among the lowest 
of races, these Australian tribes represent in their greatest 
observable force the activity of all those tendencies which 
make against the marvel in primitive conditions. And yet, 
nevertheless, the contrary tendencies are also operative. 
The totemic ancestors, for instance, are unique as compared 
with the crowd of spirit-individuals they were in the habit 
of leaving at various places ; and though in most cases they 
are little more than mere names, yet their powers are ex- 
traordinary as compared with those of their descendants. 
Moreover, there are certain special spirits possessing vari- 
ous, particular powers, who go by different names, such as 
the two Puntidirs, the Iruntarinia, and the father and son 
who are called respectively Mundadji and Munkaninji. 
Mungan, Nurrundere, Baiame, and Daramulum, whom Dr. 
Lang would call All-Fathers, are other specializations which 
illustrate the tendency that must eventually make for 
wonder and awe. Again, the magician reigns supreme. 
His power is carefully segregated from the common magic, 
and his office mightily hedged with mystery. The article by 
M. Mauss upon this very subject may be cited as ample 
authority.* The mummeries and mystifications, all quite 
obvious and conscious deceptions, with which the magicians 
heighten their office in the public regard, are further proofs 
of the strong influence towards the wonderful offered by 
these characters. 

Corresponding to these two tendencies, two sorts of tales 
may be noticed in the collections made by Spencer and 
Gillen : first, the majority of the stories are of a strictly 
aitiologieal character, mere unelaborated answers to "scien- 
tific" questions, where the totemic ancestor is hardly more 

4 M. Mauss : L 'Origine des Pouvoirs Magiques dans les Societes 
Australiennes. Paris, 1904. 


than a name ; second, there are a few stories, such as that of 
Pittonsni, the Flying-fox Man,^ where exaggeration has en- 
tered into the aitiological tale, magnified the ancestor to 
somewhat heroic proportions, and carried the aitiological 
material a step further, out of a purely "scientific," into 
an imaginative interest. In other words, here, before us, is 
a living case of the wonder-making tendencies converging 
into a tale Avhich has heroic, imaginative, or better, exag- 
gerative, interest, and finding there a natural home. In- 
deed this Pittongu tale combines in a most interesting 
fashion the short aitiological information-tale and the heroic 
legend. The second half is mostly the former, and quite 
simply SO; the first half is quite as entirely the latter, and 
quite richly so. The contrast between the two speaks for 
itself. In the first half the suspense of denouement gained 
by meticulous detail, the suggestion of character and the 
thrilling climax — or, in a word, the sense for storv — im- 
mediately lift us into the realm of narrative interest. Here 
is no mere answering of questions. Here is an adventure, 
well told, appealing to human instincts and resting its 
power on its appeal to human emotions. Here is that ex- 
aggeration of the hero's cunning, of his patience, of his 
power, that characterizes the emotional art of the story- 
teller. Here, to be brief, is the beginning of the tale par 
excellence, the real home of wonder, that distinctive region 
where thrives most luxuriantly the wonder that is born of 
the teller's desire to thrill and the listener's desire to be 
thrilled. And so, sure enough, there is also to be found in 
this same tale an expansion of the explanation-element into 
something decidedly like the wonderful. The ancestor- 
hero has an adventure in procuring his wives. He has all 
the powers of the usual totemic father, and others in ad- 
dition which can hardly have been added by mere chance. 
Aitiologically they are unnecessary; they make rather for 
interest, for story. They are exaggerations that hold the 

5 Spencer and Gillen : Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 427. 


wonder, if not the marvel. His power of transforming 
himself into a dog is a rarity in the collection; it is also a 
rarity in the life of the Central Australian to-day. Only 
the great and wonderful magician can accomplish such 
feats. Again, Pittongu's power of throwing the two lubras 
ahead of him is a strictly individual touch, and the very 
iteration of the feat, and the dwelling upon it, seem to be 
motived by a vivid sense of its present-day impossibility. 
Then, too, the mighty extension of the hero's fall, the almost 
Miltonic-like picture of his giant limbs resting upon the 
country, is a further note of strong exaggeration. 

Upon these observations, then, the finger of emphasis 
must be placed with determination; for here we have an 
elaboration beyond aitiological "science" into a sort of 
primitive wonder (which bids fair to develop into what may 
strictly be termed marvellous), coexisting with the up- 
lifting of the emotion and imagination of the aitiological 
answer into a story-interest. These two together make a 
faint beginning of the marvellous of literature proper, the 
first stage of the story-marvel. Which is cause, which ef- 
fect, or whether they may both be effects of common social 
and psychological forces, are subjects for speculation, and 
further inquiry. Through what further stages they may 
develop on the road out from a religious belief to an ethical 
skepticism, and on to a final aesthetic reconciliation, and 
what may be the characteristic changes in the marvels 
themselves during that evolution, and in the literary tech- 
nique of their presentation, — these are the questions that 
naturally follow. As the hero-stories develop into cycles, 
and the hero-cycles pass from a mere jumble into artistic 
form and adornment, as they are reformed in a self-con- 
scious epic and achieve a national meaning, — what becomes 
of this early partnership of tale and marvel? When nar- 
rative ceases to be a re-telling of older stories and becomes 
the province of individual, artistic creation, where the ex- 
pression of the author's personality gives the distinctive 
value to the literary product,— what then are the changes 


which the partnerehip endures? "What others, with the ex- 
pression of mood in the lyric and of character in the drama ? 
"What new marvels will be added to the old literary-stock 
throiig'h later, individual exaggeration of thought and ex- 
perience ; and how will these new marvels be representative 
of another economic stage of society? "What are the rela- 
tions of history and marvel? And what is the history of 
that obveree of the marvellous, the satirical marvel-story, 
such as Lucian's True History, or Baron Munchausen? 
"What a field is opened out in the European Middle Ages ! 
What a contrast in the recurring successions of creative and 
critical periods ! Nor would the least fascinating aspect of 
the subject lie in an exploration of Oriental marvel litera- 
ture and its comparison with that of the Occident. 

Even in this mere note upon a big task, some of the 
more important results to be gained by supplementing Aris- 
totle 's old criticism of the prodigious by a modern, syste- 
matic research and literary criticism are evident. Partic- 
ularly is one impressed with the peculiar affinity between the 
marvellous and literature which at every point has made 
its appearance. Briefly, in a word, it may be said that both 
are all compacted of imagination, and that the latter, imag- 
inative literature, offers the most natural play-ground to the 
other. It would be easy here to wax philosophical and at- 
tempt to raise a theory upon the inter-relations of religion, 
literature and marvel, — a theory that would have as much 
bearing upon later and even present-day cycles of thought 
and expression as upon the epoch of beginnings. I believe 
that in such a system the marvellous would furnish the con- 
necting link or mutual element, and that the better under- 
standing of its glamor would act as much to emancipate 
the faith of religion as to inspire a new, more spiritual, and 
more racial romanticism. The romantic return would then 
no longer be to a past poorly understood, but to the past 
under the light of a consecutive revelation of the develop- 
ment of human aspirations as witnessed in the history of the 



Albert H. Allen. 


New Appointments. 

New appointments at the August meeting of the Eegents are; 
Fred L. Yeaw, as Assistant in Plant Pathology; George P. Adams, 
A.B., 1903 and A.M., 1907, Harvard, as Instructor in Philosophy; 
W. F. Bliss, B.S., Mt. Union College, 1893, B.L., California, 1899, 
as Teaching Fellow in History, in the place of J. E. Eobertson, re- 
signed; John C. Dunning, Ph.D., Heidelberg, as Instructor in Polit- 
ical Science; Antonio dal Piaz, Assistant in Anatomy; Edgar W. 
Alexander, B.S., 1901 and M.D., 1905, California, as Assistant in 
Ophthalmology; John P. Neu, as Demonstrator of Prosthetic Den- 
tistry, in the place of Charles P. Hauselt, resigned. 

At the September meeting of the Board were appointed Charles 
Kuschke, M.A., Columbia, 1908, Instructor in Mathematics, and 
William B. Herms, Assistant Professor of Entomology. 

Herbert A. Hopper, recently appointed Assistant Professor of 
Dairy Husbandry, is a graduate of Cornell University, B.S.A., 1903. 
Before appointment in California he was in charge of dairy work 
in the school of agriculture of Purdue University, and has done 
similar work at the University of Illinois. 

Mr. J. H. Norton, formerly chief agricultural chemist at the 
Arkansas Experiment Station, University of Arkansas, was ap- 
pointed in August Assistant Professor of Fertilization. He will be 
stationed at Eiverside, in charge of experiments in irrigation and 
fertilization of citrus trees. 



Professor Ililgard has been asked to be a member of an in- 
ternational committee for the establishment of an agricultural 
experiment station in Palestine. A site has been chosen near 
Haifa, the ancient Castelhim Perogrinorum, and it is there pro- 
posed to study the original domestication of wild plants native 
to this region which have become the staples of civilized life, such 
as varieties of grain, the olive, the pear, the almond, etc., and also 
to study the pk.nts and their methods of culture of the semi-arid 
regions of the world. 

Dr. Simon Litman, Instructor in Commercial Practice, has re- 
signed to go to the University of Illinois. Eesignations have also 
been accepted from Dr. V. H. Hulen, Instructor in Ophthalmology, 
Julius Klein as Flood Fellow in Economics, and Gurden Edwards 
as Assistant Appointment Secretary. Mr. Edwards is still Secre- 
tary of the Alumni Association, and Mr. Klein continues as As- 
sistant in Military Science. 

Dr. John Fryer, Professor of Oriental Languages, has been 
given authority by the Eegents to represent the University as 
Special Commissioner of the University of California for the in- 
vestigation of educational conditions in the Far East, until August, 

Prof. D. N. Lehmer has been relieved of a large part of his 
University work, by the appointment of Mr. Charles Kuschke as 
Instructor in Mathematics, in order that he may complete work 
on a publication to be issued by the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 

Professor Frederick E. Farrington, upon his return in July from 
his sabbatical leave, presented his resignation from the University 
of California in order to take the position of Associate Professor of 
Education in the University of Texas. 

Professor Bernard Moses has been given a year's leave of 
absence in order that he may act as United States Commissioner 
at the Pan-American Scientific Congress held at Santiago, Chile. 


BoALT Hall. 

The Eegents have authorized their committee on grounds and 

buildings to have plans prepared for the Boalt Memorial Hall of 

Law, the building, including equipment and furniture, to cost not 


to exceed $150,000. Donations aggregating $50,000 are now pledged 
to supplement the gift from Mrs. Boalt of $100,000. The final plans 
for the building are now being prepared, and it is expected that 
these will be finished by the first of next year. The work of con- 
struction will begin as soon thereafter as the necessary contracts 
can be made. 

The additional $50,000 has been pledged by members of the 
bench and bar of California, and will be applied to the construction 
of the Lawyers' Memorial Hall, covering the entire second floor, 
the vital center of the proposed new law school. Here will be the 
law library, with stacks for ninety thousand volumes, the offices 
and studies of the instructors and the reading hall. The sub- 
scriptions have been raised through the efforts of a Committee 
composed of Chief Justice Beatty, Judge W. C. Van Fleet, Judge 
M, C. Sloss, Judge J. A. Cooper, Mr. Samuel Knight, Mr. Sydney 
V. Smith, and Mr. Frank Short of Fresno, acting on the suggestion 
of Professor George H. Boke. The Bar Association of Los Angeles 
cooperated heartily, with the assistance of a Committee of the 
University Club of that city headed by H. W. O'Melveny, '79, as 
chairman. The lawyers of San Bernardino, Santa Barbara and 
Fresno also subscribed generously. Notable individual subscrip- 
tions have been those of Selah Chamberlain, '98, $7,500; Joseph P. 
Chamberlain, ex- '98, $7,500, and ex-Regent Charles S. Wheeler, '84, 
$5,000. The initiative and earnest efforts of Professor Boke are 
responsible for the success of this novel subscription, a gift from 
the legal profession of the State to supplement a memorial to one 
of the State's leading lawyers. 

The New Library. 

The erection of the steel frame of the new library building 
began early in September. Almost all of the steel has been de- 
livered, and the frame is rapidly taking shape. It is expected that 
the stone work will be well advanced by the end of November. 

Handsome brass plates bearing the name of the building have 
been placed on the doorway of each University building, greatly 
to the convenience of strangers and visitors. 

A permanent reinforced concrete bridge is being constructed 
over Strawberry Creek, between the LeConte Oak and the Football 





At a meeting of the executive committee of the San Francisco 
Relief and Red Cross Funds, a corporation, held July 24, 1908, the 
following resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, the Massachusetts Association for the Relief of Cali- 
fornia has remitted to the San Francisco Relief and Red Cross 
Funds, the sum of One Hundred Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00), 
the balance of the relief funds in the hands of the Massachusetts 
Association, and 

Whereas, the conditions governing the disposition of this sum 
are that it shall be used by the San Francisco Relief and Red Cross 
Funds for the assistance of sufferers from the disaster of April 18, 
1906, and 

Whereas, the Massachusetts Association for the Relief of Cali- 
fornia has recommended that this sum be used for the establish- 
ment in some hospital of a ward of free beds, to be known as the 
"Massachusetts Ward," in which preference in the assignment to 
these beds shall be given to deserving persons, sufferers from the 
disaster of 1906, and 

Whereas, the members of the Executive Committee of the 
Massachusetts Association for the Relief of California have ex- 
pressed the hope that this sum shall be made available for the 
iJniversity of California Hospital, subject to the conditions above 
named, and sucii other conditions as the Executive Committee of 
the San Francisco Relief and Red Cross Funds, a Corporation, may 
see fit to impose: 

Now therefore be it 

Eesolved: that the sum of One Hundred Thousand Dollars 
($100,000.00) above set forth (and now on deposit in the Union 
Trust Company of San Francisco), be paid over to the Regents of 
the University of California for the University of California Hos- 
pital, provided that the University of California Hospital shall 
maintain at least ten free beds to be known as the "Massachusetts 
Beds," and upon establishment of a ward, to have said ward known 
as the "Massachusetts Ward." And further 

Provided that the University of California Hospital shall give 
preference to deserving sufferers from the disaster of April 18, 1906. 

Eesolved: that the Regents of the University of California are 
hereby designated the Trustees of this fund and empowered to im- 
pose, from time to time, such other conditions in addition to those 
above set forth for the government, direction, and disposition of 
the Massachusetts free beds in the University of California Hos- 
pital, as they may deem necessary, and that they are hereby par- 
ticularly charged with the obligation that these conditions imposed 
by the Massachusetts Association for the Relief of California and 
the Executive Committee of the San Francisco Relief and Red 
Cross Funds, a Corporation, are observed in spirit and letter. 


At a meeting of the Regents of the University held August 11, 
1908, the trust imposed by the foregoing resolutions was accepted 
upon the following report from the Committee of the Regents on 
the Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry. 

Your Committee on the Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry 
has the honor of reporting that the Executive Committee of the 
San Francisco Relief and Red Gross Funds, a Corporation, at a 
meeting on July 24, 1908, adopted resolutions, which are presented 
herewith, offering to the Regents of the University of California 
the sum of $100,000, the balance of the relief funds of the Massa- 
chusetts Association for the Relief of California, provided that the 
University of California Hospital shall maintain at least ten free 
beds to be known as the "Massachusetts Beds" and upon the 
establishment of a ward to have said ward known as the "Massa- 
chusetts Ward, ' ' and provided, further, that the University of 
California Hospital shall give preference to deserving sufferers 
from the disaster of April 18, 1906, 

We recommend the adoption of the following resolutions: 

Besolved: that the Regents of the University of California ac- 
cept from the Executive Committee of the San Francisco Relief 
and Red Cross Funds, a Corporation, the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars, the balance of the Relief Fund of the Massa- 
chusetts Association for the Relief of California, as an endowment 
for at least ten free beds to be known as the "Massachusetts 
Beds. ' ' 

Besolved: that if these ten free beds are at any time constituted 
into a ward, this ward shall be known as the ' ' Massachusetts 
Ward. ' ' 

Besolved: that the University of California Hospital, in the ad- 
ministration of these ' ' Massachusetts Beds, ' ' shall give preference 
to deserving sufferers from the disaster of April 18, 1906. 

And he it Further Besolved : that the President of the University 
be requested to express to the Massachusetts Association for t